Theory, experiments and calculations related the physics of plasmas, i.e., matter constituted by ionized atoms.

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Book suggestion for introductory plasma physics

I have an undergraduate background of electrodynamics, special theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. I would like to study plasma physics by myself so please suggest a few introductory books on ...
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why is clear electron saturation not obtained in a Langmuir probe experiment?

I recently conducted an experiment to study the I-V characteristics of a Debye sheath, but I can't obtain electron saturation. Why does it happen?
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Is magnetic reconnection reconcilable with magnetic field lines neither starting nor ending?

According to Maxwell's equations, magnetic fields are divergence-free: $\nabla \cdot \mathbf{B} = 0$. If I understand this correctly, this means that magnetic field lines do not start or end. How can ...
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What happens to charge during laser ablation in water?

One of my friends from lab makes gold nanoparticles in the following manner: He puts a gold plate in water (without surfactants or other additives) He fires laser at the plate After 5 minutes ...
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Linearization of the em wave [closed]

How to linearize the wave equation by removing the perturbed terms and afterwards, finding the solution of the PDE by fourier transforming it.
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Are x-rays in fusion plasmas mostly from collisions with high atomic number ions?

Say you have a hot (100eV-1keV) hydrogen plasma with no impurities in it and no collisional interaction with the wall. Would this plasma radiate x-rays? X-rays are from bremsstrahlung, so could ...
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Is plasma an intermediate stage of matter? [duplicate]

Can it truly be called a stable state? Fire is stable while it has fuel but isn't it really just a transition point for solid to gas?
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Find the fraction of atoms in specific quantum state in stellar atmosphere [closed]

Consider gas consisting of hydrogen atoms at temperature about $T \sim 5 \cdot 10^6 \text{ K} \approx 431 \text{ eV}$ and concentration $N \sim 10^{11} \text{ cm}^{-3}$. I need to find the fraction of ...
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How do I calculate the energy flux for this toroid?

My question is how do i calculate the total energy flux through the walls of the torus in this situation? The Poynting flux is given by $\vec{N} = \frac{1}{\mu} ( \vec{E} \times \vec{B})$ but the ...
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What about the Electric energy density of the toroid?

But what about $U_{E}$, the electric field energy density?
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Difference between fusion plasma and fluorescent lamp plasmas

How is the plasma in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) different from a plasma in say ITER or the sun? Why does ITER need 100MK and a CFL can work at practically room temperature (apart from the ...
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Real life physics problem: Why is my desktop computer affected by my plasma ball?

Note: this is strictly a physics question, not meant to be an advertisement I was running my desktop with a plasma ball on the side. The desktop has a touch screen enabled. I started to notice that ...
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What is the effect of a magnetic field on a plasma speaker?

I have been doing some research for the past couple years investigating the effect of a magnetic field on a plasma speaker. More specifically, if you apply a relatively uniform magnetic field in no ...
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Plasma wakefield acceleration for Protons

Laser plasma acceleration is a promising technology that could replace the current method of accelerating particles (which is via electric fields). It is somewhat cheaper also as it makes the ...
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Production of Inductively Coupled Plasma

I am working on an experiment hat requires the usage of inductively coupled plasma, but unfortunately, I do not have any equipment at the moment that can produce such plasma, and I really need your ...
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Why are low m,n modes more dominant?

Consider an axially symmetric, toroidal, magnetized plasma with some safety factor (q) profile. A flux surface has q=m/n where m is the number of toroidal transits and n is the number of poloidal ...
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Betatron vs Fermi acceleration

According to the reference below, the plasma in a planetary radiation belt increases its temperature anisotropy through radial diffusion; temperature perpendicular to the background magnetic field ...
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What's the difference between “Ohmic dissipation”, “Joule heating”, “ion drag” and “resistive heating”?

The following terms are sometimes used to refer to ... more or less ... the same thing by different people and in different contexts (electronic circuits vs. plasma physics, etc.): Ohmic ...
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Why do rings form on microwaved CD/DVDs?

Here's a microwaved CD. As you can see, the disc has been destroyed, but there are very clear circular rings bridged with lines. Why are rings formed when microwaving discs?
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Finite Value of Cross Section of (Scattering/Absorption) of Localized Surface Plasmon at Resonance

According to textbook written by Stefan A. Maier, ch.5, p.70, cross section of scattering and absorption are defined as: $$C_{sca}=\frac{8\pi}{3}k^4a^6 ...
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How does the sun's surface conduct thermal energy from the convective zone to the corona?

How does the surface of the photosphere conduct thermal energy from the convective zone to the corona, while remaining at such a relatively low temperature itself? It seems odd to me that the ...
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Apparatus for generating plasma

I'm working on a project which involves superheating nitrogen to a state of plasma. I was considering using my Fusor, but this project has nothing to do with plasma, and I believe that there are way ...
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Do different plasmas from different elements have different properties?

If so, what are some differences? Like between iron and gold? EDIT: Sorry, I need to clarify: By 'difference' I mean... do they retain their chemical properties from more normal temperatures? Like is ...
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Can we create plasma with other things except gas?

In my school book its written on how plasma is created and it is said that we can create plasma by ionizing a gas but i have heard that plasma can be created even from liquids like water and also from ...
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How does electron positron plasma act compared to normal plasma?

When an electron positron plasma is formed, will it react to magnetic fields the same way? With the gamma ray photons resulting from the annihilation, would the plasma be of greater energy? Thanks!
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How do I find the partition functions for the Saha equation for elements that are complex like Argon?

The question I have is with regards to the partition function needed for solving the Saha equation for Argon. Basically the part I'm confused with is the part of the formula where $g_i/g_a$, where ...
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plasma and infinite acceleration

I am trying to set up a simulation of particles (they are not any particular kinds of particles, they are just points that repel each other). All the particles repel each other through the inverse ...
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nuclear fusion scaling with reactor size

Thinking about physics of thermonuclear fusion, I have always intuitive sense, that making fusion feasible is matter of reactor size. In other words I feel like: if the fusion reactor is big enough ...
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Calculate energy-density of known plasma in microwave?

Let's assume I want to create a plasma in a regular household microwave similar to this home-made experiment. Although I am dealing with a small amount of mass, I assume that the addition of microwave ...
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Is it possible to heat plasma to the point where there is no electrical resistance?

I was discussing Ohm's Law with my teacher and asked about what would happen if the resistance of a circuit was zero, to which he replied that the wire would melt. This got me wondering about ...
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Drifting Maxwellian distribution for energy

Assume I have a drifting Maxwellian distribution with velocity $\vec{a}$, say, in the x-direction, so something like $$ f(\vec{v}) = n\left(\frac{m}{2\pi ...
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Why do the high curvature bends in CFLs have their phosphor coating erode?

I have this pretty old compact fluorescent (CFL) bulb from several years ago still going strong. There was a period where the bulb sat unused when I moved away from home and put the lamp in storage. ...
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Can someone explain diamagnetism in plasma?

Diamagnetic plasma has an internal resistance to an outside magnetic field. I thought that a good analogy for this would be electrical resistivity. In high school we learned that different ...
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Magnetic Energy Density Equations

I have a plasma with a magnetic field through it and I want to know the magnetic energy within the plasma. I have the simple equation U=(B^2)/mu for the energy density. But my question is then, if ...
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Gravitoelectromagnetism higher-order effects

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitoelectromagnetism#Higher-order_effects According to the Higher-order effects... "Gravitomagnetic arguments also predict that a flexible or fluid toroidal mass ...
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Liouville's Theorem and Boltzmann equation for plasma

The Boltzmann equation for a plasma can be thought of as coming from a continuity equation in the 6 dimensional phase space of the plasma with coordinates $\left\{x,y,z,v_x,v_y,v_z \right\}$. So ...
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Fusion - A List of Experimentally Achieved Beta Numbers in Magnetic Confinement [closed]

I want a list of all the beta numbers achieved in across all magnetic fusion energy devices. This is not theory, but the actual number measured experimentally. No list like this exists. The beta ...
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What causes the electrical reaction between two carbon rods touching?

I recently watched this video in which carbon rods from a 6V lantern battery are removed and then touched together to create a makeshift arc reactor furnace. This produces electrified plasma which can ...
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Calculating the magnetic permeability of a known plasma

I have a plasma, of which I know the composition, temperature, exact electron/ion/particle densities. How can I then calculate a theoretical permeability of the plasma. Is this even possible? I ...
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Does plasma has any chemical formula?

As far as I understand, plasma is another stage of matter like solid, liquid or gas. All of these have chemical formulas, however does plasma has chemical formula as well? If it doesn't, what's made ...
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Fermi velocity $v_F$ and speed of light

Can Fermi velocity $v_F$ be equal to speed of light, $c$, for ultra-relativistic electron plasma waves, in plasma physics, by using Fermi-Dirac distribution function?
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Woltjer's Theorem, partial or total derivative?

Morning everyone.. I am currently studying Plasma Physics on a recent book named "Basics of Plasma Astrophysics" by Claudio Chiuderi and Marco Velli. While demonstrating Woltjer's Theorem they state ...
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$E \times B$ drift plasma physics

Do you need to have an electric field in order to have an $\mathbf E \times \mathbf B$ drift? I'm confused because it's seems that there is an induced E-field from the charge separation due to forces ...
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Harvesting hydrogen from a star

I've been thinking about what highly technologically advanced civilisations would do once their energy requirements become comparable to the total output of a star, and how such activity could be ...
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Dense plasma focus properties

Any Dense plasma focus scientists here? Could you explain the effects of having the anode: with less number of rods? hollow/non-hollow?
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Why does a non-contact voltage detector light up when you touch a plasma ball with the other hand?

I am doing a science experiment and we decided to try holding a non-contact voltage detector up to plasma ball. We were surprised that it would light up when it was 3 ft away from the plasma ball. I ...
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Particle-in-cell (PIC) code Virtual Laser Plasma Lab (VLPL)

I am writing a simulation code to model betatron X rays produced by electrons accelerated using laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). I have heard about 3D PIC (Particle-in-Cell) code VLPL (Virtual ...
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Plasma frequency

I have a neutral plasma and I need to solve Maxwell equations given the charge and current densities on the plasma. In order to do it I need to know the electrical permittivity $\varepsilon$, I've ...
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Inert Gases in Plasma Balls

Recently I have been reading about the fourth state of matter, viz.Plasma. Everywhere I read that plasma is formed when Gases are given enough energy and they lose their electrons to form a "cloud" of ...
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What are non-Abelian plasmas?

I know what a non-Abelian group is: a group whose operation does not obey commutativity. Does this have anything to do with a non-Abelian plasma? I'm not really looking at a specific paper, but I'll ...