Quantum information is the study of the informational content of quantum states. The most common object of study is the "qubit", the information in a two-state quantum system such as spin-1/2 or photon polarization.

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How do I simulate this simple quantum circuit in MATLAB

I want to simulate a circuit similar to the one below in MATLAB. If you have a state matrix describing the state of 3 qubits, I understand that you could apply a CNOT matrix tensored with and identity ...
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Why is this entangled?

I am studying a book of quantum computing and the author gives an example of a four qubits separable! He writes: Let $\left|ψ\right> = \frac 1 2(\left|00\right> + \left|11\right> + ...
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What are the practical consequences of “approximate” quantum cloning with a stimulated emission cloning machine?

Say I build some stimulated emission-based cloning machine for photons (e.g. some active laser medium). Alternatively I could do cloning via interference, e.g. a linearly polarized photon could be ...
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Off-diagonal terms of the Husimi $Q$ function?

The Husimi $Q$ function of a quantum state $\rho $ is defined as $ Q (\alpha)=\langle \alpha \vert \rho \vert \alpha \rangle $, where $\alpha = (x, p) $ is a phase space coordinate and $\vert \alpha ...
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Does all information in the universe come from the observer?

In absence of the observer any system undergoes unitary evolution, that is reversible evolution without entropy change. It is believed that the initial state of the universe had very low entropy, ...
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Quantum Fourier Transform and Entropy

QFT is a nonlocal unitary transformation and so can generate entanglement in a system. It means a separable pure state can be converted into an entangled pure state. Now since the presence of ...
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Significance of 'chiral' form for a quibit?

Say I have a qubit with probability amplitude divided evenly among $|0>$ and $|1>$ $$\frac{1}{\sqrt 2}|0> + \frac{1}{\sqrt 2}|1>$$ So it seems that we have a, loosely speaking, ...
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Matrix forms to understand a state transition operator

Given an equilibrium of two states.$\left| 00 \right> \rightleftharpoons \left| 11 \right>$. And introduce a map $\mathcal{B}(\mathbb{C}^2\otimes \mathbb{C}^2) \rightarrow ...
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Mixed state after measurement

I'm looking at Section 2.4.1 of Nielsen and Chuang's Quantum Computation and Quantum Information were they derive the density operator versions of the evolution and measurement postulates of quantum ...
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Entropy of Reeh-Schlieder correlations

Any state analytic in energy (which includes most physical states since they have bounded energy) contains non-local correlations described by the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in AQFT. It is further shown ...
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How to write a noisy state as a separable operator

Bipartite operators close enough to the identity are separable. But how does one compute the product operator terms of the separable expansion? In particular, if $\left| \Phi \right> = m^{-1/2} ...
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Entanglement in single particle state

Is it possible that we have entanglement in different degrees of freedom of a singe particle. like spin and linear momentum .
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Proving two forms of atom-field interaction perturbation Hamiltonian are equivalent

In the presence of an electromagnetic field in the dipole-approximation (${\boldsymbol A} = {\boldsymbol A}(0,t)$) we have the two forms $$H_{{\boldsymbol d}\cdot {\boldsymbol E}} = - q {\boldsymbol ...
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Projection operators and their subspaces (of Hilbert space)

I've been watching Susskind's lectures on Quantum Entanglement, and something he said regarding (non-)commuting projection operators confused me. Consider two subspaces {$|a>$} and {$|b>$} of ...
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What is the Reduced Density Matrix?

The difference between pure and mixed states is the difference in their density matrix structure. For density matrix $\rho$ of mixed state the trace of $\rho^{2}$ should be less than 1. For pure ...
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Advantage of taking qutrits in place of qubits

In general, all the quantum algorithms which I have read so far use qubits (so the space is $\mathbb{C}^2$) and the tensor products of the qubit spaces (space is ${\mathbb{C}^2}^{\otimes n}$). So my ...
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How many states are there in the observable universe

If we took a single instant and considered all possible states of all energy and matter do we have any bounds on how much that would be? Would that number be related to information?
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Quantum Cryptography Open Problems [closed]

I am a 3rd year Physics undergraduate interested in Quantum Cryptography. This summer , I want to work on a open problem in Quantum Cryptography. I have credited courses such as Quantum Computation ...
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Grover search algorithm for more than one marked elements [closed]

Grover search algorithm is a powerful tool for unstructured database search purposes. The two operations (Phase inversion and Inversion about the mean ) join hands to give the marked needle. I was ...
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Calculating states of entangled and disentangled qubits

I'm writing a quantum computer simulator (about 8 qubits) and I know most of the basics (i.e. how to calculate the effect of a quantum gate on a qubit). But I have hit a wall. Is it possible, with ...
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Composition of squeeze operators?

I'm wondering if it exists a composition law for the squeezing operation ? I guess so for geometric reason, since they are (generalized, and the phase is annoying of course) hyperbolic rotations of ...
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What is the probability of quantum tunneling occurring in this CPU?

You may have noticed over the last few years that Moore's law is no longer applying to the real world. This observation states that over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on ...
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Is there a handwavy way to explain what quantum correlation means?

Is there a simple way to explain the difference between a classical and truly quantum correlation to a non-quantum person who has basic understanding classical correlation? I mean without invoking ...
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Trace in non-orthogonal basis?

Physicists define the trace of an operator $\rho$ as the follows, $Tr(\rho)=\sum\limits_{|s\rangle \in B} \langle s| \rho |s\rangle$ where B is some orthonormal basis, and this quantity is ...
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Can you read and write a quantum state to a particle without collapsing its probability field?

I know the main problem with a quantum computer is that you can't read and write data from it until after it has run though all of its calculations. But would reading and writing quantum data to ...
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Understanding of measurement in quantum mechanics?

I have a computer science background with basically zero physics background. I am trying to gain a 'high-level' understanding of quantum mechanics to aid me in some computer science work. Is my ...
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How much is quantum computation changing the interpretation of quantum theory, and, if at all, how?

At the beginning of quantum computation, David Deutsch made a strong claim that the Many Worlds interpretation of quantum theory was at the foundation of his ability to do what he did. There was a lot ...
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What are the practical applications of quantum foundations?

Many quantum foundation researchers keep emphasizing that For All Practical Purposes (FAPP), quantum foundations are irrelevant. They even invented an acronym for it! Does that mean that quantum ...
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Entanglement entropy and area law

I am currently reading a review "Area law for the entanglement entropy" by Eisert, Cramer and Plenio (2010). From what I understand: In one dimension, for local gapped models, we have an area law ...
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Physically realizable quantum circuits

How do we decide whether a quantum circuit can be realized physically or not ? I was wondering for physical realization of Shor's factoring algorithm using NMR ( I mean can we do it? ).
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Bragg's diffraction and Simon's problem

In Preskill's notes, John Preskill goes as If we scatter a photon off of a periodic array of needles , the photon is likely to be scattered in one of a set of preferred directions , where the ...
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Deriving Rabi rotation matrix

I want to understand where the matrix: $$ \left|\psi(t)\right> = \binom{a(t)}{b(t)} = \begin{bmatrix} cos(\Omega t/2)&-ie^{i\phi_L t}sin(\Omega t/2) \\ -ie^{-i\phi_L t}sin(\Omega t/2) & ...
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A good book for Quantum Cryptography

I am interested in Quantum Information and Cryptography in particular. I have gone through Neilson's text and Preskill's notes . Can someone suggest me some good text for Quantum Cryptography ? I ...
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Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) Upper and Lower Bounds

Many papers on Quantum Key Distribution protocols discuss the protocols upper and lower bounds (on quantum bit error rate QBER). For example, BB84 has a lower bound of 11% and an upper bound of ...
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Positivity and Complete positivity of Simon Map [migrated]

Simon map in a specific basis is defined as $$ \left[ {\begin{array}{ccc} A & B & C \\ D & E & F \\ G & H & I \\ \end{array} } \right] \rightarrow \left[ ...
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Is the reduction map completely positive? [duplicate]

I am struggling with proving the complete positivity of a general map ( granted it is CP ). The reduction map is defined as $$ \rho \rightarrow \mathrm{Tr}(\rho)I - \rho $$ It is a trivial job to ...
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Design a quantum circuit from a matrix

I have unitary matrix and I would find the quantum circuit associated. There are 3 qubits input so it's a 8x8 matrix but it's not a simple operation. The number of gates is not specified. Is there a ...
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How can we show that a map is a completely positive map? [migrated]

I am doing a homework problem where I have to find whether the map $$ \rho ~\rightarrow~ {\rm tr}(\rho) I - \rho $$ is completely positive. If the map is not completely positive, a counter-example ...
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Physical consequences of non-trivial quantum states homology

The set of quantum states of a finite dimensional system is a complex projective space, whose homology groups are non-trivial http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_projective_space#Homology. Has this ...
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Does quantum collapse involve a loss of information? Does it require energy as suggested by the Landauer Limit?

I read in the context of quantum computing or of the minimal energy required for computation that there has to be a minimum possible amount of energy required to change one bit of information, called ...
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Does nonlocal theory violate causality?

Let's talk about two kinds of nonlocal theories. The first one frequently derives from integrating out part of the degrees of freedom to obtain a kind of effective theory. Probably, we get an integral ...
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Thought experiment using quantum entanglement in position and its effects

Consider we have two atoms $a$ and $b$. They are entangled with each other in position and momentum, with some wavefuction describing them in position space that is $\Psi(x_a, x_b)$. This ...
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Information carried by single photon

In Quantum Information we can use photons for quantum bits (qubits). What i often read is that each photon can carry one unit of information, i.e. using the polarization state of a single photon. I ...
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Where does the requirement of prime number dimension figure in generating mutually unbiased bases (MUB)?

I have been studying this paper by S. Bandyopadhyay et al. - "A new proof for the existence of mutually unbiased bases". Here is the link. They explicitly construct MUB using generalized Pauli ...
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Why do we want to entangle qubits?

The title is pretty much all I want to ask. Why are qubits entangled? To my knowledge (which isn't that deep) a quantum register can be realized without entangling the qubits.
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Are they the same thing: Wigner distribution in quantum Boltzmann equation and Wigner function in quantum optics?

We know that quantum Boltzmann equation (QBE) is an equation of motion for the interacting Green's function $G^<(\vec{x}_1,t_1;\vec{x}_2,t_2)\equiv\mathrm{i}\langle ...
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Spatial profile for a superconducting qubit's wavefunction

What is a spatial profile for a wavefunction of a superconducting qubit (such as say a flux qubit, charge qubit, or a transmon)? I am trying to calculate the energy shift of an superconducting qubit ...
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Different implementation of Feynman's clock

In equation 7 of the paper, Feynman's clock, a new variational principle, and parallel-in-time quantum dynamics, the clock register is different from Feynman's original proposal. According to this ...
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Trace of an operator matrix (Quantum computation and quantum information)

I'm reading the book Quantum computation and quantum information by Mike & Ike and I'm stuck at 2.60/2.61. There, the author says that, given the operator $A|ψ⟩⟨ψ|$, its trace is: $${\rm ...
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Quantum computing records (entangled qubits)

What is the current record number of entagled qubits and how has this number been increased? The latest result on stack exchange, which is 3 years old, reports 14 via this post: How many stabilised ...