Quantum mechanics describes the microscopic properties of nature in a regime where classical mechanics no longer applies. It explains phenomena such as the wave-particle duality, quantization of energy and the uncertainty principle and is generally used in single body systems. Use the ...

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Using the Scalar Electrostatic Potential to Calculate Transition Probabilities

transition probabilites of atomic systems prone to some time-varying electromagnetic field are very often calculated using perturbation theory leading to expressions including the vector potential ...
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519 views

Determining wave function for term symbol 1D

I am trying to follow a book (Introduction to Ligand Field Theory by Ballhausen in 1962 on pg 15), but it isn't clear how they make a particular leap. Background I want to find the wave function for ...
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Popular books on QM

After some discussions with my friend about some "popular" aspects of quantum mechanics, my friend asked me whether there exist any books that could convey the basic ideas in a non-technical way (my ...
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Which derivative with respect to time is which in the Heisenberg picture of quantum mechanics?

For an observable $A$ and a Hamiltonian $H$, Wikipedia gives the time evolution equation for $A(t) = e^{iHt/\hbar} A e^{-iHt/\hbar}$ in the Heisenberg picture as $$\frac{d}{dt} A(t) = \frac{i}{\hbar} ...
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proof of gauge invariance for quantum 1D ring

This is a question on gauge invariance in quantum mechanics. I do some simple math on a 1D wave-function with periodic boundary conditions, and get that gauge invariance is violated. What am I doing ...
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Can a particle be *physically* observed inside a quantum barrier?

I understand that a particle approaching a finite potential barrier with $E < V_0$, there still is a probability of finding the particle on the other side of the barrier due to quantum tunneling. ...
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2answers
242 views

Is there a four dimensional form of Born's Rule -redub

Generalizing Born's Rule for 4-dimensions $x_4$, write $$\langle a\rangle = \int\Psi A\Psi^* \mathrm{d}x_4$$ Is this consistent with quantum mechanics? Is this a generalized form of the Born's ...
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244 views

Do Bell inequality violations appear instantly when the source is turned on, or do they increase over time?

This experimental Question is a result of reading a particular article on Bell violations. I addressed the e-mail below to the corresponding authors —because who knows, they might reply— but it is not ...
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489 views

Constructing a maximally entangled qutrit state from $n$ Bell states

I've read that maximally entangled qubit states are a good "unit" of bipartite entanglement since it is possible to create any other entangled state from them using local operations and classical ...
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2answers
435 views

Nuclear decay rate affected by sun and quantum randomness

If nuclear decay rate were affected by sun, then emission probabilities would be subject to sun state and its influence, so quantum randomness would depend on it, Would it still be truly random? One ...
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3answers
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What does it mean that the neutral pion is a mixture of quarks?

The quark composition of the neutral pion ($\pi^0$) is $\frac{u\bar{u} - d\bar{d}}{\sqrt{2}}$. What does this actually mean? I think it's bizarre that a particle doesn't have a definite composition. ...
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339 views

Is this algorithm for simulating a quantum computer accurate?

I'm very new to quantum mechanics. I'm thinking of writing a quantum computer simulator, would the following work? Each qubit is stored as a single bit, For each operation, the qubits involved are ...
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What causes the Pauli exclusion principle (and why does spin 1/2 = fermion)?

It seems to be related to exchange interaction, but I can't penetrate the Wikipedia article. What has the Pauli exclusion principle to do with indistinguishability?
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363 views

Back-action noise vs shot noise

I have recently come across two key concepts in quantum optics: shot noise and back-action noise. This is very important for me to know: first, are shot noise and back-action noise the same? Please ...
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3answers
144 views

Superposition and particle mediated interactions

Suppose particle A interacts with particle B by means of an exchange particle E. Presumably, since this is quantum physics, the exchange particle emission and receipt are just one of many possible ...
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1answer
304 views

Relation between classical and quantum information

It is known that for a classical system the amount of information needed to store its state is the same as the amount of information that can be stored in that system. This amount is equal to ...
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712 views

Selection rule used in singlet/triplet recombination in LEDs

In organic light emitting diodes, only singlet excitons contribute to the light emission (this is flouresence). Everything I read, say that triplet excitons cannot recombine on the same timescale as ...
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What is quantum discord?

What is quantum discord? I stumbled upon this term on Quantum Computing: The power of discord, but have never heard of it before. Can you give a bit more mathematical explanation of the term here?
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2answers
285 views

Can the electroweak/strong forces, and/or quantum mechanics be thought of as geometric?

Can the electroweak and strong forces be written as geometric theories? - Why and why not? Can quantum mechanics in general? For example, the Kaluza-Klein theory explains the electromagnetic field ...
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2k views

Tunneling of alpha particles

Consider this explanation of the alpha decay: It says The Coulomb barrier faced by an alpha particle with this energy is about 26 MeV, so by classical physics it cannot escape at all. ...
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4answers
2k views

Where is spin in the Schroedinger equation of an electron in the hydrogen atom?

In my current quantum mechanics, course, we have derived in full (I believe?) the wave equations for the time-independent stationary states of the hydrogen atom. We are told that the Pauli Exclusion ...
8
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2answers
925 views

Forget Hooke's law. Why does a spring exert a force?

Forgetting Hooke's law for a minute why, from a microscopic perspective (preferably quantum) on up to a macroscopic one, does a spring under tension exert a force? I was thinking that there might be ...
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3answers
1k views

What does the ordering of creation/annihilation operators mean?

When a system is expressed in terms of creation and annihilation operators for bosonic/fermionic modes, what exactly is the physical meaning of the order in which the operators act? For example, for ...
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128 views

Quantum circuit decomposition

I need to construct a universal quantum circuit decomposition for a three-qubit operation where one qubit is the control bit, and a two-qubit unitary operator acts on the other two depending on the ...
4
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1answer
458 views

How would Kohn-Sham orbitals differ from 'true' elecron wavefunctions?

How would the non-interacting electron orbitals from a perfect DFT solution for a given potential shape differ from the 'true' electron wavefunctions? Or can you only really talk about the total ...
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1answer
565 views

Is a weak measurement the same as an unsharp measurement or POVM?

This is prompted by the strong claims made in Science 332, 1170 (2011) to have observed trajectories of photons, "something all of our textbooks and professors had always told us was impossible". I'm ...
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1answer
211 views

Sun-Earth Virtual Gravitons?

How many virtual gravitons do the sun and earth exchange in one year? What are their wavelengths?
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Energy Levels of 3D Isotropic Harmonic Oscillator (Nuclear Shell Model)

One simple way of detailing the very basic structure of the nuclear shell model involves placing the nucleons in a 3D isotropic oscillator. It's easy to show that the energy eigenvalues are $E = ...
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668 views

The energy of a Graviton

Maybe another stupid question, but what's the energy of a graviton? Is it $\hbar \omega$? Does it emit gravitons when an apple falls onto the ground, like photons be emitted when an electron transits ...
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401 views

Quantizing EM field

Why when we quantize EM field, whe quantize the vector potential $A^\mu$ obtaining vectorial particles (photons) like the elastic field (phonons) and we can't quantize directly the EM-field tensor ...
4
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1answer
270 views

The Orbiting Moon as a Quantum Object

How would the quantum mechanical treatment of the moon as a gravitationally-bound object differ from the usual treatment of the hydrogen atom using Schrödinger's equation? [The earth's gravitational ...
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1answer
343 views

purely hypothetically, could a quantum being appear to be human? I ask for the purpose of research on a novel [closed]

I am a budding novelist, and im researching a few things for a fictional narrative. the characters are from other dimensions and i want to present a coherent scientific structure. any suggestions ...
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4answers
755 views

Randomness, Chaos, Quantum mechanical probability functions

Can someone explain these 3 concepts into a unified framework. Randomness : Randomness as seen in a coin toss, where the system follows known and deterministic (at the length and scale and precision ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Double slit experiment - how to see an electron going through a slit?

This is my first question here. Hope it not too dull to you guys :p I found this video on youtube. After 3:24 it says if there is an observer detecting which slit the electron goes through, there ...
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Why are two eigen-state-kets with different eigenvalues orthogonal?

The operators $J_1^2$, $J_2^2$, $J_{1z}$, and $J_{2z}$ are mutually commuting operators. Likewise, $J_1^2$, $J_2^2$, $J^2$, and $J_z$ are mutually commuting operators. The two groups are ...
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1answer
315 views

Can we have non continuous models of reality? Why don't we have them?

This question is about Godel's theorem, continuity of reality and the Luvenheim-Skolem theorem. I know that all leading physical theories assume reality is continuous. These are my questions: 1) Is ...
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2answers
803 views

What is a coherent state?

In quantum mechanics, what exactly is a coherent state, and how does it differ from other states?
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Flow of water and flow of electrons, how this analogy works?

If flow of electrons analogy can be imagined as flow of water, how to imagine electricity, that comes in this whole picture? When plug from bottom of sink is taken out, gravity pulls water molecules, ...
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1answer
161 views

thermal energy while calculating Langevin Forces

I have a quick question from thermodynamics. I remember that we take kT/2 as the kinetic energy per degree of freedom in kinetic theory of gases. But when we do langevin forces (for example in ...
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1answer
598 views

state vector notation

I've never taken a quantum mechanics class, but I find myself now using principles developed in the quantum theory of angular momentum. One particularly confusing aspect that I'm struggling with is ...
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2answers
418 views

Can two entanglement particles satisfy at same time two different wave functions?

The wave function determines the probabilities of an outcome, and the wave function is parameterized "shaped" depending on the measurement set. i.e. two different measurement set would lead to two ...
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3answers
614 views

Is there a “Size” Cutoff to Quantum Behaviour?

We all know that subatomic particles exhibit quantum behavior. I was wondering if there's a cutoff in size where we stop exhibiting such behavior. From what I have read, it seems to me that we still ...
4
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3answers
726 views

Does decoherence explain all instances of wave function collapse?

Specifically, how can decoherence explain the appearance of flecks of metallic silver on a photographic plate when exposed to the very weak light of a distant star? EDIT: Perhaps the advocates of ...
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3answers
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Imaginary time in quantum and thermodynamics

The following question is about chapter 2 of Sakurai's Modern Quantum Mechanics. I wish I could link to the Google book, but it doesn't seem to have a satisfactory preview to be able to read the ...
3
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1answer
274 views

Are black hole states completely mixed?

A completely mixed state is a statistical mixture with no interference terms, and (QMD, McMahon, pg 229): $$\rho = \dfrac{1}{n}I$$ $$Tr(\rho^2) = \dfrac{1}{n}$$ Are black hole quantum states ...
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3answers
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Why is it valid to take the partial trace to describe a subsystem?

In derivations of decoherence, there eventually comes a point when we are asked to take the partial trace over the environment. Why should this be valid for an entangled system? Why should taking the ...
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5answers
733 views

Is the wave function objective or subjective?

Here is a question I am curious about. Is the wave function objective or subjective, or is such a question meaningless? Conventionally, subjectivity is as follows: if a quantity is subjective then ...
3
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1answer
210 views

Can the entropy of a subsystem exceed the maximum entropy of the system in quantum mechanics?

Quantum mechanics has a peculiar feature, entanglement entropy, allowing the total entropy of a system to be less than the sum of the entropies of the individual subsystems comprising it. Can the ...
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4answers
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Trace of a commutator is zero - but what about the commutator of $x$ and $p$?

Operators can be cyclically interchanged inside a trace: $${\rm Tr} (AB)~=~{\rm Tr} (BA).$$ This means the trace of a commutator of any two operators is zero: $${\rm Tr} ([A,B])~=~0.$$ But what about ...
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822 views

Historical background of wave function collapse

I wonder what were the main experiments that led people to develop the concept of wave function collapse? (I think I am correct in including the Born Rule within the general umbrella of the collapse ...