# Tagged Questions

Polarization characterizes the oscillations in time the electromagnetic field is doing in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of a wave

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### What are some of the empirical proofs of electromagnetic polarization? [closed]

I am aware of how polarization follows from Maxwell's equations, and how it is possible in transverse waves in general. I also know that Huygens, in his great Treatise on Light, first discovered and ...
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### How can slightly elliptically polarized light pass through a polarizer set to pass linearly polarized light?

How can slightly elliptically polarized light pass through a polarizer set to pass linearly polarized light? And what will be the corresponding change in intensity?
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### Does orbital angular mometum has no meaning for single photons?

In the quantization of free electromagnetic field, it is found that the left-circularly polarised photons corrsponds to helicity $\vec{S}\cdot\hat p=+\hbar$ and right-circularly polarised photons ...
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### Rotation of polarization through optical activity

When a vertically polarized beam of light is incident on an optically active substance and rotated through some angle $\theta$, how is the degree of rotation related to the length of the path through ...
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### Why do charged objects attract pieces of paper, but not pieces of metal?

I do not understand one concept in Physics: why charged objects (eg. a charged rod or comb) attract pieces of paper when brought close to them, but do not attract pieces of metal. I know that the ...
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### Which photons pass through a circular annulus?

Passing light through a circular sieve: Well, actually, let’s think about radar or microwaves with a wavelength of order a centimeter or two, so you can tailor your aperture, say by etching a silver ...
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### Why isn't sunlight polarized?

My guess: Because polarization happens only when amplitude exists and because the sun is so big that the light rays arriving on earth literally come in all direction, their amplitude is then ...
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### Why can i see LCD screen trough my linearly polarized glasses

I have a Samsung Galaxy Pocket Neo GT-S5310, it uses an LCD screen. Wikipedia says that all LCD's emit a vertically polarized light However even if I turn my glasses 90 degrees, i can still see the ...
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### Polarized light from any suface?

From a textbook I read something like this: "When sunlight is reflected from a horizontal surface, the plane of incidence is vertical, and the reflected light contains a preponderance of light that is ...
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### Why does the electric polarisation (polarisation density) have this direction?

It can be inferred that the amount polarisation $P$ is dependent upon and proportional to the magnitude of the electric field $E$ applied: $$P \propto E.$$ This ...
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### Counting modes Rayleigh-Jeans

In the derivation of the Rayleigh-Jeans Law, we count the number of EM modes in a square cavity. After calculating the number of allowed modes due to boundary conditions, we multiply it by a factor of ...
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### Optics phenomenon with my glasses?

When I look through my glasses toward the extreme left, a very odd and intriguing phenomenon occurs: The border of everything I see is lined with a hazy blue lining on the left and a hazy yellow ...
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### Polarization of the Sky?

I was hiking and noticed as I tilted my sunglasses (which are probably polarized), right at the horizon where the sky was against a mountain, it would change from lighter to darker blue. This only ...
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### How to polarize a laser beam

I'm working on an optic project that I need my laser beam to be polarized. Do you a simple way to polarize my laser beam?
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### Circular polarisation destroying interference pattern for double slit

I have been trying to mathematically explain the empirical result that putting orthogonal polarisers (quarter-wave plates) behind the two slits of a double-slit setup will erase the interference ...
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### Interference of Beams with Different Polarizations

I have read in many places that orthogonally polarized light beams do not interfere. However, I also know that orthogonal vectors, such as force, do affect each other and give a resulting force. So, ...
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### Connection between Polarization and Coherence in optics

It is not completely clear to me how the notions of polarization and coherence, in optics, work together! I quite understand both of them but it's still hard to grasp their deep connection. I'm quite ...
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### what happens inside linear polarizer sheet (at microscopic level) when unpolarized light falls on it?

(1) What happens at microscopic level when unpolarized light falls on a linear polarizer sheet ? i.e. Due to what thing inside polarizer sheet, only those EM waves are passed whose plane of vibration ...
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### Is it possible to reverse the polarity of already polarized light using passive materials?

For a gizmo idea that I have, I want to understand if it's possible to "reverse/turn" the polarity of light using passive, relatively thin and cheap films, similar to what we see in 3d glasses or TN ...
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### Why are most antennas in cellular networks +/- 45° polarized?

I've just been asked a strange question that I cannot find an answer to (even on the internet it seems I can't find any explanation for this) and I ended up wondering why most of the antennas which ...
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### Problem on Malus law? Doesn't work on certain angles [closed]

If unpolarized light falls on two polarizing sheets placed one on top of other, what must be the angle between the characteristics directions of the sheet a) if the intensity of the transmitted ...
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### How is polarization vector in QFT related to polarization in classical electrodynamics?

As i know in classical electrodynamics polarization shows the orientation of the electric vector in a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of light. But in quantum field theory ...
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### Verdet Constant and optical pumping

While studying Faraday rotation (linear magneto-optic rotation) I came across a fact that Faraday rotation can be enhanced. Verdet constant which depends on the wavelength can be enhanced as change in ...
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### Combining wave plates?

In the context of classical electromagnetism, is it always possible to reproduce the action of a large number of half-wave plates and quarter wave-plates with that of a single half-wave plate and a ...
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### 3D glasses and reflection/polarisation [duplicate]

Hi all, Tonight I'm going to see a 3D film so I thought I'd check whether I had any old 3D glasses around the house. Found a pair of "RealD" glasses. Anyhow, I assume that the glasses use some kind ...
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### Circularly polarized light and polarizing filter

Does circularly polarized light pass through a linear polarizing filter, regardless of the orientation of such filter?
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### Polarization type/direction of $E$ field

I have an E field given as $E(z) = [xE_a - yjE_b]\exp(-jkz)$ and I know the answer is that the field is right-hand circularly/elliptically polarized depending on whether $E_a = E_b$. Can someone show ...
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### Use two polarizing filter without liquid crystal between them to render static image

I'm going to demonstrate the work of polarizing filter. I have a tablet for this purpose with disassembled LCD panel which is fine but it is bulky and overkill. Is there any other material that may ...
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### Notation of polarization of light

Upon my research of polarization of light I stumbled upon the following formula: What do the three dots mean? I have never seen them before. Edit: Found this notation in the book "Nonlinear fiber ...
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### Electric polarization in terms of berry phase?

I was reading a text in which Electric polarization in terms of Berry phase was defined as $P=\frac{e}{2\pi}\sum_{n}\int A_n (k) dk$ under gauge transformation $P\rightarrow P+ne$ (which means ...
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### What is the fraction of the incident intensity passing through polarized sheets?

Unpolarized light is incident on a set of three polarizing sheets as shown in the figure at right. The polarizing directions of the sheets make angles 10°, 55° and 85° to the vertical. What fraction ...
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### Phase added on reflection at a beam splitter?

If we have light of a particular phase that is indecent on a beam splitter, I assume the transmitted beam undergo's no phase change. But I thought that the reflected beam would undergo a phase change ...
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### Are the EM waves that result from each of these processes distinguishable? Phase of light upon emission

In case 1, you have a single source of light that you pass through a diagonally oriented linear polarizer and then a half waveplate, such that the horizontal and vertical components become $\pi$ out ...
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### Decoherence of a Coherent Beam

If retarding films (i.e. wave plates) can retard the electric components of light (based on the films thickness) without affecting it's direction, couldn't I use a retarding film of randomly varying ...
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### Polarization and Reflection [duplicate]

The polarization is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation. Given this, when the light is reflected from a surface, does the reflection change the property/orientation ...
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### 3D movie optics mathematics

I get the idea that we use two polarized light sources and a parallax rendered film such that the objects seem to resemble true parallax in our eyes once it passes through the polarized glasses, but I'...
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### Polarisation by Reflection - oscillation direction

I'm currently studying polarisation by reflection, and have come across two pieces of information from the same source, which I can't seem to understand on how they differ. The oscillation direction ...
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### Is true black possible?

Black is the absence of light because it absorbs light, but when we create black paint or black objects, light is always reflected, either in all directions in matte or smoothly in shiny black objects,...
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### Is the output of a laser pointer polarized or not?

How to verify it? Is a laser necessarily polarized? I have a laser pointer with wavelength 532nm in hand.
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### My glasses seem to be polarizing the light when they want. What is happening?

When I put the glasses on and I look at my computer monitor and I turn in a certain angle everything becomes black. When I do it on my laptop screen though I need a different angle. Finally when I ...
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### Viewing computer screen through 3D glasses, why the asymmetry?

I have 3D glasses made up of plastic. First case: When I hold front side of the 3D glasses (by this I mean that side on which light falls) in front of a computer screen, light coming from screen is ...
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### Polarization of light for a fast moving observer

For a fast moving observer the frequency of light becomes shifted due to the (relativistic) Doppler effect. But what about the polarization of the light? Could it be, that e.g. circular polarized ...
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### Amplitude of eliptically polarised light

In elliptically polarized light, can one define something called amplitude of Electric field? If yes, how do we determine it?
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### Polarized Filtering Frequency Shift?

A polarized filter is exposed to a unpolarized light source. The output of the filter should be of lower intensity, hence lower energy. Should not the filtered light be of a lower frequency to ...
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### What does electric field of unpolarized light look like when measured?

When we talk about fermions in mixed state, we say that their state can't be described by a wavefunction and just compute all the probabilities using density matrix. That's OK because the ...
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### Polarization of light upon reflection

I was wondering (since I've looked pretty hard and haven't been able to find anything)- are there any models that explain the polarization of light upon reflection? Everywhere I've looked I've seen ...
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### What happens when both of Polarizing filter in LCD screen are Horizontal

What would be the result if we replace the vertical polarizing filter in LCD device (screen) with a horizontal filter, what could we see exactly? Would we see the same if we use only one horizontal ...
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### What is fundamentally happening that causes light to change its orientation when repeatedly polarized?

When light is passed through two polarizers successively, its intensity and orientation afterwards depends on the angle between the polarizers and the orientation of the most recent polarizer, ...
Playing around with numerical light-like momenta $p^\mu_1,p^\mu_2$ (light-like meaning ${p_1}^\mu {p_1}_\mu={p_2}^\mu {p_2}_\mu=0$) and corresponding polarization vectors \${\epsilon^\pm_1}^\mu,{\...