# Tagged Questions

Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework describing the quantisation of classical fields which allows a Lorentz-invariant formulation of quantum mechanics. QFT is used both in high energy physics as well as condensed matter physics and closely related to statistical field theory. Use ...

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### Geometrical interpretation of the Dirac equation

Is there an intuitive geometrical picture behind the Dirac equation, and the gamma matrices that it uses? I know the geometric algebra is a Clifford algebra. Can the properties of geometric algebra, ...
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### Representations of Lorentz Group

I'd be grateful if someone could check that my exposition here is correct, and then venture an answer to the question at the end! $SO(3)$ has a fundamental representation (spin-1), and tensor product ...
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### Number of Components of a Spinor

I'm trying to develop my understanding of spinors. In quantum field theory I've learned that a spinor is a 4 component complex vector field on Minkowski space which transforms under the chiral ...
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### An use of the Schwinger-Dyson equation

I was confused as to how the equation 10 on page 7 or equation 21 on page 8 of this paper http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.1866 was derived. Can someone explain from where does this come and what do the ...
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### Causality in a gedanken experiment on the hydrogen atom

Consider a gedanken(=thought) experiment where I am tracking the motion of the electron in a hydrogen atom with a time resolution of (say) $\Delta t = 10^{-20}$ seconds. Further assume (for ...
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### What are all the approaches that have been tried for a theory of quantum gravity? [closed]

I am aware that that the most researched approach is that of string theory. I have also heard about quantum loop gravity. What other approaches are there to unify gravity and QFT? Also, please include ...
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### Asymptotic limit of the two kink solution of the sine-gordon equation

I am reading a paper on the sine-gordon model. The solution for a two kink solution is given as: ...
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### What is non-Abelian about non-Abelian Chern-Simons' theory?

One is aware that in the axial gauge (say the light-cone gauge $A_{-}=0$) non-supersymmetric Chern-Simons' theory is a quadratic theory. Hence in this gauge there are no gauge-gauge interactions. Then ...
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### Fermi's Golden Rule and Density of States

I know Fermi's Golden Rule in the form $$\Gamma_{fi} ~=~ \sum_{f}\frac{2\pi}{\hbar}\delta (E_f - E_i)|M_{fi}|^2$$ where $\Gamma_{fi}$ is the probability transition rate, $M_{fi}$ are the transition ...
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### Conservation laws in mSUGRA model

Can somebody list all the quantum numbers (beside R-parity) that are conserved in vertex for SUSY particles in mSUGRA model?
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### Quantum field theories with asymptotic freedom

QCD is the best-known example of theories with negtive beta function, i.e., coupling constant decreases when increasing energy scale. I have two questions about it: (1) Are there other theories with ...
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### Do all the particles acquire mass in the Standard Model due to the Higgs mechanism only?

I know that a mass term for an intermediate boson is not compatible with the gauge symmetry. But in principle a mass term for the electron field does not violate a gauge symmetry. However to build an ...
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### Definitions of the Normal Ordering Operator in CFTs and QFTs

Recall the normal ordering of bosonic operators in QFT is defined by a re-arrangement of operators to put creation operators to the left of annihilation operators in the product. This is designed to ...
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### What's the most efficient way to study physics? [duplicate]

I'm CS major trying to learn QFT on my own . I'm trying to make an efficient study plan .The problem is that I've never read any textbook from cover to cover and solved all the problems .What of the ...
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### How many particles are created in the strong electromagnetic field?

Consider a vacuum of charged massless scalar field. Then the uniform and isotropic electric field $E$ is turned on for a time interval $\tau$. The question is, how many scalar particles are created? ...
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### Scalar Field Theory Decay/Scattering

I have a few questions related to the following interaction Lagrangian (no use of crossing symmetry in the following) involving the uncharged scalar $\chi$ and the charged scalar $\phi$: ...
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### Is the wave-particle duality a real duality?

I often hear about the wave-particle duality, and how particles exhibit properties of both particles and waves. I most recently heard this in this video. However, I wonder; is this actually a duality? ...
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### Higher dimension operator in free Dirac Lagrangian

When discussing higher dimensional operators in a theory with fermions, why do I never see anyone ever talk about the dimension five operator $\partial_\mu\bar\psi\partial^\mu\psi$? How does the ...
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### Wavefunction collapse and gravity

If gravity can be thought of as both a wave (the gravitational wave, as predicted to exist by Albert Einstein and certain calculations) and a particle (the graviton), would it make sense to apply ...
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### Tachyon vertex operator (Polchinski's book)

I would like to know how does Polchinski in his book "derive" what is the "tachyon vertex operator" (..as say stated in equation 3.6.25, 6.2.11..) I can't locate a "derivation" of the fact that ...
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### Are the Møller wave operators $\Omega_\pm$ related to $\lim_{t\rightarrow\infty}U(t)$ from field theory?

When we want to compute correlation functions $\langle\Omega|\,T\hat{\phi}(x_1)\ldots|\Omega\rangle$ in an interacting quantum field theory, we relate it to the free-field objects $|0\rangle$ and ...
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### Evaluating propagator without the epsilon trick

Consider the Klein–Gordon equation and its propagator: $$G(x,y) = \frac{1}{(2\pi)^4}\int d^4 p \frac{e^{-i p.(x-y)}}{p^2 - m^2} \; .$$ I'd like to see a method of evaluating explicit form of $G$ ...
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### Why the Hamiltonian and the Lagrangian are used interchangeably in QFT perturbation calculations

Whenever one needs to calculate correlation functions in QFT using perturbations one encounters the following expression: $\langle 0| some\ operators \times \exp(iS_{(t)}) |0\rangle$ where, ...
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### Other Gross-Neveu like theories?

By "Gross-Neveu like" I mean non-supersymmetric QFTs whose partition function/beta-function (or any n-point function) is somehow exactly solvable in the large $N_c$ or $N_f$ or 't Hooft limit. ...
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### Why do we study the scalar field in QFT when there is no such thing in nature?

The Klein-Gordan equation describing a spinless scalar field is one of the first things one studies in a QFT course, but there are no elementary spin-0 fields in nature. Is the scalar field to QFT ...
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### Is proper time renormalization gauge invariant?

Proper Time Renormalization is achieved by putting: $$\int_0^\infty e^{iat} dt = {1\over ia}$$ Is it true that this is the only kind of normalization that is gauge invariant? If so, why do famous ...