Quantum-ElectroDynamics (QED) is the quantum field theory believed to describe the electromagnetic interaction (and with some extension the weak nuclear force).

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QED+Classical Background Renormalization

I would like to ask a question related to quantum corrections and renormalization in QED. We have the QED vertex $\overline{\psi}[-ie \gamma^{\mu}(B_{\mu}+A_{\mu})]\psi,$ being $B_{\mu}$ a classical ...
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Electric field operator in 2D geomatry

In the free field (3D), transverse electric field operator is given by the below expression; $$e^{\bot}(\textbf{R}) =i \sum_{\textbf{p},\lambda}\Big( \frac{\hbar cp}{2V\epsilon_{0}}\Big)^{1/2} \{e^{(\...
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What happens to Hydrogen-Boron plasma at 3 billion Kelvin?

A recent popular report states (beware, I believe it is not peer reviewed and this slightly smells like a PR stunt) that a private company TriAlpha has made some notable progress towards Hydrogen-...
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The divergence in QCD Series— How many are they, and what do they mean?

I am referring to this question, and especially this answer. In addition, QCD has - like all field theories - only an asymptotic perturbation series, which means that the series itself will ...
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Why do electrons and positrons exhibit opposite helical motion in a magnetic field?

When you throw an electron through a solenoid, it moves helically around the field lines, as per this schoolphysics illustration: © Keith Gibbs 2013 Then if we were to throw a positron through the ...
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How far do the propagation paths in QED go?

I am currently reading Feynman's popular book on QED "the strange theory of light and matter". I know classical optics quite well, know about Fresnel, Brewster angle and the like. I also am now used ...
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Two questions about Feynman propagator

Taking for example the meson propagator: $$ \Delta_F (x-y) = \int \frac{d^4k}{(2\pi)^4} \frac{e^{-ik(x-y)}}{k^2 - m^2 + i\epsilon}. $$ It describes a meson that propagate from a point of Minkowski ...
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$U(1)$ local gauge invariance in QED [duplicate]

While constructing Lagrangian of QED, we don't add the mass term for photon $\dfrac{1}{2} m^{2}A_{\mu}A^{\mu}$ because gauge invariance does not allow. I want to ask, whether "$\bf{Theoretically}$", ...
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Observing a photon during flight

When I was reading about the double-slit experiment in quantum mechanics, everything seems to make sense in terms of the waves and the interference pattern, but if thinking more about this observation,...
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Does a charged particle propagating in free space have a 'self-energy' like term due to it’s interaction with the fluctuations of the quantum vacuum? [closed]

Does a charged particle propagating in free space have a 'self-energy' like term due to it’s interaction with the fluctuations of the quantum vacuum? (particle-antiparticle pairs popping into and out ...
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What's actually going on when light interacts with matter?

There are many different theories but all of them fail to explain all 3 phenomena of light(absorption,emission,transmission). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CiHN0ZWE5bk https://www.youtube.com/...
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Electromagnetic wave and quantum mechanics [duplicate]

I'm very new to physics. I studied and read about quantum mechanics and what the assumptions are (wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, observation, wave function collapse, etc.), but I also ...
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Why photons reflect off glass?

Why photon reflects and refracts through glass? Some photons pass through glass and some reflects.I know this is due to energy levels of electrons of glass, an incoming photon is unable to excite the ...
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Ramsey pulse versus optical pumping: what's the difference?

A Ramsey pulse is a coherent process, where the electronic states of for example an ion (or some other two-level-system) are coupled to a laser field. By tuning the laser precisely, we can coherently ...
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How do you visualize a quantized electromagnetic field?

Quantizing the EM field gives you the standard sum of all quantum harmonic oscillators as given by this hamiltonian: $$ \hat{H} = \sum_k \hbar\omega_k( \hat{a}^\dagger_k \hat{a}_k + 1/2) $$ ...
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What is the 2-point correlation function of the electron field in QED?

The Feynman propagator for the free electron field is the Fourier transform w.r.t. $y$ of the time-ordered 2-point VEV $\left<0\right|\mathcal{T}[\hat\psi(x)\hat\psi(x+y)]\left|0\right>$, taking ...
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What actually happens when light meets a surface(QED or QM or Condensed matter physics)?

I want to know what actually happens when light meets a surface like water or wood. Quantum mechanics says that objects are neither "transparent" nor "opaque". Rather a system as a whole can accept "...
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How is the EM force exchanged over long distances?

The Situation Imagine we place two charged objects a very far distance apart, essentially making them point charges. How does the EM force interact between the two point charges if virtual photons ...
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How to choose the proper loop correction?

I review my QFT lecture notes and I am having hard times to figure out the significance of Ward identity in vacuum polarization. In class, we calculated one loop correction stated as $$ i\Pi^{\mu\...
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Can a photon get emitted without a receiver?

It is generally agreed upon that electromagnetic waves from an emitter does not have to connect to a receiver, but how can we be sure this is a fact? The problem is that we can never observe non ...
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How Ward Identity indicate vacuum polarization correction?

In Peskin & Schroeder Chapter 7.5 Renormalization of The Electric Charge, they mention that vacuum polarization correction is $$ iM= (-ie)^2(-1)\int_{}{}\frac{d^4k} {(2\pi)^4}Tr\bigg[\gamma^{\mu}\...
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Aren't $\phi^4$ composite operators?

I have this trouble with terminology. I wonder why authors introduce the concept of composite operators after they've already talked about eg phi four theory, it phi cubed. Aren't these operators ...
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QED and anomaly

I've just started to learn anomalies in quantum field theories. I have a question. How to show that QED is free from vector current anomaly and what would happen if it were not? In other words, how ...
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Propagation speed of photons when taking higher-order QFT corrections into account

In our group of experimental physicist who have nothing to do with and know very little about quantum field theory, we recently had a question concerning the propagation speed of photons in vacuum: ...
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Can QED explain this or do I have revert to the classical model of light?

I want to know can QED can explain this image,like why there are someplaces with low light (shadows) like behind the chair, and why there are some places that are bright(rest of the floor). I know ...
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Photon's behavior from 1-dimensional realm to 3-dimensional realm

I know that photon's behavior can be fully analyzed (or at least a solid theoretical explanation is present, see molecular QED book) when the photon is emitted and absorbed by same dimensional ...
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The exchange of photons gives rise to the electromagnetic force

Pardon me for my stubborn classical/semiclassical brain. But I bet I am not the only one finding such description confusing. If EM force is caused by the exchange of photons, does that mean only when ...
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Invariance of the QED Lagrangian under charge conjugation

Is it true that the QED Lagrangian $$\mathcal{L} = \bar{\psi}(i\gamma^\mu D_\mu-m) \psi $$ is invariant under charge conjugation? $$\begin{align} \psi &\mapsto -i(\gamma^0 \gamma^2 \psi)^T\\ \...
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Photon polarization sum prescription in $e^-e^+\to{}2\gamma$

In calculating the amplitude for the process $e^-\gamma\to{}e^-\gamma$ the substitution $\sum\epsilon_{\mu}\epsilon^*_{\nu}\to-\eta_{\mu\nu}$ is useful to sum over photon polarizations. If we ...
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What is $\mathcal{N}=2$ QED?

I would like to know is $\mathcal{N}=2$ QED is simply a $\mathcal{N}=2$ theory with gauge group $U(1)$ like in normal QED? If not, exactly what theory is it? Is there some reference for it?
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Can photons travel faster than $c$? (Feynman Lectures)

I apologise for the very non-technical nature of this question. I am new to QED and perhaps am interpreting things in the wrong way, but I'll ask anyway, and hopefully someone can provide a non-...
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Quantising the magnetic monopoles the make Maxwell symmetric

I don't believe this has already been asked, but I might be wrong; sorry. One can add a magnetic charge density/magnetic monopoles to Maxwell's equations to make the theory symmetric between the ...
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QED renormalization: mass and dirac field

Why the mass renormalization $Z_m$ and the field renormalization $Z_\psi$ in QED (MS-renormalized) does not contribute to the beta function computation? From Ward identity, I know that $Z_A=Z_e^{-1}$, ...
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What happens to theoretical physics if a photon has non-zero mass?

I want to know the theoretical implication if photons have a non-zero mass. What happens to the Maxwell equations? What happens to QFT? If the photon have mass it can decade?
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Conservation of energy and momentum in photoelectric effect

Sometimes it is shown that in a Compton scattering it is not possible that the photon transfers all it's momentum and energy to the electron, see for example here: If one assumes complete energy and ...
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Phase on Aharonov-Bohm effect doubts

How I show that $$\Lambda(\textbf{x}')=\frac{q}{\hbar}\int \mathbf{A} \cdot d\mathbf{x'}$$ on $$ \tilde{\psi}(\textbf{x}',t)=e^{[\frac{iq\Lambda(\textbf{x}')}{\hbar c}]}\psi(\textbf{x}',t)$$ for ...
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Compton Scattering Feynman diagram integral expression

I'm trying to write down the integral expression according to the feynman-rules for this Diagram of an electron with compton scattering and a one-loop correction: ![Compton Scattering][1] $$(-ie)^4\...
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How does the Gordon Decomposition of Dirac Current give rise to spin angular momentum?

How does the Gordon Decomposition of Dirac Current give rise to spin angular momentum? I used the Gordon Decomposition to split the Probability Current of the Dirac Field into its orbital current and ...
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Current density defined by the scattering operator

I have a problem with the definition of the current density. In most literature it is defined as $j^\mu=\frac{i}{2}(S^*\frac{\partial S(A)}{\partial A_\mu(x)})$. I understand that normally we use ...
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Do virtual photons have a frequency?

Real photons do have frequencies, which is directly related to its energy. So, can virtual photons that take part in EM interactions have frequencies too? When my hand is pressed up against a glass ...
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How does the electric field operator change inside an optical cavity

In the free field, transverse electric field operator is given by the below expression; $$d^{\bot}(R)=i \sum_{p,\lambda}\Big( \frac{\hbar cq}{2V\epsilon_{0}}\Big)^{1/2} \{e^{(\lambda)}(p)a^{(\lambda)}...
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Occurance and disappearance of degeneneracies in a periodic structure of (quantum) LC circuits

Introductory part I'm currently studying an analytical model of coupled LC circuits, in preparation for actually performing measurements on such structures. While the final goal will struggle with a ...
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Photon emission/absorption by an atom and local gauge invariance

I understand that the local gauge invariance leads to a photon emission/absorption when the phase of an electron field is changed while the amplitude being unchanged. I'd like to know whether this ...
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Are electron fields and photon fields part of the same field in QED?

I know in classical field theory we have the electromagnetic field. And Maxwell's equations show how electromagnetic radiation can propagate through empty space. I also have been reading about QED ...
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How is the path integral for light explained, or how does it arise?

In a Phys.SE question titled How are classical optics phenomena explained in QED (Snell's law)? Marek talked about the probability amplitude for photons of a given path. He said that it was $\exp(iKL)$...
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Why does accelerating electron emits photons? [duplicate]

I have read that accelerating or oscillating electron emits photons. But why and how does it so? And why only photons? There are other bosons like gluons, W and Z bosons, so why does electron emit ...
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Electromagnetic reaction force?

The classical (retarded) Lienard-Wiechert scalar and vector potentials describe the electromagnetic field due to an arbitrarily moving electric point charge. Thus given the motion of electron $A$ one ...
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Using photons to explain electrostatic force

I am trying to understand the idea of a force carrier with the following example. Let's say there are two charges $A$ and $B$ that are a fixed distance from each other. What is causing the force on $...
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If proton spin emergence from quarks and gluons is mysterious, why is silver atom spin not?

A recent Scientific American article brought up an old issue, which is this: According to quantum chromodynamic models, the emergence of exactly 1/2 unit of spin in a proton (or a neutron, or any ...
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Why is a transmon a charge qubit?

The classic charge qubit is the cooper pair box which is a capacitor in series with a Josephson junction. In my understanding, by changing the gate voltage at the capacitor, one can create a ...