What constitutes protons? When I see pictures, I can't understand. Protons are made of quarks, but some say that they are made of 99% empty space. Also, in this illustration from Wikipedia, what's ...
Inside a single proton for example, what is the force(s) that keeps the quarks together? Why don't they leave the proton? If they do, how does that even happen? And maybe an additional sub question: ...
I have a proton, how do I know that it is made of 2 up quarks and 1 down quark or if it is made of 3 anti-down quarks, each with different color charges? This question is also applicable to the ...
If quarks had internal structure (contradicting current beliefs), what is the lowest upper bound on their "radius" based on current experimental results? If possible, I'd prefer to only consider ...
What is the explanation between equality of proton and electron charges (up to a sign)? This is connected to the gauge invariance and renormalization of charge is connected to the renormalization of ...
I believe the quarks would flip the proton's internal charge, reverse the spin of the proton, transform into another flavor, and then become unconfined and free.