Quantum mechanics describes the microscopic properties of nature in a regime where classical mechanics no longer applies. It explains phenomena such as the wave-particle duality, quantization of energy and the uncertainty principle and is generally used in single body systems. Use the ...

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What is the difference between Quantum teleportation and Radio waves?

Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed- forward What is the difference between Quantum teleportation and radio waves?
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Anybody have example of two-qubit non-Pauli and non-Clifford quantum gate?

A lot of known quantum gates are in the Pauli group (I,X,Z,Y) or in the Clifford group (H,P,Cnot). I need examples of the quantum gates that aren't in this groups. Also, are there are matlab functions ...
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3answers
1k views

Observation of violation of the uncertainty principle?

I stumbled upon this piece of news in the BBC's website http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19489385, discussing this paper http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v109/i10/e100404, which reports ...
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3answers
210 views

How can quantum (Internet) network be possible?

According to the knowledge I have, there are routers, switches etc. Therefore, packets would have to be "measured" before continuing on. (If not, how will anyone know the damn IP address?) But this ...
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3answers
181 views

How can an action be dependent on both its past and future?

Is it true that whenever an action takes place it is dependent on both its past and future? I mean if we already know that whatever we are doing is dependent on future as much as it is dependent on ...
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507 views

Is thermal noise “quantum random”?

Is the randomness that can be extracted from thermal noise "as random" (that is, even theoretically inaccessible to measurement according to our knowledge of quantum mechanics, and not just random for ...
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412 views

Intensity of the diffraction pattern of the double slit

I am trying another approach for my last unanswered question. (Bounty still on for 3 days. Anyone? Please?) Note that this is not the same question but a greatly simplified version concerning a much ...
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4answers
1k views

Single photon and double-slit experiment [duplicate]

Laser fires single particles of light, called photons, through the slits. Even though only single photons of light are being fired through the slits and They create three pattern again. How single ...
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2answers
65 views

Does a particle lose its (location) wavefunction if its location is measured exactly?

As the title says, does a particle lose its location wavefunction if its location is measured exactly (I know this would be impossible in reality)? Also, in reality, if one measures a particle, does ...
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1answer
81 views

How does one make a particle with particular wavefunction?

I was always curious how scientists achieve a particle with particular wavefunction (of location and spins etc.) So how do they achieve it? Or is this impossible?
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97 views

Counterpart of the Klein Gordon Equation on the “Coordinate Shell”

The relation $$\psi=Ce^{i/\hbar(Et-\mathbf{p}\cdot\mathbf{x})}\tag{1}$$ satisfies the Klein Gordon equation on the mass shell, i.e. for $E^2=p^2+m^2$. Now let's think in the reverse direction. ...
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5answers
332 views

How do you calculate the time to emission of an electron from a metal given the incident radiation?

Here's the question: A monochromatic point source of light radiates 25 W at a wavelength of 5000 angstroms. A plate of metal is placed 100 cm from the source. Atoms in the metal have a radius of 1 ...
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60 views

Beginning with an arbitrary classical equation for energy, how do I get the QM Hamiltonian?

For linear momentum I can use the de Broglie equation, but what about energy in terms of moment of inertia or some other form?
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2answers
137 views

is there spin degree in 1D

it is well known that the intrisic spin is closely related to the rotation in space. However, in 1d , it is impossible to define rotation, therefore it is meaningless to talk about spin in 1d.However, ...
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1answer
718 views

Is there a relation between quantum theory and Fourier analysis?

These days I was studying the quantum theory.I found that some theories about that is similar to Fourier Transform theory.For instance, it says "A finite-time light's frequency can't be a certain ...
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3answers
460 views

If I go to the church of the greater Hilbert space, can I have Unitary Collapse?

Actually, unitary pseudo-collapse? Von Neuman said quantum mechanics proceeds by two processes: unitary evolution and nonunitary reduction, also now called projection, collapse and splitting. ...
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0answers
52 views

dynamical operator and $SU(n+1)$

I want to know precisely by example what is dynamical operator? what is the relationship between dynamical operators and the $SU(n+1)$ How to show all the eigen states of a dynamical operator form ...
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0answers
403 views

What is effective mass approximation

Currently i am studing about quantum confinement in semiconductors and came across effective mass approximation.but i am unable to understand this concept. what is the use of effective mass ...
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1answer
192 views

uncertainty principle of spin in (super)string theory

In quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle states that we can only measure the quantity of spin in one axis but not others. Then what about in superstring theory? As quantum mechanics is basically ...
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2answers
1k views

What the difference between “orbital” and “orbit”?

What's the difference between "ortibal" and "orbit"? Which one should be used in physics? In quantum mechanics, is "atomic orbital" or "atomic orbit" used? And what about in classical mechanics? A ...
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3answers
201 views

In Copenhagen, can this idea preserve locality for Bell inequalities?

Generate an entangled pair of qubits. Send to Alice and Bob far away from each other. Both measure along basis in one of two possible orientations. The result is sent to Charlie at some later time, ...
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2answers
415 views

Interference, photon's phase, and the Hilbert space

Dirac said that a photon can only interfere with itself. This is consistent with the tensor product of two photon spaces representation. On the other hand, it is known that there is interference ...
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4answers
1k views

Why is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle stated the way it is?

I spent a long time being confused by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in my quantum chemistry class. It is frequently stated that the "position and momentum of a particle cannot be ...
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0answers
148 views

Can experiment distinguish the basis in which a singlet state is represented?

Let $\left(|\uparrow\rangle,|\downarrow\rangle\right)$ and $\left(|\nearrow\rangle,|\swarrow\rangle\right)$ be two bases of the $2$-dimensional Hilbert space $H$. Can an experiment distinguish ...
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3answers
663 views

Is there a thought experiment which brings to light the contradiction between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics?

I've been told that GR and QM are not compatible, is there an intuitive reason/thought experiment which demonstrates the issue? (Or one of the issues?)
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1answer
130 views

Does unitarity apply in between measurements?

Sorry if this is a silly question (engineer here), but I was wondering if the math in particle physics assumes that unitarity applies even between measurements. In other words, I take it that the ...
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1answer
237 views

Time reversal effect on time derivative in Quantum Mechanics

I am reading Zee's Quantum field theory in a nutshell. On time reversal he has Consider the transformation $t\rightarrow t'= -t$. We want to find $\Psi'(t')$ such that $i(\partial/\partial ...
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4answers
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Why do covalent bonds form?

why in a covalent bond are "the bonded electrons are in a lower energy state than if the individual atoms held them at the same proximity"? Also is it correct that " I think when you start pushing ...
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88 views

four boson quantum system contact interaction

I have to solve this problem. Four bosons moving in 1d harmonic potential (their spin is 0) and interacting through contact interaction defined via delta function. Now, methods that I have to use: a) ...
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4answers
222 views

Is emission/absorption of a photon lossy?

I recall vaguely that energy is absorbed/radiated in packets called quanta. Quanta were what are now known as photons. What I'm curious about - Is absorption/radiation vis-a-vis photon lossy? Do the ...
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1answer
1k views

Darwin term and Zitterbewegung

I've noticed that in the discussion of the fine structure of Hydrogen atom standard QM texts claim that the Darwin term, which corrects energy of $\ell=0$ (or $s$-) states only, is related to the ...
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7answers
8k views

Why does observation collapse the wave function?

In one of the first lectures on QM we are always taught about Young's experiment and how particles behave either as waves or as particles depending on whether or not they are being observed. I want to ...
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2answers
611 views

Is the braket notation of the Dirac delta function symmetric?

I have a book saying, $\int \delta(x-x')\psi(x)dx = \psi(x')$ where $\psi(x) = \langle x\lvert\psi\rangle$, so our definition of delta function would be $\langle x'\lvert x\rangle = \delta(x-x')$. ...
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0answers
623 views

Scattering on delta function potential

Suppose a particle has energy $E>V(+/-\infty)=0$, then the solutions to the Schrodinger equation outside of the potential will be $\psi(x)=Ae^{i k x}+Be^{-i k x}$. How can one show or explain that ...
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1answer
111 views

Where can I find hamiltonians + lagrangians?

Where would you say I can start learning about Hamiltonians, Lagrangians ... Jacobians? and the like? I was trying to read Ibach and Luth - Solid State Physics, and suddenly (suddenly a Hamiltonian ...
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1answer
149 views

Fast algorithm for maximizing the quantum fidelity

Consider the following optimization problem: Given a quantum state $\sigma$, a constant $b$ and a Hermitian operator $A$, find $\underset{\rho} \max F(\rho,\sigma)$ subject to $\text{Tr}(\rho ...
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1answer
128 views

Are the limits to prediction by QM provable?

Quantum mechanics states that only two aspects of a quantum system can be predicted with certainty: 1) the average and 2) the standard deviation of many measurements of identically prepared quantum ...
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1answer
777 views

The Hermiticity of the Laplacian (and other operators)

Is the Laplacian operator, $\nabla^{2}$, a Hermitian operator? Alternatively: is the matrix representation of the Laplacian Hermitian? i.e. $$\langle \nabla^{2} x | y \rangle = \langle x | ...
3
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1answer
389 views

Defining entanglement in subspaces of tensor product

I have asked the question in math.stackexchange, but perhaps it should be more relevant here. Hence I am re-posting it with necessary reediting. Let $\mathcal{H}=\mathbb{C}^n$ be a Hilbert space. A ...
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3answers
479 views

Is there a simple approximation to calculate the index of refraction of water?

A very rough approximation from first principles, from the elementary charge and hbar, would suffice. But is there such an approximation at all? (Alternatively, if water is too difficult: is there ...
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0answers
163 views

Spin polarization of decay products

A relativistic moving particle, e.g. muon $\mu^+$, described by its four-momentum vector $p_\mu$, charge $e$ and with a given spin polarization, ${\bf S}=(S_x,S_y,S_z)$, decays into three particles, ...
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2answers
125 views

When do the von Neumann projections occur and what causes them?

(Transferred as a separate question from comments in Scott Aaronson’s gravitational decoherence question) Reversing gravitational decoherence The modern answer seems to be that they never occur, ...
3
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1answer
98 views

Can you count “collapses”? How many collapses in the observable universe?

If that’s too hard, how many collapses in 100 cc’s of boiling water in one second? In biology, the very first robin that is scientifically described is preserved and called the “type robin”. The ...
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2answers
1k views

Energy shift between hydrogen and deuterium

Stated: The atomic spectra of hydrogen and deuterium are similar however shifted in energies. So im trying to explain why it is that the emission lines are shifted and how they are shifted. Since ...
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1answer
179 views

polarization and frequency of a single photon

I believe that we can take a single photon state as a tensor product of a frequency Hilbert space (infinite dimension) and a polarization Hilbert space (dim 2). Does this mean we can measure the ...
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1answer
197 views

How do the energy eigenvalues of rotational degrees of freedom in statistical mechanics come about?

I want to understand the hierarchy different degrees of freedom of a mechanical system. Specifically, I want to understand which subsystems equibrilate faster and why. This question comes up: Why ...
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2answers
156 views

Can double entanglement preserve correlations?

We have 2 EPR experiments running in parallel, with Alice having one leg of each (a1,a2) and Bob the other leg of each (b1,b2). Thus (a1,b1) are anticorrelated, as are (a2,b2). Thus also (a1,a2) are ...
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881 views

Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Flux Quantization in superconductors

Why is the magnetic flux not quantized in a standard Aharonov-Bohm (infinite) solenoid setup, whereas in a superconductor setting, flux is quantized?
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3k views

Does the uncertainty principle apply to photons?

Wikipedia claims the following: More generally, the normal concept of a Schrödinger probability wave function cannot be applied to photons. Being massless, they cannot be localized without being ...
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569 views

Physical meaning of the sign basis in quantum mechanics

If we take a hydrogen atom as qubit, let $\lvert0\rangle$ = unexcited state $\lvert1\rangle$ = excited state then what is the meaning of measuring the qubit value in the sign basis? If the atom may ...