# Tagged Questions

Polarization characterizes the oscillations in time the electromagnetic field is doing in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of a wave

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### How to count the number of modes/polarizations of a Gaussian field theory?

A Gaussian (free) field theory is described by a quadratic action of the field, e.g. $S=\int\psi^\dagger K\psi$ (or $S=\frac{1}{2}\int\phi^\intercal K\phi$ for real fields). Usually one just need to ...
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### Does photon polarization take place without scattering processes?

Behind two perpendicular crossed polarisation filters (for visible light) the intensity of light will be zero. After installing a third filter between the two others non parallel to each of them some ...
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### Effective aperture of an isotropic antenna; question on polarisation

In this answer to Effective aperture of isotropic antenna, a factor of 1/2 was included to account for polarisation, but the antenna was isotropic. How can this discriminate polarisation?
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### Mirror that flips polarisation?

Is it possible to build a mirror which not just reflects a photon but also flips its polarisation from horizontal tho vertical (or vice versa)? The reason why I ask is the following: If I put an ...
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### How the polarization of electromagnetic wave is determined?

What help us determine the polarization of electromagnetic wave . Does perpendicular electric and magnetic field determine it or does the direction of propagation ?
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### How do photons “decide”?

I was reading that when horizontally polarized light hits a vertical Polaroid all the light is blocked out. But when the Polaroid is off the vertical, some but not all photons "decide" to jump into ...
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### Absorbative polarisers

Absorbative polarisers are one way of getting linearly polarised light from an unpolarised beam. The key idea is that these materials are manufactured such that light can be absorbed in all ...
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### Graviton polarization in higher dimensions

It's not difficult to see that the graviton in $D$ spacetime dimensions has $(D-3)D/2$ polarizations. In $D=4$ there are two $\epsilon^{\pm}_{\mu\nu}$. What I find curious is that in $D=4$ I can ...
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### Intense of liner polarized wave: with a polarizer vs. without a polarizer differences

We had this experiment in which we measured the intense of linear polarized wave - with and without a polarizer. I noticed that without the polarizer the intense was slightly lower than with the ...
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### Effect of temperature on optical rotation of sugar solution

How does temperature affect the specific optical rotation of sugar solution at constant concentration and why? If, for example, the temperature is increased, will the optical rotation for a given path ...
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### How to tell whether photons are entangled?

Suppose you have some sort of a "black box" system - you know nothing of its inner workings. The system has two outputs, let's call them A and B, and it occasionally emits photons - one photon from ...
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### Angular momentum of light

Can someone explain the classical angular momentum in electromagnetic theory of light? If I shine elliptically polarised em wave on a black disc it rotates. I would like to know how to calculate ...
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### Can a single photon be polarized non-linearly?

I want to check if I correctly understand polarization. Considering a single photon travelling in vacuum, it can only be polarized linearly under the same direction at any time, right? When we talk ...
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### How come these 3d glasses don't show a difference between horizontal and vertical?

I thought that modern 3d glasses work by having one lens filter horizontally polarized light, and the other filter vertically polarized light. However, I found this pair of 3d glasses at my parents' ...
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### Why are results of Bell's experiments considered to “break realism”?

Related to my previous question (Why would classical correlation in Bell's experiment be a linear function of angle?), as a newbie in quantum mechanics, I am also unable to find the reason to why ...
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### Problem regarding quantum mechanical notation of photons

I have recently been reading about spontaneous parametric down conversion(SPDC). I do clearly understand the process. What has been intriguing lately is the notation. For those of you who are ...
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### If I have created a polarization-entangled photon source, would I be able to create a qubit?

In my laboratory, I have already obtained a polarization-entangled photon source. It was created via the Spontaneous Parametric Downconversion process of 2 BBO crystals. The next question is that ...
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### Can horizontally and vertically polarized light combine to become circularly/elliptically polarized light?

Well, we know that circularly/elliptically polarized light is made up from orthogonal components. So is it possible then to create circularly/elliptically polarized light by combining horizontally and ...
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### Explain polarization in RF in which the conductor is stationary

Consider a metal rod parallel to $x$-axis moving with velocity $\vec v =(0,v,0)$ perpendicular to magnetic field $\vec B=(0,0,B)$. Lorentz force will give rise to the electric field \$\vec E = - ...