Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework describing the quantisation of classical fields which allows a Lorentz-invariant formulation of quantum mechanics. QFT is used both in high energy physics as well as condensed matter physics and closely related to statistical field theory. Use ...

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Quantum symmetries that are not classical symmetries

An anomaly is a symmetry of the classical action that fails to be a symmetry of the path integral, due to non-invariance of the path integral measure. Does it ever occur that the opposite thing ...
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Pressure and Density Using a General Lagrangian

Given a lagrangian of a form: \begin{equation}\mathcal{L}=f(\phi,\partial_{\mu}\phi\partial^{\mu}\phi)\end{equation} where $f$ is a function, I need to derive pressure and density in a FLRW universe ...
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294 views

What does it mean to renormalize an effective field theory?

This is in reference to slide 19 of this talk "As always in Effective Field Theory, the theory becomes predictive when there are more observables than parameters" Can one explain what this exactly ...
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Increased likelihood of photon emission due to “nearby” absorber?

Is an excited atom more likely to emit a photon if there is a similar atom in the ground state nearby ready to absorb it? When I say "nearby" I guess I mean that the absorber has an approximately ...
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210 views

Chiral perturbation theory: what is the Quark Condensate? why expand in $U$ rather than Goldstone fields?

I'm studying Chiral Perturbation Theory ($\chi PT$) from Scherer's Introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory. What I am currently having some trouble understanding are two things: The quark ...
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How to describe hadron-hadron strong interactions from QCD?

I'm trying to set up the problem of deriving the thermodynamics of hadronic matter. I know how to proceed in the case of an effective description such as mean field (Walecka/linear sigma model) but ...
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203 views

Nuclear physics from perturbative QFT

Is there a renormalizable QFT that can produce a reasonably accurate description of nuclear physics in perturbation theory? Obviously the Standard Model cannot since QCD is strongly coupled at nuclear ...
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64 views

Why is baryon or lepton violation in standard model is a non-perturbative effect?

The baryon number B or lepton number L violation in the standard model arise from triangle anomaly. Right? Triangle diagrams are perturbative diagrams. Then why the B or L violation in Standard model ...
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674 views

Spontaneous symmetry breaking in classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory

I wondered if someone could help me understand spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Consider a Higgs-like potential, with a local ...
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91 views

Why does the Walecka model not include pions?

The Walecka or $\sigma$/$\omega$-model is an effective theory describing nucleon-nucleon interaction by an exchange of $\sigma$/$\omega$-mesons. Why does it not include interactions by pions?
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76 views

Does spin-0 or spin-2 describe massive or massless particles?

spin-0 is massive or massless? How does we separate the massive and massless degrees of freedom for spin-2? What is the partially massive?
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79 views

Ground State Energy in Euclidean Spacetime

Calculating the transition amplitude in Euclidean spacetime is useful because from it we can extract the ground state energy and ground state wave-functions values. For example, let's assume we are ...
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142 views

Why is fundamental physics taught in terms of particles?

According to this paper, there can be no relativistic quantum theory of localizeable particles ("relativity plus quantum mechanics exclusively requires a field ontology"). Sean Caroll has also argued ...
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Which is more fundamental, Fields or Particles?

I hope that I am using appropriate terminology. My confusion about quantum theory (beyond my obvious unfamiliarity with its terminology) is basically twofold: I lack an adequate understanding of ...
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101 views

CPT invariance of Dirac equation

We know that Dirac equation is \begin{equation} ( i \partial _\mu \gamma ^\mu - m ) \psi ~=~0. \end{equation} How can we show that Dirac equation is invariant under CPT transformation?
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107 views

Complex Dirac field in antiparticle description

I understand that the Dirac equation has negative and positive sets of solutions and this contributes to its quantization by a superposition of two Fourier modes represented as creation and ...
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56 views

Does yukawa potential of two particles have effect on each other?

Okay,a novice here.Suppose two particle interact with Higgs field.Does The Yukawa potential created by each of them affect each other or the interaction in any way.If so,what is it physical ...
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97 views

Proof for a time-ordering equation in Negele & Orland (1998)

Let $T$ be the time-ordering operator which orders operators $A_1(t_1), A_2(t_2), \ldots$ such that the time parameter decreases from left to right: $$T[A_1(t_1) A_2(t_2)] = A_2(t_2) A_1(t_1) \text{ ...
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654 views

Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Flux Quantization in superconductors

Why is the magnetic flux not quantized in a standard Aharonov-Bohm (infinite) solenoid setup, whereas in a superconductor setting, flux is quantized?
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102 views

Local number operators in quantum field theory

Redhead claims in his paper "More ado about nothing" (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02054660) that number operators associated with different space points (at fixed time) fail to ...
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Can the rate of virtual pair production from vacuum be computed?

Consider for instance the QED Lagrangian. Is it possible to compute the rate of virtual electron-positron creation from the vacuum?
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1answer
56 views

Does this photograph portray double muon impact with nanogold atoms?

1PHOTO 1: Macro-photograph of an NIH/FDA TEM of a nanogold dark stained biological sample projected onto Silver Halide (AgX) photographic gel paper. On June 10 I questioned if PHOTO 1 ...
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123 views

Calculating Tr(log($\Delta_F$))

I am stuck with this problem for quite sometime. I have a propagator in the momentum representation (from this question), which looks like $$ \widetilde\Delta_F(p) = ...
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138 views

What is the source of Quantum fields [duplicate]

In the beginning of "Quantum Field Theory for the Gifted Amateur," there is the statement: Every particle and every wave in the Universe is simply an excitation of a quantum field that is defined ...
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729 views

Dirac spinor and Weyl spinor

How can it be shown that the Dirac spinor is the direct sum of a right handed Weyl spinor and a left handed Weyl spinor? EDIT:- Let $\psi_L$ and $\psi_R$ be 2 component left-handed and right-handed ...
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55 views

Importance of the Higgs field being formulated in quantum gauge theory

As far as my knowledge goes, Higgs field is only currently formulated in term of classical gauge theory. What is the importance of Higgs field being formulated in term of quantum gauge theory? In ...
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1answer
116 views

Is quantum field operator $\psi$ same as quantum field $\psi$?

So in QFT, quantum field operator $\psi$ is there. $\psi$ seems to take the role of wavefunction in QM, which now acts upon vacuum state. Then, in lagrangian of various quantum field theories, $\psi$ ...
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69 views

Why do we need to prove the gauge invariance of QED (or all of the gauge theories) on the Feynman diagrams language?

Let's have the QED lagrangian. It has explicit gauge invariance, so, by the naive thinking, all of the EM processes must satisfy the property of gauge invariance. So why do we need to recheck of gauge ...
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88 views

What is physical meaning of $|\phi|^2$ in quantum field theory and pedagogical spontaneous symmetry breaking?

If wavefunction is $\phi$, we know that $|\phi (x)|^2$ represents probability of finding a particle at $x$. Now let us talk about some pedagogical example in spontaneous symmetry breaking in QFT, ...
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1answer
89 views

$U(1)$ abelian/axial/chiral anomaly in 4D

I am reading $U(1)$ abelian/axial/chiral anomaly in 3+1 dimensions using the path integral method (Fujikawa). Am I wrong in assuming that the anomaly can be cancelled by introducing a counter term in ...
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1answer
104 views

Self-adjointness

I know I have posted this question before some time ago. But no one could help so I decided to put my problem in another background. The Schrödinger equation of a free scalar field is given by ...
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3answers
105 views

Entanglement in single particle state

Is it possible that we have entanglement in different degrees of freedom of a singe particle. like spin and linear momentum .
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306 views

Time-ordering in QFT

In Srednicki QFT page 37. In the derivation of LSZ reduction formula, he introduces the time-order operator $T$, so no time-dependent creation/annihilation operators are left in the transition ...
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22 views

(A,B)-Representation of Lorentz Group: Coefficient functions of fields

I have a question regarding the construction of general causal fields in Weinberg's book on quantum field theory. In his conventions a field that transforms according to the irreducible (A,B) ...
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53 views

If non-zero cosmological constant interpreted as a repulsive field, what would be the properties of this field's quanta?

If non-zero cosmological constant interpreted as a repulsive field, what would be the properties of the excitation of such field, i.e. the particle which serves as the field's quantum? What would be ...
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67 views

2 entangled electrons in QFT

In field theory, by quantizing a dirac field, we can obtain a creation operator for a single electron of definite momentum, of definite spin up or down, these respectively are: ...
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1answer
426 views

What is the meaning of Non-Relativistic theory in Condensed Matter Physics?

I an attempt to evade the Goldstone Theorem, it is argued in Gilbert and Klein and Lee's paper that in a non-relativistic field there exists a preferred direction which can be used to evade ...
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What is the physical interpretation of the fermion field Hamilton?

I am still unclear what the hamilitonian of a quantized field is, but what I do know is the hamilitonian of the boson field is defined as \begin{align} H_{\text{boson}} &=& ...
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60 views

How to calculate the 2-point function of gravitons?

I'm curious about how to calculate the 2-point function of graviton, but there are no textbooks of general relativity covering this problem. So how to calculate it? In which book can I find the ...
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3answers
334 views

How does the nature of nuclear force change between attractive or repulsive based on distance?

I know that the nuclear force is responsible for binding the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus. The force is powerfully attractive at small separations and rapidly decreases as the distance ...
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What is the most general definition of a bosonic Gaussian state?

I am reading this paper where the definition of the bosonic state is mentioned on page 2 here :- http://arxiv.org/pdf/0806.1625.pdf . From a general definition of any density operator in terms of ...
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201 views

Lorentz group representations in QFT: what's the vector space?

In QFT, a representation of the Lorentz group is specified as follows: $$ U^\dagger(\Lambda)\phi(x) U(\Lambda)= R(\Lambda)~\phi(\Lambda^{-1}x) $$ Where $\Lambda$ is an element of the Lorentz group, ...
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Why does the action have to be hermitian?

The hermiticity of operators of observables, e.g. the Hamiltonian, in QM is usually justified by saying that the eigenvalues must be real valued. I know that the Lagrangian is just a Legendre ...
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90 views

A Spin up particle in QFT

This appears like a question that is rarely addressed in field theory pedagogy (perhaps because the answer is obvious): how does one describe a particle of definite spin in quantum field theory? For ...
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156 views

Error in Standard Textbook “An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory” of Peskin and Schroeder?

On page 191 there is a equation for $D$ given by $$D=x(k^2-m^2)+y(k'^2-m^2)+z(k-p)^2+(x+y+z)i\epsilon. \tag{6.43}$$ With $k'=k+q$ and the constraint $x+y+z=1$. Also $p^2=p'^2=m^2$ and maybe $q=p'-p$. ...
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24 views

Quantum Energy Teleportation and Stress-Energy tensor divergence

This question is about a paper from last year about Quantum Energy Teleportation. If I understand the main assertion of what QET is supposed to involve, basically you are teleporting energy as ...
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665 views

Symmetries of the Standard Model: exact, anomalous, spontaneously broken

There are a number of possible symmetries in fundamental physics, such as: Lorentz invariance (or actually, Poincaré invariance, which can itself be broken down into translation invariance and ...
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119 views

How do instantons cause vacuum decay?

From what I read about on instantons (Zee, QFT in a Nutshell, pg 309-310), an instanton is a vacuum solution that maps $S^3 \rightarrow S^3$ (the boundary of Euclideanized spacetime), which comes from ...
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83 views

Cluster Expansion vs Cluster Decomposition

Are the cluster expansion (which we encounter in Statistical Physics), and cluster decomposition (in Quantum Field Theory) related to each other? (I have a reason to believe they are)
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geometric quantization of the moduli space of abelian Chern-Simons theory

I wish to understand the statement in this paper more precisely: (1). Any 3d Topological quantum field theories(TQFT) associates an inner-product vector space $H_{\Sigma}$ to a Riemann surface ...