Theory, experiments and calculations related the physics of plasmas, i.e., matter constituted by ionized atoms.

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How does the sun's surface conduct thermal energy from the convective zone to the corona?

How does the surface of the photosphere conduct thermal energy from the convective zone to the corona, while remaining at such a relatively low temperature itself? It seems odd to me that the ...
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1answer
18 views

Apparatus for generating plasma

I'm working on a project which involves superheating nitrogen to a state of plasma. I was considering using my Fusor, but this project has nothing to do with plasma, and I believe that there are way ...
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19 views

Do different plasmas from different elements have different properties?

If so, what are some differences? Like between iron and gold? EDIT: Sorry, I need to clarify: By 'difference' I mean... do they retain their chemical properties from more normal temperatures? Like is ...
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44 views

Can we create plasma with other things except gas?

In my school book its written on how plasma is created and it is said that we can create plasma by ionizing a gas but i have heard that plasma can be created even from liquids like water and also from ...
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15 views

How does electron positron plasma act compared to normal plasma?

When an electron positron plasma is formed, will it react to magnetic fields the same way? With the gamma ray photons resulting from the annihilation, would the plasma be of greater energy? Thanks!
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29 views

How do I find the partition functions for the Saha equation for elements that are complex like Argon?

The question I have is with regards to the partition function needed for solving the Saha equation for Argon. Basically the part I'm confused with is the part of the formula where $g_i/g_a$, where ...
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1answer
20 views

plasma and infinite acceleration

I am trying to set up a simulation of particles (they are not any particular kinds of particles, they are just points that repel each other). All the particles repel each other through the inverse ...
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57 views

nuclear fusion scaling with reactor size

Thinking about physics of thermonuclear fusion, I have always intuitive sense, that making fusion feasible is matter of reactor size. In other words I feel like: if the fusion reactor is big enough ...
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21 views

Calculate energy-density of known plasma in microwave?

Let's assume I want to create a plasma in a regular household microwave similar to this home-made experiment. Although I am dealing with a small amount of mass, I assume that the addition of microwave ...
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1answer
32 views

Is it possible to heat plasma to the point where there is no electrical resistance?

I was discussing Ohm's Law with my teacher and asked about what would happen if the resistance of a circuit was zero, to which he replied that the wire would melt. This got me wondering about ...
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69 views

Drifting Maxwellian distribution for energy

Assume I have a drifting Maxwellian distribution with velocity $\vec{a}$, say, in the x-direction, so something like $$ f(\vec{v}) = n\left(\frac{m}{2\pi ...
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17 views

Why do the high curvature bends in CFLs have their phosphor coating erode?

I have this pretty old compact fluorescent (CFL) bulb from several years ago still going strong. There was a period where the bulb sat unused when I moved away from home and put the lamp in storage. ...
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36 views

Can someone explain diamagnetism in plasma?

Diamagnetic plasma has an internal resistance to an outside magnetic field. I thought that a good analogy for this would be electrical resistivity. In high school we learned that different ...
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76 views

Magnetic Energy Density Equations

I have a plasma with a magnetic field through it and I want to know the magnetic energy within the plasma. I have the simple equation U=(B^2)/mu for the energy density. But my question is then, if ...
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2answers
50 views

Gravitoelectromagnetism higher-order effects

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitoelectromagnetism#Higher-order_effects According to the Higher-order effects... "Gravitomagnetic arguments also predict that a flexible or fluid toroidal mass ...
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75 views

Liouville's Theorem and Boltzmann equation for plasma

The Boltzmann equation for a plasma can be thought of as coming from a continuity equation in the 6 dimensional phase space of the plasma with coordinates $\left\{x,y,z,v_x,v_y,v_z \right\}$. So ...
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92 views

Fusion - A List of Experimentally Achieved Beta Numbers in Magnetic Confinement [closed]

I want a list of all the beta numbers achieved in across all magnetic fusion energy devices. This is not theory, but the actual number measured experimentally. No list like this exists. The beta ...
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64 views

What causes the electrical reaction between two carbon rods touching?

I recently watched this video in which carbon rods from a 6V lantern battery are removed and then touched together to create a makeshift arc reactor furnace. This produces electrified plasma which can ...
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33 views

Calculating the magnetic permeability of a known plasma

I have a plasma, of which I know the composition, temperature, exact electron/ion/particle densities. How can I then calculate a theoretical permeability of the plasma. Is this even possible? I ...
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1answer
49 views

Does plasma has any chemical formula?

As far as I understand, plasma is another stage of matter like solid, liquid or gas. All of these have chemical formulas, however does plasma has chemical formula as well? If it doesn't, what's made ...
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1answer
46 views

Fermi velocity $v_F$ and speed of light

Can Fermi velocity $v_F$ be equal to speed of light, $c$, for ultra-relativistic electron plasma waves, in plasma physics, by using Fermi-Dirac distribution function?
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1answer
24 views

Woltjer's Theorem, partial or total derivative?

Morning everyone.. I am currently studying Plasma Physics on a recent book named "Basics of Plasma Astrophysics" by Claudio Chiuderi and Marco Velli. While demonstrating Woltjer's Theorem they state ...
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1answer
27 views

$E \times B$ drift plasma physics

Do you need to have an electric field in order to have an $\mathbf E \times \mathbf B$ drift? I'm confused because it's seems that there is an induced E-field from the charge separation due to forces ...
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93 views

Harvesting hydrogen from a star

I've been thinking about what highly technologically advanced civilisations would do once their energy requirements become comparable to the total output of a star, and how such activity could be ...
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1answer
34 views

Dense plasma focus properties

Any Dense plasma focus scientists here? Could you explain the effects of having the anode: with less number of rods? hollow/non-hollow?
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67 views

Why does a non-contact voltage detector light up when you touch a plasma ball with the other hand?

I am doing a science experiment and we decided to try holding a non-contact voltage detector up to plasma ball. We were surprised that it would light up when it was 3 ft away from the plasma ball. I ...
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40 views

MHD stability - boundary conditions

In Freidberg's 'Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy,' ch. 12.4 p 311, right after deriving the Linear Force operator and momentum equation in which it is used $$ -\rho \omega^2 \boldsymbol\xi = ...
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125 views

Particle-in-cell (PIC) code Virtual Laser Plasma Lab (VLPL)

I am writing a simulation code to model betatron X rays produced by electrons accelerated using laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). I have heard about 3D PIC (Particle-in-Cell) code VLPL (Virtual ...
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56 views

Plasma frequency

I have a neutral plasma and I need to solve Maxwell equations given the charge and current densities on the plasma. In order to do it I need to know the electrical permittivity $\varepsilon$, I've ...
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1answer
51 views

Inert Gases in Plasma Balls

Recently I have been reading about the fourth state of matter, viz.Plasma. Everywhere I read that plasma is formed when Gases are given enough energy and they lose their electrons to form a "cloud" of ...
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1answer
71 views

What are non-Abelian plasmas?

I know what a non-Abelian group is: a group whose operation does not obey commutativity. Does this have anything to do with a non-Abelian plasma? I'm not really looking at a specific paper, but I'll ...
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66 views

Electrostatic ion thruster neutralizers

All electrostatic Ion thrusters have a neutralizer electron beam, but why are they required? Is avoiding the accumulation of negative charge the only reason? I would've thought that the main reason ...
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1answer
127 views

Integrating Factor Solution for Plasma Wave Equation

As part of a derivation in Bernstein '58 [1] a linear first-order (eqn. (9) in the image) appears: But the general solution I would usually take (as appears in Gradshteyn and Ryzhik and checked in ...
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1answer
144 views

Kittel solid state physics handbook - Plasma oscillation of a ball - Am I solving this right?

I'm self learning nanotechnology undergraduate and I'm trying to solve a problem from chapter "plasmons, polaritons and polarons". This is it: Frequency of uniform mode of plasmons in a ball is ...
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47 views

Why is there not much research into nuclear physics with plasmas?

There is a lot of research and theory around fusion reactions with plasma, but is there a reason why plasmas cannot be used for researching other nuclear reactions, either in the lab or from ...
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85 views

What does a sample of the Sun look like? Does it look like fire or gas?

Suppose that in the future a highly resistant spacecraft went to the Sun and collected three samples of the Sun: one from its surface, one from its core, and one midway. The three samples were put ...
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1answer
27 views

spectrum of discharge of air

Where do the various colors in electrical discharge of air with a high voltage originate from? Are these transitions in ionized nitrogen gas or unionized gas? Are chemical reactions involved? I assume ...
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80 views

Magnetic fields in plasma at equilibrium

I'm wondering if it is possible to have a plasma reach an equilibrium state where no more entropy is produced but it still has frozen-in magnetic field lines. The problem is the field lines have a ...
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32 views

Calculate the potential induced by beam

This exercise is from Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy by Freidberg. A cylindrical conducting vacuum chamber of radius $r=a$ is filled with a uniform plasma of density $n_0$ and temperature ...
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1answer
58 views

polarization of a transverse wave travelling in ionosphere with polarization direction perpendicular to earths magnetic field

Assume a transverse electromagnetic wave entering ionosphere such that its Electric field of wave is perpendicular to earths magnetic field. Now, i read that as it will enter plasma, the wave will ...
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89 views

Radio wave propagation in ionosphere

Radio communication is based on the concept that a radio signal incident on the ionosphere is reflected if the frequency of the wave matches the plasma frequency. But what exactly happens? Is it ...
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39 views

Boltzmann factor predicts arbitrarily large numbers of electrons at high potential?

In deriving the Debye shielding length we are told that the Boltzmann factor for particles of charge $q$ is: $n_{q}=n_{0}\exp(-q\phi/kT)$ If we assume the potential $\phi$ is positive, then the ...
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4answers
111 views

Why is quasineutrality required for a gas to turn into a plasma?

Why is quasineutrality a required condition for a plasma to exist? Quasineutrality means that no density of electrons and ions should almost be equal but not exactly equal. Can anybody explain this ...
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159 views

why ions and electrons are at different temperatures in plasma?

In plasma, collision rate among ions or electrons is much larger than the collision rate between ions and electrons. why is that so?
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39 views

Fusion plasma compression with liquid metal

General Fusion plans to use an imploding shockwave of molten lead to compress a magnetized plasma "spheromak" target in order to make it burn more efficiently. How come the lead does not quench the ...
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1answer
97 views

Fusion reactors why does size matter?

I've been following articles about fusion recently, and with the ITER project mostly. I have noticed that their view point is they need to build a large scale reactor in order to achieve their goals. ...
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436 views

Difference between irreversible and entropy?

Cedric Villani recently wrote an article on Landau damping, where at least one topic discussed confused me. Besides discussing the issue of how a process can be microscopically reversible and ...
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114 views

Relationship between plasma physics and quark gluon plasma

To what extent do the ideas common in modern plasma physics, such as magnetohydrodynamics, cold plasma models, common types of plasma waves, Maxwell's Equations, etc, relate to the study of quark ...
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58 views

Particle acceleration at magnetized shocks by convective electric fields?

Let us assume we have a flow of charged particles in a quasi-neutral state (i.e., a plasma) convecting at some speed, $\mathbf{V}_{sw}$ = V$_{sw}$ $\hat{x}$, and the particles have species-dependent ...
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762 views

Is a plasma necessarily made of monoatomic ions?

Is it possible to have a plasma made of polyatomic ions instead of monoatomic ions? I want to know all the details why such a thing may be attainable or not and, if possible, what methods we can use ...