1
vote
3answers
72 views

How do charged particles interact?

You'll have to forgive me if this question is too wrapped up in "classical" thinking. I've read that electrons and protons interact by trading photons, but this only raises more questions. What ...
3
votes
0answers
61 views

What is the derivation of the speed of light $c$ that is not based on electromagnetism? [duplicate]

The "speed of light" is not just the speed of electromagnetic radiation, but of any massless particle. Therefore must not there be an expression for $c$ that is not in terms of $\mu_0$ and ...
5
votes
0answers
36 views

Spin-dependence of the directionality of dipole radiation

I am interested in understanding how and whether the transformation properties of a (classical or quantum) field under rotations or boosts relate in a simple way to the directional dependence of the ...
4
votes
1answer
215 views

Will we need to update Electrodynamics?

A contradiction to the Electrodynamics by the experiment. The author has said that, accordning to the experiment, photon is no more gauge invariant? Why is that? An important thing is that Although ...
3
votes
1answer
77 views

How does determinism manifest out of QFT?

Classical electrodynamics is deterministic. QED is indeterministic, or probabilistically random. Yet they agree with each other? What am I missing?
11
votes
8answers
3k views

Is gravity just electromagnetic attraction?

Recently, I was pondering over the thought that is most of the elementary particles have intrinsic magnetism, then can gravity be just a weaker form of electromagnetic attraction? But decided the ...
-3
votes
1answer
41 views

Can a classical (or quantum) field, particularly the EMF, have a frame of reference?

I understand that a massless particle (such as a photon) cannot have a frame of reference. But the electromagnetic field does have mass; does it have a frame of reference? If so, I have a second ...
2
votes
2answers
72 views

Gauge symmetry for p-forms

It is well known that the Lorentz invariance of the S-matrix implies Gauge redundancy for 1-forms,'photons'. Does this argument go through to p-forms? That is does lorentz invariance of s-matrix of ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

Electron Electric Field Mass?

I am confused of whether or not the expected electromagnetic field generated by the point-like electric charge of the electron distributed smoothly across space as a probability distribution creates ...
6
votes
2answers
179 views

The gauge covariant derivative and it's substitution

I was wondering wether it would make a difference (in general) if I were to were introduce the gauge covariant derivative $$D_\mu=\partial_\mu+ieA_\mu$$ In the Lagrangian density and then derive the ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

The question about quantization of free EM field

Let's have the free EM field theory with Coulomb gauge: $$ \partial^{2}A_{\mu} = 0, \quad A_{0} = 0, \quad (\nabla \cdot \mathbf A ) = 0. $$ One of the ways of quantizing the field is the following. ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

multiple frequency trapped power signal

is there any possibility to generate a waveform that consists of multiple power signals with different frequencies such that these signals travel together like they constitute [to form a ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Electomagnetic Field Quantization

From Quantum Field Theory by Franz Mandl and Graham Shaw page 4. When we are expanding the vector potential as a Fourier series; $\renewcommand{\vec}[1]{\mathbf{#1}}\vec{A}(\vec{x},t) = ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Why is $B(T)\approx b(T-T_C)$ near critical point $T_C$ in Landau theory?

In Peskin&Schroeder page $270$ equation $(8.4)$ you see that they approximate the function $B(T)$ near the Curie temperature as $$B(T)\approx b(T-T_C)$$ i.e. they omit $B(T_C)$ in the Taylor ...
3
votes
2answers
734 views

Gauge Invariance of the Hamiltonian of the electromagnetic field

The Hamiltonian for an electron of mass $m$ and charge $e$ in an exterior electromagnetic field is $$H=\frac{1}{2m}(p-(e/c)A)^2+e\varphi.$$ The corresponding (via canonical quantization) quantum ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

Is it possible to Vectorialize Quantum Field Theories?

If I take the rules for classical electrodynamics in the covariant formulation (the closest to QFT), I have a tensor that describes the field, $F_{\mu\nu}$. Now we know that we can take some of the ...
1
vote
1answer
191 views
1
vote
2answers
218 views

Derivation of Lagrangian density for an infinite classical dielectric in interaction with the EM field

I am tasked with reading and reproducing all the steps in J.J. Hopfield's 1958 paper "Theory of the Contribution of Excitons to the Complex Dielectric Constant of Crystals". Embarrassingly I am stuck ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

$E$ and $B$ fields in Axial Gauge

I am trying to compute the $\vec{E}$ and $\vec{B}$ fields in the Axial gauge ($n \cdot \vec{A}=0$) where $n^2=1$, but I'm having trouble seeing the usefulness/how it simplifies the equations.
3
votes
1answer
253 views

Analog of Klein-Gordon equation from Proca action

What would be the general form of Lagrange Equation when instead of a scalar field we have a vector potential? has anyone derived the klein gordon equation for a corresponding vector potential ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

A question about verifying the transverse of electric field

I came accross a question about verifying the transverse of electric field in Peskin and Schroeder's QFT p179. Given $$ \mathcal{A}^{\mu}(\mathbf{k}) = \frac{ -e}{| \mathbf{k} | } \left( ...
9
votes
2answers
398 views

What is the origin of the factor of $-1/4$ in the Maxwell Lagrangian?

I have seen numerous 'derivations' of the Maxwell Lagrangian, $$\mathcal{L} ~=~ -\frac{1}{4}F_{\mu \nu}F^{\mu \nu},$$ but every one has sneakily inserted a factor of $-1/4$ without explaining why. ...
2
votes
0answers
60 views

Gravity and Larmor effect

I have a Q: Does "Equivalent Principle" and "Larmor effect" imply that the charged particle should radiate electromagnetic wave if it is at rest in uniform gravitational field (like it is at rest on ...
54
votes
1answer
1k views

Does the 4/3 problem of classical electromagnetism remain in quantum mechanics?

In Volume II Chapter 28 of the Feymann Lectures on Physics, Feynman discusses the infamous 4/3 problem of classical electromagnetism. Suppose you have a charged particle of radius $a$ and charge $q$ ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

If an Electrical Field can jump over a point on its stright path of propagation?

Consider point B between points A and C on a stright line in vaccum(or any other environment). If the electrical fild $\vec E$ (or an EM wave) should necessarily pass through B to affect C and appear ...
18
votes
2answers
798 views

What is the difference between the Balmer series of hydrogen and deuterium?

In my quantum mechanics textbook, it claims that the Balmer series between hydrogen and deuterium is different. However, I was under the impression that the Balmer series $$H_\alpha, H_\beta, ...
2
votes
0answers
82 views

value of $\omega$ in nonlinear equation

IN this article the author written a nonlinear equation as $$-\frac{\partial^2 \phi}{\partial t^2}+ \nabla \phi= \phi+ \sum_{k=2}^\infty g_k \phi^k$$ They have scaled the time as, ...
1
vote
1answer
267 views

Local gauge invariance and fields

I have one question about local gauge invariance of the spinor and scalar theories. For the scalar complex field with lagrangian $L_{0}$ requirement of local gauge invariance leads us to the ...
2
votes
3answers
181 views

What is the interpretation of the Chern-Simons electromagnetic spin density?

Hans de Vries (who happens to be a no-longer-active physics.SE user) has an online book (referenced below) in which ch. 6 is a presentation of an object he calls the Chern-Simons current, ...
8
votes
2answers
443 views

No magnetic dipole moment for photon

Electrically neutral particles such as neutrinos can have nonvanishing magnetic dipole moments. Spin-1 particles, e.g., deuterium nuclei, can also have dipole moments. Googling seems to show that the ...
2
votes
1answer
149 views

Given expectation values for E and B, can you find an associated state?

When we quantize the electromagnetic field, we develop the concept of the field operator $A(\vec{r},t)$ and the simultaneous eigenstates of momentum and the free field Hamiltonian (i.e., each ...
1
vote
1answer
119 views

Quantum Mechanics of Lenz's Law?

I've searched the internet and two famous QM books (Sakurai and Messiah) for Lenz's Law, but haven't found anything. So my question is what the quantum mechanical explanation to Lenz's law is? Can ...
6
votes
0answers
106 views

Is the search for a Simple-group-based Electro-Weak theory over?

Just wondering: We know that, in its current form of the $SU(2)_L\times U(1)$, the electroweak theroy rides a wave of huge success. However, is it not possible that the correct simple group ...
5
votes
4answers
3k views

Collision of two photons

Could someone explain me how will be look like collision of two photons? Will they behave like: Electromagnetic waves, they will interpher with each other and keep they wave nature Particles and ...
2
votes
1answer
181 views

A classically trivial quantum field theory of electromagnetism

Presumably there is a field theory of electromagnetism that classically gives trivial equations of motion, but when quantized shows interesting topological phenomena. I am talking about the Lagrangian ...
1
vote
3answers
179 views

Field energy of/from virtual Photons

I have a slightly out-of line question: Consider a single electron (or it's current if you please) The STATIC ELECTROMAGNETIC field surrounding it will (no doubt) have a field energy (T) to go with. ...
4
votes
2answers
324 views

Why possibility for X-ray to excite inner electrons higher than outer electrons?

It seems X-ray absorption spectroscopy is usually ascribed to the interation between photons and inner electrons. Does it mean inner electrons are much preferred by X-ray photons to outer electrons? ...
6
votes
3answers
655 views

Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Flux Quantization in superconductors

Why is the magnetic flux not quantized in a standard Aharonov-Bohm (infinite) solenoid setup, whereas in a superconductor setting, flux is quantized?
0
votes
0answers
105 views

What would the universe be like if Electroweak symmetry were unbroken? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What happens to matter in a standard model with zero Higgs VEV? What if the Higgs did not have a "Mexican hat" potential and the therefore it's vacuum expectation value ...
5
votes
0answers
184 views

Semiclassical QED and long-range interaction

I'm interested in the (very) low energy limit of quantum electrodynamics. I've seen that taking this limit does not yield Maxwell equations, but a quantum corrected non-linear version of them. If ...
2
votes
3answers
462 views

Gauge invariance and form of the vacuum polarization tensor

In quantum field theory or condensed matter physics, the fermionic one-loop diagram gives rise to the polarization tensor $$ Π^{µν} = Tr[ γ^µ G γ^ν G ] $$ If we couple the electrons to an ...
1
vote
2answers
184 views

How important are electromagnetic tidal effects in QFT? Can they be used to determine whether a particle is point-like?

I just did a back-of-the-envelope calculation, which surprised me. I calculated the difference in acceleration (due to repelling like-charges) experienced by two sides of an electron the size of the ...
1
vote
1answer
352 views

Is there orbital angular momentum for all particles?

Light as an electromagnetic wave can be polarized in different ways, e.g. linear or circular. As far as I understand it currently this can be compared to the spin direction of a propagation electron ...
3
votes
1answer
343 views

Higgs Field compared to EM field

So, I've been reading about the Higgs because of all of this excitement lately with the LHC. I'm just a layman in physics but one thing I understood was that the Higgs field permeates all of space ...
5
votes
1answer
425 views

Gauge invariance and Feynman path-integrals

Let me look at the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in a plane in a constant magnetic field ($\vec{B}$) pointing upwards - then in usual notation it is, $$\hat{H} = \frac{1}{2m}\biggl(\hat{p} + ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

What's the relation between virtual photons and electromagnetic potentials?

Given that: 1) virtual photons mediate the electric and magnetic force fields 2) the magnetic field is the curl of the magnetic vector potential 3) the electric field is the negative gradient of ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

To what extent is the “minimal substitution” or “minimal coupling” for the EM vector potential valid?

In all text books (and papers for that matter) about QFT and the classical limit of relativistic equations, one comes across the "minimal substitution" to introduce the magnetic potential into the ...
1
vote
1answer
402 views

How is the operation of a Goldleaf Electroscope explained in terms of virtual particles?

If an electroscope is charged negatively the electrons on the leaves will repell each other and stand apart. It is clear than there is a steady force between the leaves that counters gravity. How is ...
11
votes
2answers
496 views

Essential background for QFT study

The preface to Mark Srednicki's "Quantum Field Theory" says that to be prepared for the book, one must recognize and understand the following equations: $$\frac{d\sigma}{d\Omega} = ...
8
votes
2answers
374 views

Quantizing EM field

Why when we quantize EM field, whe quantize the vector potential $A^\mu$ obtaining vectorial particles (photons) like the elastic field (phonons) and we can't quantize directly the EM-field tensor ...