Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework describing the quantisation of classical fields which allows a Lorentz-invariant formulation of quantum mechanics. QFT is used both in high energy physics as well as condensed matter physics and closely related to statistical field theory. Use ...

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Extending General Relativity with Kahler Manifolds?

Standard general relativity is based on Riemannian manifolds. However, the simplest extension of Riemannian manifolds seems to be Kahler manifolds, which have a complex (hermitian) structure, a ...
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170 views

Could we get rid of explicit fields derivatives in Quantum Field Theories?

For instance, if we choose the following scalar field Lagrangian, which is (I hope) Lorentz-invariant, where $l$ is a a length scale, and with a $(-1,1,1,1)$ metric: $$ \mathfrak{L}(x) \sim ...
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599 views

A confusion from Weinberg's QFT text (a vanishing term in Lippmann-Schwinger equation)

I was reviewing the first few chapters of Weinberg Vol I and found a hole in my understanding in page 112, where he tried to show in the asymptotic past $t=−∞$, the in states coincide with a free ...
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1answer
670 views

Charge conjugation in Dirac equation

I need to know the mathematical argument that how the relation is true $(C^{-1})^T\gamma ^ \mu C^T = - \gamma ^{\mu T} $ . Where $C$ is defined by $U=C \gamma^0$ ; $U$= non singular matrix , $T$= ...
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426 views

Translations of field operators in QFT

A question in the book QFT of Srednicki: This concerns the relativistic QFT generalization $$\tag{2.21} {{e}^{-i\hat{P}x/\hbar}}\psi (0){{e}^{i\hat{P}x/\hbar}}~=~\psi (x)$$ of the formula ...
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500 views

Renormalization of field strength

I'm revisiting the elementary algorithms of renormalization that are taught in a classroom setting and find that the procedure taught to students is as follows: Write down the bare Lagrangian: ...
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1answer
425 views

Chiral anomaly in odd spacetime dimensions

In odd number of space-time dimensions, the Fermions are not reducible (i.e. do not have left-chiral and right-chiral counterparts). Does this mean that there is no such thing as 'chiral' anomalies ...
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254 views

Why can you re-write the functional measure of a real-valued field $\phi(x)$ as $\mathcal{D}\phi=\prod_{k_n^0>0}dRe \phi(k_n) d Im \phi(k_n)$?

This happens in Peskin and Schroeder, An Introduction to QFT, on page 285. They set out to calculate correlation functions for the free real-valued Klein-Gordon field $\phi(x)\in \mathbb{R}$. They ...
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389 views

Ward Identity makes QED logarithmic divergent?

Quick question regarding superficial degrees of freedom and Ward identities. For instance in Peskin and Schroeder it is stated that the photon-self energy is superficially quadratically UV divergent ...
6
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4answers
757 views

Uncertainty Principle for Information?

I'm not familiar (yet) on how Information theory can be emerged/used in QM/QFT but I was thinking about this question: While we have Heisenberg uncertainty principle on measuring coupled observables, ...
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122 views

Naive Uncertainty principle for string theory

Is it possible, in some sense, that a naive uncertainly principle for string theory could be expressed as : $$ \Delta x_i \Delta p_j \Delta \sigma ~=~ \delta_{ij} \hbar \ell_s$$ where $\ell_s$ is ...
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1answer
208 views

Why does renormalization need an unbroken symmetry?

Common wisdom is that for a QFT to be renormalizable it must be invariant under a symmetry transformation. Why does renormalization need an unbroken symmetry? Which is the first publication that ...
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354 views

Kugo and Ojima's Canonical Formulation of Yang-Mills using BRST

I am trying to study the canonical formulation of Yang-Mills theories so that I have direct access to the $n$-particle of the theory (i.e. the Hilbert Space). To that end, I am following Kugo and ...
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2answers
246 views

Is single photon annihination of electron-positron pair prohibited by Feynman diagram analysis?

It is obvious that electron-positron pair cannot annihilate to a single photon which will violate the momentum conservation. My question is can we get this knowledge from Feynman diagram or ...
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1answer
339 views

Speed of light and virtual particles

After becoming extremely bored while studying for an Afrikaans exam, I started thinking about virtual particles. So, can light (photons) interact with virtual particles (even though they only exist ...
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3answers
692 views

Energy-time uncertainty and pair creation

Usually, the energy-time analogue of the position-momentum uncertainty relation is quoted as $\Delta E \Delta t \geq \frac{h}{4 \pi}$. This has interpretational issues and such. But, with a suitable ...
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3answers
420 views

Why possibility for X-ray to excite inner electrons higher than outer electrons?

It seems X-ray absorption spectroscopy is usually ascribed to the interation between photons and inner electrons. Does it mean inner electrons are much preferred by X-ray photons to outer electrons? ...
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Is there a symmetry associated to the conservation of information?

Conservation of information seems to be a deep physical principle. For instance, Unitarity is a key concept in Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory. We may wonder if there is an underlying ...
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554 views

Path integral and geometric quantization

I was wondering how one obtains geometric quantization from a path integral. It's often assumed that something like this is possible, for example, when working with Chern-Simons theory, but rarely ...
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443 views

Can auxiliary fields be thought of as Lagrange multipliers?

In the BRST formalism of gauge theories, the Lautrup-Nakanishi field $B^a(x)$ appears as an auxiliary variable $$\mathcal{L}_\text{BRST}=-\frac{1}{4}F_{\mu\nu}^a F^{a\,\mu\nu}+\frac{1}{2}\xi B^a B^a + ...
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Why do physicists believe that particles are pointlike?

String theory gives physicists reason to believe that particles are 1-dimensional strings because the theory has a purpose - unifying gravity with the gauge theories. So why is it that it's popular ...
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5answers
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Reading list in topological QFT

I'm interested in learning about topological QFT including Chern Simons theory, Jones polynomial, Donaldson theory and Floer homology - basically the kind of things Witten worked on in the 80s. I'm ...
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723 views

What makes a Feynman diagram real or virtual?

Simple question: as the title says, what makes a real Feynman diagram real, and what makes a virtual diagram virtual? Or in other words, how do I tell whether any given diagram is real or virtual? ...
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3answers
486 views

What is the massless limit of massive electromagnetism?

Consider electromagnetism, an abelian gauge theory, with a massive photon. Is the massless limit equal to electromagnetism? What does it happen at the quantum level with the extra degree of freedom? ...
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183 views

constraint on scaling dimension

How can we show that for any scalar operator $\Delta\geq1$ (where $\Delta$ is the scaling dimension)? Where can I find a reference for reading where it comes from?
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719 views

When we define the S-matrix, what are “in” and “out” states?

I have seen the scattering matrix defined using initial ("in") and final ("out") eigenstates of the free hamiltonian, with $$\left| \vec{p}_1 \cdots \vec{p}_n \; \text{out} \right\rangle = S^{-1} ...
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1answer
619 views

What happens to the Lagrangian of the Dirac theory under charge conjugation?

Consider a charge conjugation operator which acts on the Dirac field($\psi$) as $$\psi_{C} \equiv \mathcal{C}\psi\mathcal{C}^{-1} = C\gamma_{0}^{T}\psi^{*}$$ Just as we can operate the parity operator ...
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2answers
158 views

matter anti-matter world

let us suppose the gedanken experiment a man isolated into a room he ask if he is made of matter oder of antimatter could he set some experiments to see if he is made of matter or if he is made of ...
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286 views

Is it true that an isolated fundamental particle does not decay?

Is it true that an isolated fundamental/elementary particle does not decay? It seems logical to me.
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2answers
238 views

Secondary constraints leads to the value of lagrange multiplier

From Lagrangian I got two primary constraint $\phi_i$ and $\phi$. And my Hamiltonian in presence of the constraints becomes- $$H_p=p\dot q-L+\lambda_i\phi_i+\lambda\phi$$ here the $\lambda_i$ and ...
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1answer
187 views

What's the difference between background field and dynamical gauge field?

Dynamical gauge fields are assumed to be able to respond to sources. What's the difference in the Lagrangians between a background field and a dynamical field?
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3answers
547 views

Propagators and Probabilities in the Heisenberg Picture

I'm trying to understand why $$\Bigl|\langle0|\phi(x)\phi(y)|0\rangle\Bigr|^2$$ is the probability for a particle created at $y$ to propagate to $x$ where $\phi$ is the Klein-Gordon field. What's ...
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1answer
352 views

In quantum field theory with a mass gap, why do states in the asymptotic future/past turn out to have a Fock space structure?

In quantum field theory with a mass gap, why do states in the asymptotic future/past turn out to have a Fock space structure? For a free quantum field theory, that's trivial, but why is that the case ...
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What is the physical meaning of the higher order structure functions in the BRST quantization of open algebras?

What is the physical meaning of the higher order structure functions in the BRST quantization of open algebras? As opposed to formal algebraic manipulations. Thanks.
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112 views

Wilsonian vs 1PI

As a follow up to Difference between 1PI effective action and Wilsonian effective action, where can I find pedagogical material that highlights the similarities and differences between the 1PI and ...
2
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1answer
246 views

't Hooft limit of coupling fundamental fermions to Chern-Simons theory

This question is in reference to this paper: arXiv:1110.4386 [hep-th]. I would like to know what is the derivation or a reference to the proof of their crucial equation 2.3 (page 12). In their ...
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2answers
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The Lagrangian in Scalar Field Theory

This is perhaps a naive question, but why do we write down the Lagrangian $$\mathcal{L}=\frac{1}{2}\eta^{\mu\nu}\partial_{\mu}\phi\partial_{\nu}\phi - \frac{1}{2}m^2\phi^2$$ as the simplest ...
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1answer
275 views

Number of Grassmann generators for Dirac field?

How many Grassmann generators are sufficient for the description of a Dirac spinor in 4 dimensions? i.e. The Dirac field is a map to $\Lambda_N$, the space of supernumbers with $N$ real Grassmann ...
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1answer
179 views

Coverage of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in introductory Quantum Field Theory (QFT) books [closed]

Which QFT books also cover QED? I am not very familiar with QED, so I am looking for QFT books which cover QED too (I know they cover Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).).
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1answer
112 views

What are relativistic and radiative effects (in quantum simulation)?

I'm reading about Quantum Monte Carlo, and I see that some people are trying to calculate hydrogen and helium energies as accurately as possible. QMC with Green's function or Diffusion QMC seem to be ...
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0answers
244 views

Regularization of infinite series: an alternative for the not-always-courteous-Zeta

Zeta-function regularization of infinite series is the most commonly used in QFT applications. However, occasionally other schemes are employed which, allegedly, suit the nature (most noticeably the ...
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1answer
291 views

Negative probability and spin-0 scalar field in Klein-Gordon equation

Klein-Gordon equation in quantum field theory is known to suffer from the possibility of negative probability. So, the question is, despite this, Klein-Gordon describes spin-zero field. So, how can ...
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3answers
1k views

Grassmann paradox weirdness

I'm running into an annoying problem I am unable to resolve, although a friend has given me some guidance as to how the resolution might come about. Hopefully someone on here knows the answer. It is ...
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1answer
228 views

How quantum field transforms in case of some particular spin

Except when a particle is spin-0, field of all particles transforms when frame of reference is changed, and this defines what spin is. The question is, specifically how does the quantum field ...
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1answer
303 views

An equation that describes massless spin-1 particle

Proca action/equation describes massive spin-1 particle, but I was unable to find an equation that describes massless spin-1 particle. Can anyone tell me what the name of this equation is?
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1answer
597 views

How does one derive the Lamb shift for the Hydrogen atom?

I've been perusing my copies of Srednicki and Peskin & Schroeder, and I can't seem to find an explanation of how one derives the Lamb shift that I can follow. How does one derive the Lamb shift? ...
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2k views

Why would Klein-Gordon describe spin-0 scalar field while Dirac describe spin-1/2?

The derivation of both Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation is due the need of quantum mechanics (or to say more correctly, quantum field theory) to adhere to special relativity. However, excpet ...
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1answer
354 views

Matrix and exponential term problem

We know the Schrodinger equation for free Hamiltonian is : $$ i\hbar\frac{\partial\psi}{\partial t} = H_f \psi $$ the wave function could be written as $$ \psi(x,t)=\hat{S}(t) \psi(x,0) $$ $$ ...
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3answers
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Would a spin-2 particle necessarily have to be a graviton?

I'm reading often that a possible reason to explain why the Nobel committee is coping out from making the physics Nobel related to the higgs could be among other things the fact that the spin of the ...
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1answer
170 views

Problem in Hamiltonian

I need to elaborate the equation ,and need to know what is the physical significance and how matrices will manipulate in the equation $$ \hat{H} = (\hat{\tau_3}+i\hat{\tau_2})\frac{\hat{p}^2}{2m_0}+ ...