A proton is a positively charged particle which is generally considered to be a composite particle comprising of three quarks interacting through the strong force (e.g. in the standard model.)

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Where does the majority of the mass of the usual matter come from? [duplicate]

I apologize in advance to experts for the naivety of the question. It should be a duplicate but I didn't find any satifying question or answer about that. The proton is composed by two up quarks ...
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1answer
31 views

Proton-Uranium collision

I am looking for references or numbers regarding what happens when one bombards Uranium with Protons. In particular: How to calculate how often does a collision occurs? Can a collision lead to a ...
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3answers
305 views

How does the number of electrons and protons determine the melting point and hardness of a solid?

How does the number of electrons, neutrons and protons determine the melting point and hardness of a solid/metal? And is it possible to create custom elements which is very strong and have very high ...
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1answer
32 views

Are all ground state protons the exact same mass and have the same number of elementary particles?

I have read that it is a misconception that a proton only has 3 quarks (2 up and one down). In reality, it seems there are many, many ("zillions" is the number I saw quoted) quarks in a proton. Do ...
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1answer
25 views

Faraday's Law: Current loop and proton

A single circular loop of wire with radius R carries a large clockwise current I(loop)=I0, which constrains a proton of mass M and charge e to travel in a small circle of radius r at constant speed ...
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1answer
28 views

Is it possible to make use of the gluon field's energy to use is applications?

As we know most of the mass of the proton comes from the energy caused due to the interactions of the quarks with the gluon fields (reference link of this statement ...
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1answer
66 views

Ratio of electrons and protons in Universe

What is the relation between amount of electrons and protons in Universe? I expect that the Universe should not be charged, so the estimation is 1:1. But then, why there should be the same amount of ...
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2answers
165 views

Binding energy of Helium and repulsion of protons

I've just done an exercise of computing the binding energy of Helium 4, which is around 27,43 MeV. Obviously the binding energy "compensates" for the repulsion between the protons due to their ...
2
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1answer
32 views

Proton creation [closed]

My question is simple: if proton antiproton pairs can be created in the laboratory (given certain energies) then they should also be able to be created in the universe at any time, not only during ...
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1answer
71 views

Altarelli-Parisi Splitting Function $P_{qq}(z)$ vanishing integral if and only if quark flavour sum rules and equivalence

Question 1: I believe both questions are in the context of Deep Inelastic Scattering. I've been given the expression for $F_{2}^{ep}(x)=(\frac{2}{3})^2[u(x)+\bar{u}(x)] +(\frac{1}{3})^2[d(x) + ...
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1answer
44 views

Electricity should deform the conductor then why doesn't it?

In electric current both negative particles and positive particles flow but in opposite directions. So why doesn't the conductor's shape deform because its particles are moving here and there? OR is ...
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1answer
56 views

Definition of charges

We say that a body is negatively charged when it has excess electrons otherwise say positively or uncharged. We also say that electrons are negatively charged. By the above statement, it has more ...
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2answers
83 views

Dose-depth curve of photons vs. protons

The dose-depth curve of protons and photons can be seen in the image below: Now, what I've heard is, that in some cases, proton therapy is advantageous compared to photons, and of course the other ...
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1answer
39 views

How long remains a boron control rod?

I was wondering today, how long boron control rods remains in a nuclear power plant? When a boron atom absorbs two neutrons, it becomes the unstable isotope boron-12 and and the boron nuclei starts ...
2
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2answers
65 views

Why are the neutron and proton masses nearly equal? [duplicate]

The neutron to proton mass ratio is nearly one. Is there some fundamental reason from this or this simply a coincidence?
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1answer
35 views

Hard processes in particle collisions

This is in reference to a MC generator called Pythia, but has wider applicability because the phrases are used widely in particle phyiscs, even though I have not managed to find a clear, ...
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2answers
143 views

What would happen if two protons collide?

I am an High School student just curious about Physics. Im am planning to study it at University, but for now my knowledge is clearly very poor and non technical. I was thinking...what would happen ...
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5answers
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What enables protons to give new properties to an atom every time one is added?

How does adding one more particle to the nucleus of an atom give that atom new properties? I can see how it changes it's mass, that's obvious... But how does it give that new atom different properties ...
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1answer
31 views

Modelling ions hitting a grid

I want to model the capture of ions by a negatively charged grid made of some proton conductor material like graphene oxide. Are ions captured as soon as they cross the surface, or do they have some ...
3
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1answer
100 views

From which dimensionful constants does proton mass arise?

It is well known that the most of the proton (or any other hadron with light quarks) mass is not made up from quark masses, but it is dynamically generated by QCD mess inside. I've also heard that, ...
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1answer
37 views

Is there any Violation of conservation of mass in positron emission?

In positron emission, a proton decays into a neutron, electron, and neutrino. Since the mass of a proton is less than that of a neutron, does that mean that energy is converted into mass in the ...
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1answer
123 views

Right Hand Rule for Proton Magnetic Field

I thought that right hand rule was for find the magnetic field generated by a current, where your thumb point in direction of the current. However, I was watching something that said we can curl our ...
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2answers
61 views

Charged particle singularity

Is it possible to manipulate magnetic/electric fields, similar to magnetic confinement technologies/penning traps, to compress charged particles into black holes?
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1answer
139 views

If protons and electrons had similar masses

If electrons and protons had the same mass, would they still be in a stable orbit around their barycenter, or would they eventually collide? Similarly, a positronium(or protonium) only lasts extremely ...
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4answers
155 views

Can neutrons be synthesized purely from protons and electrons?

Can neutrons be synthesized purely from protons and electrons? Note: I'm looking for reactions that do not require neutrinos or any particles besides just protons and/or electrons as reactants.
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0answers
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Are the electric charges of an electron and a proton equal or approximately equal? [duplicate]

I read in Auletta's quantum mechanics (section 11.2) that the charge of the proton is, apart from the sign, approximately equal to that of the electron.. What ...
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1answer
18 views

Construction of Bound states in Lattice QCD

How the proton state is found and renormalized in lattice QCD? Is there any literature shows the method step by step? What about other bound states in QCD if we somehow know their quantum numbers?
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1answer
57 views

Spinor normalizations in Breit-frame: electric and magnetic form factors

We usually have the normalization (see e.g. page 110 in Halzen & Martin "Quarks and Leptons") $$u^{(r)\dagger}u^{(s)} = 2E\delta_{rs}$$ which leads to $${\bar{u}^{(s)}}u^{(s)} = 2m. $$ ...
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59 views

Formation of atoms [closed]

If a Proton goes toward an Electron with a trajectory that forms a circular motion, these particles will form an atom ?
3
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1answer
160 views

What is meant by Proton Structure Function?

I am going to embark on a project involving deep-inelastic scattering but first I am trying to do some really basic background reading to get me up to task. My only background in particle physics is ...
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0answers
200 views

Why is free neutron unstable but free proton is stable?

Aren't they basically made up of the same stuffs (quarks) in almost the same configuration?
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2answers
818 views

Electrons in Rutherford's gold foil experiment

I have been reading a chapter in my physics text. In it there is Rutherford's gold foil experiment. There it is written that doubly charged helium particles (alpha particles) were projected onto very ...
15
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4answers
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What is charge? [duplicate]

I know this isn't the right place for asking this question, but in other places the answers are so awfull.. I'm studying eletricity, so, I start seeing things like "charges", "electrons has negative ...
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1answer
180 views

Calculate speed of proton at infinity [closed]

I have this problem to solve: Two protons are on the x axis at x=-1 and x=0. An alpha particle is placed at x=2, and the proton on the left is released, find its speed at infinity. I know that this ...
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1answer
42 views

Proton gas density

As far as I know the lightest gas is hydrogen due to low mass of its nucleus, but what if we were to somehow strip hydrogen atoms of electrons and enclose protons in a container made of teflon (high ...
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0answers
24 views

How does beta+ decay actually occur? [duplicate]

I'm having difficulty in understanding beta plus decay. How can a proton which has slightly less mass than neutron transform into a neutron, positron and neutrino? Form where does the extra mass for ...
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2answers
237 views

Are there new states of matter at ultrahigh temperatures and densities?

Under extreme energetic conditions, matter undergoes a series of transitions, and atoms break down into their smallest constituent parts. Those parts are elementary particles called quarks and ...
3
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2answers
158 views

How can we get the mass of an uncharged proton?

How can we get the mass of an uncharged proton, i.e. how varies the mass of the charged proton if i remove the electric charge? For the isotopic spin theory neutron and proton have the same mass and ...
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0answers
74 views

Why do electrons and protons attract each other? [duplicate]

In the end, are they not a condensed form of energy? I want the 'Why' to go as far as it takes. Where it ends? What are the constituents of the electron and proton, that make them attract each ...
0
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1answer
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Why is the charge on protons == to charge on electrons? [duplicate]

I am not a expert on physics, just another high schooler, so sorry if the question is obvious. This is something I've been wondering about for a while. Why is the charge on a proton equal but ...
2
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1answer
526 views

Is a free proton a positive Hydrogen-1 ion?

The Hydrogen-1 isotope is a form of hydrogen with 1 electron, 1 proton, and 0 neutrons. If that isotope were to lose its electron (thus being a Hydrogen-1 ion with a positive charge) what would be ...
9
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2answers
283 views

The life of proton

I have two questions regarding protons 1) Wikipedia says Mean lifetime of a proton $>2.1×10^{29}$ years (stable) Obviously this means practically nothing happens to a proton, but what does ...
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1answer
199 views

Charge of electrons and protons

I have a question which reads: "A conductor has a charge of $9.6 * (10)^{-19}$ coulomb. The conductor will have- " The problem I face in this question is due to not knowing the exact value of ...
0
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2answers
103 views

Ionizing an atom with a proton

What happens when a proton collide with an atom? How does the ionization occurs, assuming the proton has enough kinetic energy? How much energy is required for the proton to enter the atomic nucleus, ...
5
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3answers
779 views

Why is a proton assumed to be always at the center while applying the Schrödinger equation?

Why is a proton assumed to be always at the center while applying the Schrödinger equation? Isn't it a quantum particle?
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1answer
169 views

How can one calculate the gamma-ray energy spectrum for proton-proton collisions?

How does one calculate the the energy spectrum of gamma-rays produced by a proton-proton collision? I'm at a complete loss.
62
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8answers
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What's inside a proton?

What constitutes protons? When I see pictures, I can't understand. Protons are made of quarks, but some say that they are made of 99% empty space. Also, in this illustration from Wikipedia, what's ...
1
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1answer
269 views

What makes the quarks stay inside the proton?

Inside a single proton for example, what is the force(s) that keeps the quarks together? Why don't they leave the proton? If they do, how does that even happen? And maybe an additional sub question: ...
5
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1answer
251 views

What are the strongest sources of collimated neutrons and protons?

I am imagining an unusual experiment which will require intense beams of either protons or neutrons. The experiment would work better with neutrons, but neutron sources are much weaker messier so I ...
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2answers
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How do I know the proton isn't made of 3 anti-down quarks?

I have a proton, how do I know that it is made of 2 up quarks and 1 down quark or if it is made of 3 anti-down quarks, each with different color charges? This question is also applicable to the ...