There are a number of physical systems with phases described by topologically protected invariants (fractional quantum Hall, topological insulators) but what are the simplest mathematical models that ...
I have seen the term topological charge defined in an abstract mathematical way as a essentially a labeling scheme for particles which follows certain rules. However I am left guessing when trying to ...
Both 1D Polyacetelene and 2D fractional quantum Hall state can support fractional excitations. But as I can see, there are some differences: the ground state of Polyacetelene breaks translational ...