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1answer
59 views

Name of battery voltage when load connected/disconnected

If I had a 3V battery, and when no load connected it reads 3.2V, and with a load 2.8V (just a hypothetical example), what is the name for these two terms, with a load or no load? I know the voltage ...
0
votes
2answers
45 views

Is electric potential a form of potential energy?

As I understand it, the concept of potential energy arises from analytical mechanics. Yet I often see the concept of electric potential $\phi$ introduced without mention of analytical mechanics. For ...
4
votes
3answers
5k views

Force as gradient of scalar potential energy

My text book reads If a particle is acted upon by the forces which are conservative; that is, if the forces are derivable from a scalar potential energy function in manner $ F=-\nabla V $. I ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Induced potential in a metal

My problem is as follows: A metal whose response is determined by the Thomas-Fermi equation: $(\nabla^{2}-\lambda^{2})V(r)=0 $ , occupies the $z<0 $ infinite half-space: show that the general form ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Deriving Voltage from Electric Field

I'm trying to derive the point charge equation for voltage by integrating the point charge equation for an electric field over distance ($dr$) traversed:$ \int (KQ/r^2)\cdot dr$ This is my ...
1
vote
2answers
96 views

Need of vector potential in quantum mechanics

I need your opinions. Why is the vector potential of a magnetic field important (or even necessary) to quantum mechanics? Why it has to be defined everywhere? Is there any fundamental reason you can ...
1
vote
1answer
5k views

Direction of Potential Gradient & Electric field

Potential gradient is the negative of the electric field. Does the negative (here) means that its direction is opposite to electric field? If it does mean this, How is the direction of the potential ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Allowed energies for semi-harmonic oscillator

Question: If a particle is attached to a semi-harmonic oscillator (that is, for example, the spring is stretchable but not compressible) such that the potential $V(x)$ is infinity for $x\leq0$ and ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Is the Gibbs-Duhem equation always valid?

The derivation of the Gibbs-Duhem equation from Wikpedia uses: As shown in the Gibbs free energy article, the chemical potential is just another name for the partial molar (or just partial, ...
0
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1answer
18 views

Capacitance per unit charge of three long rods, two of which are connected

Suppose we have three very long rods, each with diameter $a$, placed so that their "centers" form an equilateral triangle, with sided of length $d$. Two of the wires are connected with a thin wire ( ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

How the electric potential of a charged body depends on the surface area of the body?

I have studied in the book that electric potential of a body depend on the surface area of the body, that is as the surface area increases potential decreases keeping the charge as constant and vice ...
0
votes
1answer
240 views

Integers, Energy levels, and wavenumbers for a particle in a 2D box

(This question is not about coding) I have built a little code in Python that allows the user to plot the energy vs the wave number of particle in a 2D box, depending on what values for the integers ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Low-momentum behaviour of a short-range potential

I've read the follow sentence in a journal article (arXiv preprint) which constitutes part of my coursework. As discussed in the previous section, the low-momentum behavior of any short-range ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Introducing cut-off in a renormalisation procedure for quantum mechanics

I've been reading a paper on renormalisation theory as applied to a simple one-particle Coulombic system with a short-range potential. In the process of renormalisation, the authors introduce an ...
0
votes
3answers
94 views

The potentiality of the electric field

Could you please explain using just words why electric the field is potentially? I know the proof using integral: $$A = \int_{12}q\vec{E}\cdot{d}\vec{r} = qQ\int_{12}\frac{\vec{r}\cdot{d}\vec{r}}{r^3} ...
3
votes
1answer
159 views

In a positively biased PN junction, where do the injection carriers come from?

I am not quite understand i-v character of PN-junction diode. Here is the model in textbook. The PN junction diode can be divided into three regions. They are One depletion region near the PN ...
0
votes
1answer
120 views

Is there a surface charge density?

Consider a dielectric sphere placed within a dielctric medium. There is a uniform electric field $E_0$ present throughout in the medium. Would there be surface charge on the sphere?
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Pn junction voltage drop?

This image from wikipedia, explains that there occurs a potential drop across a pn semiconductor junction, and an electric field confined to the depletion region. I already know the reason for the ...
10
votes
6answers
640 views

Gibbs free energy intuition

What is Gibbs free energy? As my book explains: Gibbs energy is the energy of a system available for work. So, what does it want to tell? Why is it free? Energy means ability to do work. What is ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Scattering from a potential, matrix elements of momentum eigenstates, and the Fourier transform [closed]

I am working on my last quantum homework and don't know where to begin with part (i) in this question 4. Do I need to use a product rule in the FT and use convolution? Not sure how to go about the ...
2
votes
0answers
49 views

Estimate of the second shallowest bound state?

Suppose we have a 1D potential $V(x)$ of finite range, i.e., $$ V(x) ~=~0 $$ for $|x| > b $. The potential is assume to support at least two bound states, but might have more, say $n\geq 2$. ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Introductory Quantum, trouble with this boundary condition and potential

Working on problem 2.40 from Griffiths but can't seem to understand the first boundary condition. We are given the potential $V(x) = \left\{\begin{matrix} \infty & x < 0\\ ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Finding the potential between two spherical shells [closed]

How to find the potential in region $a<r<b$ I know that the general solution for Laplace's equation is $$V(r,\theta)=\sum_{l=0} \left[A_l r^l +\frac{B_l}{r^{l+1}} \right]P_l(\cos{\theta}).$$ ...
3
votes
1answer
132 views

1D Finite potential well: solutions with $\sinh$ and $\cosh$?

So I am studying the (one dimensional) quantum mechanical finite potential well defined by: $$ V(x) = \cases{0, &|x|>a\cr -V_0, &|x|<a} $$ where $V_0>0$ is a real number. I know ...
4
votes
0answers
1k views

Solution for the Finite 2D Potential Well - Rotational Symmetry [closed]

I was searching for the eigensolutions of the two-dimensional Schrödinger equation $$\mathrm{i}\hbar \partial_t \mid \psi \rangle = \frac{\mathbf{p}^2}{2m_e}\mid \psi \rangle + V \mid \psi ...
1
vote
2answers
60 views

Semiclassical quantization of bouncing ball

Consider an elastically bouncing ball of mass $m$ and energy $E$. This has a triangular potential $$ V(x)~=~\left\{\begin{array}{ll} mgx & \text{if } x>0, \\ \infty & \text{if } x<0, ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization for different potentials

Let's have Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization for one-dimensional case: $$ \int \limits_{a}^{b} p(x)dx ~=~ \pi \hbar (n + \nu ). $$ Here $p(x) = \sqrt{2m(E - U)}$, $a, b$ are turning points, and the area ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Electric Potential-can anyone give the concept behind this?

Three points A, B and C lie in a uniform electric field (E) of 5 x 103 NC-1 as shown in the figure. Find the potential difference between A and C. I think there is some trick? How can the pd ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Why are the dineutron and diproton unbound?

It is known that there is no diproton and dineutron nuclei. Does this mean that two protons or neutrons are not actually attracted to each other? Even if the attraction was weak, wouldn't it cause ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

What does it mean to charge a length of wire up to potential v?

I have to study the text "On the Theory of the Electric Telegraph," By William Thomson, 1855. I am having trouble gaining a conceptual understanding of the opening: "Let c be the electro-statical ...
3
votes
0answers
241 views

Child-Langmuir Space Charge Law for Non-Zero Cathode Potential (Non-Zero Initial Electron Velocity)

I'm trying to reconcile some conflicting results that I've found in publications that address the idea of the current in a vacuum diode in the case where the cathode has a non-zero potential, in other ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Potential Difference of a wire?

Imagine a circuit with only a 12 Volts battery and a wire connecting the ends of the battery. Point A and point B lies on the wire. What is then the potential difference between point A and B if the ...
0
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0answers
14 views

Tersoff parameters

I am studying the tersoff potential i am trying to understand the physical meaning for each parameters in this potential. The development of Tersoff potential is a little fuzzy (several articles). ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Ignoring constant potential energy

The reason why constant potential energy terms are dropped is because the derivative of a constant is zero. And since force is the gradient of potential energy, constant terms won't change what the ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

How to find an effective spring constant of a quadratic potential

If a potential energy is given like $U(r)=A^3/r^2+2B^3r$, how do I find the effective spring constant using Taylor Expansion? I compared spring constant $k$ to be equal to second derivative of ...
11
votes
3answers
396 views

Motivation for Potentials

This is a hypothetical question about "pedagogy". Let's say I am trying to take someone who has just a very small amount of knowledge about Newtonian mechanics and convince them that the Lagrangian ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Lagrangian of Non-Relativistic Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

I'm trying to derive the Lagrangian for a non-relativistic charged particle under the influence of a magnetic potential. I'm assuming that $F=-grad(V)$ and so by the Lorentz force we have $-grad(V)=q ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Solving of one dimensional potential sets [closed]

is a set of 1D potentials which i need more examples and their solutions containing transmitting states, bounded states, scattering states and coefficients. I searched with 1D potential ...
6
votes
4answers
340 views

Why the statement “there exist at least one bound state for negative potential” doesn't hold for 3D case?

Previously I thought this is a universal theorem, for one can prove it in the one dimensional case using variational principal. However, today I'm doing a homework considering a potential like ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Flow in the strip $0 < x < \pi/2$, $y > 0$ [closed]

Could anyone please explain how to show that a complex valued function represents a flow? For example, how does one show that $\Phi(z) = \sec^2 z$, where $z = x + iy$ with $x, y \in \mathbb{R}$, ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Electric field and potential between two charges [closed]

There are two point charges on the $x$ axis and $x'$ is a place where the potential, relative to infinity, is the biggest. Why is the electric field zero at this point?
-2
votes
3answers
80 views

Voltage in a parallel circuit [duplicate]

Why is voltage same across a parallel circuit? I mean what makes the voltage remain same across two resistors connected in parallel? If an electric heater is connected in parallel with a bulb and ...
4
votes
1answer
121 views

Quadrupole potential generation in Paul traps

I am currently getting familiar with the concept of the Paul trap and the underlying physical principles. I do understand what kind of potentials are needed to trap charged particles, e.g. for the 3D ...
-2
votes
1answer
82 views

Quantum mechanics: Finite square well problem

What will happen if the potential is less than 0, for instance $V(x)=-10eV$. Is this means there will be no bound states? Since solution to the time independent Schrodinger equation (those discrete ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Finding voltage between two points in space

If electric field vector is defines as : $\vec{E} = \frac{V_0x^2}{a^3} \vec{i_x} + \frac{V_0y}{a^2} \vec{i_y} $ where $V_0 $ and $a$ are known constants, $\vec{i_x}$ and $\vec{i_y}$ unit vectors of ...
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votes
5answers
887 views

Infinite Wells and Delta Functions

In considering a delta potential barrier in an infinite well, I can just enforce continuity at the potential barrier-it doesn't have to go to zero. Why then does it need to go to zero at the walls of ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

Inconsistency in the delta potential

I encountered an inconsistency in the one-dimensional delta potential. Suppose we have a one-dimensional infinitely deep square well from $-L$ to $+L$. We know the eigenstates are sine and cosine ...
3
votes
2answers
263 views

1D Infinite Square Box Discrete Energy levels but Continous Momenta?

In the 1d particle in the box the energy of the particle should be completely determined by the momentum of the particle that you observe correct? So how can you have discrete energy levels and a ...
1
vote
3answers
6k views

Why is Energy = Voltage x Charge, and how to prove that?

As you know the equation $\mathbf{E=V\times Q}$. Where: $\mathbf E$ is the energy measured in joules, $\mathbf V$ is potential difference (Voltage), $\mathbf Q$ is the charge. So my qustion is: ...
3
votes
3answers
108 views

What is the physical meaning of electric potential, potential difference, and voltage?

When resembling the electricity flow through a wire to people walking through a street: electrons are people, current is the number of people, resistance is the barriers on the way. But what is the ...