# Tagged Questions

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### Why must the separation constant be real in a time dependent wave function?

I'm not sure if I'm asking this right. I'm reading ''Introduction to Quantum Mechanics'' by Griffiths and in the chapter 2 exercises he asks to prove that the separation constant, $E$, must be real. ...
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### Link Between the Density Operator and the Partition Function and Boltzmann Distribution in Quantum Statistical Mechanics

I have a very limited knowledge of statistical mechanics, but I seem to running into some related concepts for my background readings for the research project this summer. For example, see the ...
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### Some subtleties in quantizing a fermi field

Consider the quantization conditions for a complex Fermi field $\Psi=\Phi_1+i\Phi_2$: $$\{\Psi(x),\Psi(y)\}=\{\Psi^\dagger(x)\Psi^\dagger(y)\}=0,~~~~ \{\Psi^\dagger(x),\Psi(y)\}=\delta(x-y)$$ Compare ...
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### How to interpret two distinguishable particles with N possible states?

NOTE: Please do not provide an answer to the questions. If I am incorrect, please explain why, and if I am correct, please try to further my understanding. I think that this is a constructive way to ...
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### Quantum versus classical computation of the density of states

If I consider for instance N non interacting particles in a box, I can compute the energy spectrum quantum mechanically, and thus the number of (quantum) microstates corresponding to a total energy ...
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### Thermal wavelength and critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensate

I'm stuck with derivation of critical temperature and thermal wavelength for Bose-Einstein condensate - all sources describe equations very briefly. Suppose we have a system described by Bose-Einstein ...
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### Current Status of the Monte Carlo Sign Problem

I've been reading about the Monte Carlo sign problem, and I am a little confused about its current status. Specifically, after reading this post When is the "minus sign problem" in quantum ...
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### Magnetisation of a degenerate electron gas in a weak field?

So I am looking at Landau's and Lifshitz's "Statistical Physics, Part I" chapter on degenerate fermi gases and specifically at chapter on Pauli's Mangetism or magnetism of degenerate electron gases, §...
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### If 2 fermionic atoms form a molecule, will the molecule always behave as a boson?

2 fermionic atoms give a bosonic molecule. 2 bosonic atoms form a bosonic molecule. Is there a energy scale where these two molecules will behave differently? If yes, will it depend on the ...
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### Fugacity in Bose-Einstein condensate

Just a simple question, I didn't manage to find out in my books... The fugacity $z = e^{\beta \mu}$ in the case we have condensation in a bose statistics. Is it always 1 or $z \to 1$? In the ...
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### What fugacity actually is and how it's plays an important role on Bose gas?

We know that the average occupation number cannot be negative for all systems and chemical potential must be negative in Ideal Bose Gas. This fact leads us to arrive a conclusion for fugacity which is ...
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### What are the instances of usage of four color theorem in the theory of fractional statistics?

How important is four-color theorem (Hypothesis) in theory of Fractional Statistics?
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### Why does number of photons fluctuate?

When counting photons (with, e.g., a CCD), there is the so-called ''photon noise'' (important at low photon numbers). What is the explanation in the framework of QED, QFT? Is it the Heisenberg ...
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### The symmetry normalization factor of wave functions in quantum statitics

Now I am studying statistical mechanics by R.K.Pathria & Paul D.Beale's Statistical Mechanics(3rd Edition). In page 134, the book claims that the wave function $\psi$ of a system composed of N ...
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### Fermion gas exercise with annihilation and creation operator

The number states in the ground state of fermion gas are, \begin{align} n_l &= 1, \qquad \epsilon_l < \epsilon_F \quad (\epsilon_{F} \text{ is the Fermi energy.}) \\ n_l &= 0 \qquad \text{...
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### dependence of braiding matrix element on the fusion product of anyons

In the case of Majorana fermions (MFs), one knows that if one braids MF $a$ with MF $b,$ then braiding matrix element $R^{c}_{ab}$ depends on the state $c$ which is the fusion outcome of $a$ and $b$. ...
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### Quantum Dimer Model (QDM) hamiltonian

The Hamiltonian given by Rokhsar-Kivelson QDM is based on tensor products of the state vectors. Why is this the case?, is it because the lattice model is a mixed state? It'd be great if someone could ...
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### Exploiting Resonance to Make a Bound State with Gamma Rays (and other Very High Energy Particles)

One obvious consequence of any finite potential is that a high enough energy wave-function will not form a bound state, either they are high enough energy they will generally just bypass the barrier ...
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### Does spin degeneracy affect ideal Fermi gases in any way as T->Infinity?

In other words, given any system comprised of an ideal Fermi gas, in the high-temperature (classical) limit, are there any observable thermodynamic quantities (pressure, volume, energy, density, etc.) ...
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### Distinguishing between prepared and unprepared states Stern-Gerlach experiment

$\newcommand{\bra}[1]{\left\langle #1 \right|} \newcommand{\ket}[1]{\left| #1 \right\rangle} \newcommand{\braket}[2]{\left\langle #1 \middle| #2 \right\rangle}$I have a problem and am confused as to ...
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### Definition of quantum microcanonical ensemble in Landau & Lifshitz

I'm reading the first chapters of Landau&Lifshitz 's [Statistical Physics][1] and I don't understand the definition of the quantum microcanonical ensemble. The microcanonical distribution for a ...
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### grand-canonical ensemble

I was wondering if the following reasoning is correct for example for electrons in the classical or qm grand-canonical ensemble? Is it always valid in the grandcanonical ensemble to calculate the ...
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### Fermi distribution and ideal gas

I was wondering about the following: If we have ideal gas particles, then $E \ge 0$, so one would expect that the state $E=0$ is occupied with probability one for low temperatures, but this is not ...
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### Quantum ideal gas - Canonical ensemble - Occupation number summation notation (Huang)

(Question at the end, in bold, marked with an b)) For the quantum ideal gas, the hamiltonian (operator) of the system is: \begin{align} \mathcal H=\sum_{i=1}^N H_i=\sum_{i=1}^N \frac{P_i^2}{2m} \...
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### What is the density operator for an isothermal–isobaric ensemble (T,p,N)?

In the microcanonical ensemble $(E,V,N)$, the density operator is $$\hat{\rho}=\frac{\delta(\hat{H}-E\,\hat{I})}{Tr(\delta(\hat{H}-E\,\hat{I}))}$$ Where $\hat{H}$ is the Hamiltonian of the system and ...
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### Chemical potential related with quantum and classical limit in ideal gas

For ideal gas we have chemical potential $\mu = \tau \ln \left(\frac{n}{n_Q}\right)$ where $n = N/V$ number density and $n_Q = \left(\frac{M\tau}{2\pi \hbar^2}\right)^{\frac{3}{2}}$ Note we call ...
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### Bose Enhancement Factor

How may one explain the fact that the probability of a boson transferring to a state with an occupation number n is 'enhanced' by a factor of (1+n), compared to the classical case? (In the classical ...
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### Spin statistics

I have a very intrinsic question about quantum field theory and even more general, why in 3+1-dimensional spacetime, we have only two statistics for particles to obey? Therefore why we have only two ...
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### How to prove the Bose enhancement factor $(1+f)$ and the Pauli blocking factor $(1-f)$ in Boltzmann equation?

For the collision integral in the Boltzmann equation for particles obeying different statistic, the factor is 1 for classical particles , 1-f for fermions, 1+f for Boson. While why it's exactly this ...
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### What causes Paulis Exclusion Principle?

Currently I'm taking an astrophysics class and has now come across electron degeneracy. As far as I understand, the reason why white dwarfs and such, does not collapse, is due to this, meaning that ...
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### Thermal fluctuations in metals

My professor said that the $k_BT$ displacement in the energy levels of the band electrons is due to the space-thermal displacement of the potential of the ion host. I think that this displacement is ...
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### Bose Einstein condensation and macroscopic occupation

If have been thought, that Bose Einstein condensation occurs of the ground-state is occupied macroscopically, so $n_0\in \mathcal{O}(N)$ when performing the thermodynamic limit. So naively, this ...
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### Diamagnetism of a degenerate electron gas for weak fields

In the book "Statistical Physics, Part I ($3^{{\rm rd}}$ edition)" by Landau and Lifshitz, at $\S59$ when he treats the diamagnetic part of the magnetisation of a degenerate electron gas for weak ...
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### Quantum entropy in term of density matrix

Why in von Neumann expression of quantum entropy we have trace of density matrix expression? Why don't off diagonal term play a role?
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### Statistical count

I am reading the book"Heat and Thermodynamics" by Mark Waldo Zemansky and Richard Dittman. In the chapter "Statistical Mechanics" it says if I have $N_{i}$ distinguishable particles in any of $g_{i}$ ...
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### Bose-Einstein-statistics out of fermionic many body system

ok, let me try this again. How do I get to atoms obeying Bose Einstein statistics from considering the fermionic many body problem of a bunch of electrons, protons and neutrons forming these (bosonic)...
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### Planck's distribution and Bose-Einstein distribution?

If the application of the Bose-Einstein distribution is in blackbody radiation, then what is Planck's distribution? Are they same? How did Planck know that he should use a Bose-Einstein distribution ...
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### Partition function for classical particle and quantum particle are the same?

Permutation for classical particle $$\Omega=\frac{N!}{\Pi n_i!}$$ By using Lagrange method of undetermined multiplier, we get $$n_i=Ae^{\frac{-E}{kT}}$$ Probability, $$p=\frac{n_i} {Z}$$ where we ...
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### What is the relationship between Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics and the grand canonical ensemble?

In the grand canonical ensemble one derives the expectation value $\langle \hat n_r\rangle^{\pm}$ for fermions and bosons of sort $r$:  \langle \hat n_r\rangle^{\pm} \ \propto \ \frac{1}{\mathrm{...
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### What is parafermion in condensed matter physics?

Recently, parafermion becomes hot in condensed matter physics (1:Nature Communications, 4, 1348 (2013),[2]:Phys. Rev. X, 2, 041002 (2012), [3]:Phys. Rev. B, 86, 195126 (2012),[4]:Phys. Rev. B,87, ...
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### How is the degenerate electron gas state “degenerate”?

What is "degenerate" in the degenerate electron gas state? Why is it called degenerate?
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### Is there a systematic way to determine the relevant variables needed to describe a nonequilibrium system?

In strong nonequilirium, the statistical operator describing the system depends on an infinite number of variables (BBGKY-hierarchy), contains information about all the previous states starting from ...
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### relative phase/sign in $\Psi$ after exchange of composite particles with angular momenta

I'm reading Quantum Liquids by A.J. Leggett and became confused by the following statement in the first chapter. Consider now a pair of such identical atoms. In the absence of appreciable coupling ...
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### Bose–Einstein statistics exercise

I've a basic Bose–Einstein statistics exercise. I've tried to solve it in two ways, but each way gives a different result. We have $n$ identical bosons without interactions at temperature $T$. There ...
Let $C = A + B$ (statistical sum, so $\mathbb{E}[C] = \mathbb{E}[A] + \mathbb{E}[B]$), and let $p(A = a) = 1$. Are the following true? $\mathbb{E}[C^2] = a^2 + 2a\mathbb{E}[B] + \mathbb{E}[B^2]$ \$\...