Quantum-ChromoDynamics (QCD) is the quantum field theory believed to describe the strong nuclear force.

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From which dimensionful constants does proton mass arise?

It is well known that the most of the proton (or any other hadron with light quarks) mass is not made up from quark masses, but it is dynamically generated by QCD mess inside. I've also heard that, ...
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Different ways of derivation of Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula

Recently my teacher have told me that there are many ways of derivation of Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula by using group representation theory (by using dynamical group etc). Where can I read about ...
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Strong CP Problem

So, as far as I know, the Strong CP Problem in QCD results from the theta angle term in the action: $i\theta\int_X F_\nabla\wedge F_\nabla$ where $\nabla$ is the gauge connection and $X$ is a manifold ...
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Has confinement been experimentally observed? [closed]

So, confinement has obviously been shown by lattice gauge theory to be a predicted aspect of QCD. However, to what extent has it been observed in experimental physics?
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Simplify QCD Lagrangian

How we can derive the electric charge of the field theory for each field? For example lets say that we have the u-quarks (3-colors) and electron that we know that has charge -e) free Lagrangian ...
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33 views

Why are the dineutron and diproton unbound?

It is known that there is no diproton and dineutron nuclei. Does this mean that two protons or neutrons are not actually attracted to each other? Even if the attraction was weak, wouldn't it cause ...
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Infrared divergences in QCD

As we know, we can remove infrared divergences by summing over all final states with arbitrary number of soft photons. But in QCD this does not work, since gluons are not "neutral" because they carry ...
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Charge conjugation matrix in baryon current

In his paper Calculation of baryon masses in quantum chromodynamics (ScienceDirect), B.L. Ioffe considers currents describing baryons. In equation (13) he gives an interpolating current for the isobar ...
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Measure of interaction of two quarks and Casimir operators [closed]

Let's have two quarks, which refers to representations of $r_{1}$ and $r_{2}$ of color symmetry group. They create bounded state which refers to the representation $r$. There is a statement that ...
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Uncharged Gluon Representation

I'm currently learning for an exam and in an old exam the question was posed: If Gluons were uncharged, under which representation would they transform? The ...
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Baryon in terms of quark fields – spinor index structure

What is the most general way to write down a current describing a baryon made from quarks $\psi_i^\alpha$? Let's say we suppress flavour indices but want to write colour $(i,j)$ as well as spinor ...
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45 views

How do we know that nuclear physics corresponds to low energy QCD?

One often hears the phrase "most of nuclear physics is in the low energy regime of QCD, where strong coupling constant is large ...", with the following diagram being invoked: How does one know ...
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Origin of quark masses

Does all the mass of the quarks in the standard model come from the Higgs sector or is there also a contribution to quark masses due to QCD chiral symmetry breaking?
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108 views

Dilaton field and Scale symmetry breaking

I have read at some places that a dilaton field is associated with the spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry in a theory. (While others would be difficult to trace right now, the most easily ...
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Cronin enhancement in p-A collisions

What is the physical picture behind Cronin enhancement in proton-nucleus collisions at intermediate transverse momentum?
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37 views

Simultanously HOT and DENSE in QCD?

Take this form of the QCD Phase Diagram for example: This baryon density is a number density - i.e. number of baryons in some volume. Why are baryon density and temperature regarded as ...
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Intuitive explanation of how hadron mass emerges from the strong force

I'm not familiar with QCD, but I'm looking for intuitive explanation of this phenomenon (it could be that easy explanation does not exist). What I've read is that large part of hadron masses arises ...
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81 views

Relationship between plasma physics and quark gluon plasma

To what extent do the ideas common in modern plasma physics, such as magnetohydrodynamics, cold plasma models, common types of plasma waves, Maxwell's Equations, etc, relate to the study of quark ...
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67 views

Asymptotic freedom in QCD

From renormalization group equation $$ t \frac{d \bar{g}(t , g)}{dt} = \beta (\bar{g}(t , g)), \quad \bar{g}(1 , g) = g $$ (here $t$ is momentum scale factor, $g$ is initial coupling constant and ...
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How does the gluino change the strong force?

Given that the gluino is in the same representation of SU(3) that the gluon and so the same kind of interaction vertexes with quarks, I guess that it could have a role in the strong force. But there ...
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Construction of Bound states in Lattice QCD

How the proton state is found and renormalized in lattice QCD? Is there any literature shows the method step by step? What about other bound states in QCD if we somehow know their quantum numbers?
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A Variation on Laplace's equation (context: Yang-Mills N-Instantons, Rajaraman's book)

Statement of the problem I need to solve the equation \begin{align} 0 = \frac{1}{\phi} \partial_{\sigma}\partial_{\sigma} \phi \hspace{20mm} (1) \end{align} where $\phi$ is a scalar field and ...
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59 views

Large wavelength limit of gluons

Does there exist a classical limit of QCD? I mean in the sense of wave particle duality of eg photons. Is there any similar thing for gluons?
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219 views

Deriving Feynman rules from a Lagrangian for vertex factors for “more complicated” interactions

I am trying to derive Feynman rules from a given Lagrangian and I got stuck on some vertex factors. What for example is the vertex factor that corresponds to the four-scalar interaction that is ...
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263 views

The Gluon - Does It Exhibit Wave Properties?

Do Gluons have frequencies and wavelengths? I assume that they do, but have been unable to find anything on point in SE or Wikipedia. Just beginning to study university-level physics here.
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What is anti-screening?

In his book "The Lightness of Being" Frank Wilczek (page 48) writes about screening and anti-screening. In screening, a bare charge attracts virtual particles of opposite charge which lessen the ...
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If virtual particles have negative mass why do they contribute positive mass to atoms?

According to Lawrence Krauss, atoms containing in our body consists of merely 10% (if I remember correctly) of our total mass. The rest come from virtual particles popping in and out of existence from ...
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How can we see that there is superconductivity/superfluidity in the boundary theory in the holographic principle?

For example in the models for holographic superconductors we can calculate the conductivity. Also there is an energy gap. I can understand that it describes a superconductor. However I have also heard ...
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Can quarks of different colors annihilate?

Wikipedia: "Antiparticles have exactly opposite additive quantum numbers from particles, so the sums of all quantum numbers of the original pair are zero." Is it possible to annihilate a ...
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How can a detector distinguish between a photon and a gluon

Considering that both gluons and photons have no mass, no charge and spin 1, I was wondering how one can tell the difference, if they hit a detector after a collision at the LHC. I know that gluons ...
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Is Gravity a part of the Strong Nuclear Force? [duplicate]

In episode 7 season 5 of Through the Wormhole, they say that gravity could just be a manifestation of the strong nuclear force and that the force carrier are a pair of Gluons. Is this valid in anyway? ...
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Could the universe have non-vanishing net colour charge?

I've heard that the strong force doesn't decrease in strength with increasing distance, and that's why quarks must be confined within hadrons. But could there be, say, a single quark out there, so ...
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How non-abelian gauge coupling runs below confinement or QCD scale?

I know the famous beta function of asymptotic free, but that seems describe the running coupling beyond confinement/QCD scale so that a perturbative analysis can apply. But how coupling runs below ...
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Color-charge conservation in proton decay

In some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics (Supersymmetry with R-parity violation being a prominent example), the proton is allowed to decay, e.g. via $p\to e^+\pi^0$: While this ...
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The ridge at LHC

One of the results obtained by LHC is the following diagram for p-Pb collisions: I would like to understand what is actually depicted in the figure, what should we expect based on theoretical ...
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Generalization of relation between charge and magnetic moment

In classical theory, for electrons or protons, charge and angular momentum combine to give the magnetic moment. Does a similar consequence hold for the generalization of charge to other forces, like ...
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69 views

Is this a photograph of Surface Plasmon Resonance?

Does this photograph depict surface plasmon resonance? PHOTO 1 - Ellipsometric style photograph produces blue-green and purple resonance waves from nanogold-like tubule. PHOTO 1 was cropped from ...
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Potential of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson

Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons appear in breaking approximate symmetries, for instance, the QCD axions. Many literatures just write the action of those pseudoscalars without any explanation. In ...
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From $U(3)$ to $SU(3)\times U(1)$ Color symmetry. There is a “gluon” photon-like?

Suppose that $U(3)$ was the gauge group. We can decompose this as $U(3)=U(1)\times SU(3)$, which implies that in addition to the $SU(3)$ that has eight generators corresponding to eight gluons, there ...
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Why $SU(3)$ and not $U(3)$?

Is there a good reason not to pick $U(3)$ as the colour group? Is there any experiment or intrinsic reason that would ruled out $U(3)$ as colour group instead?
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Semileptonic decays of the $B_c$ meson

I am struggling with calculating the exclusive semileptonic $B_c^+\rightarrow J/\psi l^+\nu_l$ decay. I learnt that the amplitude is given by a product of the leptonic current $L^{\mu}$ and the ...
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What does it mean that there is no mathematical proof for confinement?

I see this all the time* that there still doesn't exist a mathematical proof for confinement. What does this really mean and how would a sketch of a proof look like? What I mean by that second ...
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The relation between classical and quantum vacua

First let me clarify what I mean by vacuum. Suppose we are concerned with a theory of fields $\phi ^i$ defined on a stationary globally hyperbolic spacetime $M$ (I want the spacetime to be stationary ...
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Why are the 'color-neutral' gluons confined?

What makes the two 'color-neutral' gluons $(r\bar r−b\bar b)/\sqrt2$ and $(r\bar r+b\bar b −2g\bar g )/\sqrt6$ different from the pure $r\bar r +b\bar b +g\bar g $ ? Why don't they result in long ...
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quarks annihilation process

I am appreciating particle physics and I read about mesons. In quark's model, mesons are pairs of quark-antiquark. Now I think that in general matter-antimatter annihilate and so I don't understand ...
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Reasons for choosing $SU(3)$ as the color group vs. $SO(4)$

What are the reasons that $SU(3)$ is used for QCD? Why wouldn't the simpler & smaller group $SO(4)$ make a better candidate?
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Experimental evidence for color-neutral gluons $( (r\bar{r}−b\bar{b})$ and $(r\bar{r}+b\bar{b}−2g\bar{g}) )$

Is there any experiment/measurement that would have a different outcome if one of the following scenarios is applied: The two color-neutral** gluons would not exist Those gluons would have very ...
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127 views

NRQCD: Why are quarks and anti-quarks treated independently?

I am studying these lectures on effective field theories and I am having some problems to understand how the Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) Lagrangian is constructed. This theory is often used to ...
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Why does strong interaction increase with distance?

I read numerous times that strong interaction increases with distance. But how can one actually derive the force-distance relation from the lagrangian (quark field + gluon field + gauge coupling)? ...
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Seiberg Duality Applications

I am interested in why people are interested in Seiberg duality? Can it be used for something? Does it (or may it) correspond to any 'real world' physics? I don't have enough background to understand ...