The photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic four-potential, and therefore the massless bosonic particle associated with the electromagnetic force, commonly also called the "particle of light". Use this tag for questions about the quantum-mechanical understanding of light and/or electromagnetic ...

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Placing a lens in front of ultraviolet femtosecond laser with 10e38 J in pulse makes it a gun that fires microscopic black holes at speed of light?

I calculated that in the focal spot of such a laser the critical energy density would be met. Will these black holes really move at the speed of light, just as the the photons that made them? The ...
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2answers
202 views

Normalization of photon wavefunction and beam splitters

I am having trouble with the normalization of photon wave functions, when passed through a beam splitter. Let me define the single photon state as $$|1\rangle = \int \text{d}\omega \phi(\omega) a^\...
3
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1answer
143 views

How to get the accurate relativistic momentum form for photons? [duplicate]

I have studied from Griffiths, the relativistic form of momentum is $$p = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}} m_0v$$ Now when I evaluate the momentum for photon, I just insert $v=c$ and $m_0=0$ and I ...
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2answers
151 views

Why should photons obey the rules of causality? [closed]

This may have a quick answer, but it has been on my mind so here it goes: why, if according to special relativity, do photons obey the rules of causality, if they are inherently timeless. According to ...
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2answers
59 views

What is being deprived when a photon is being watched in double slit experiment?

How are photons being watched in the double slit experiment? What exactly does being observed mean, as it is obviously changes the state of the photon somehow - it must be depriving the photon of ...
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87 views

How is gravitational lensing possible? [duplicate]

How is it possible that a force that affects mass (gravity) can affect massless particles like photons?
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3answers
126 views

Could this suggest that there is a wavelength smaller than Planck's?

Suppose the earth receives a photon with a wavelength $\gamma_1$. Since spacetime is expanding, we know that this photon had an original wavelength $\gamma_2$, such that $\gamma_2\lt\gamma_1$. This is ...
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Relating Energy to Wavelength in curved space

Consider a curved space, e.g. Schwarzschild: \begin{align*} ds^2 = -\left(1-\frac{2M}{r}\right)dt^2+\left(1-\frac{2M}{r}\right)^{-1}dr^2+r^2d\theta^2+r^2\sin^2\theta d\phi^2 \end{align*} Now, the ...
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1answer
622 views

What happens when work function = hf

What happens when the photon which hits a metal surface has energy equal to the work function of that surface? $$\phi = hf$$ I realise the emitted electron will have no kinetic energy after escape, ...
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3answers
129 views

Photon speed going from $0$ to $c$ initially? [duplicate]

I have read many questions which ask whether there can be photons at speed other than the speed of light and all of them are answered no! But when the photon is created for ex during electron ...
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2answers
128 views

Can a photon, inside of an elastic bubble, bounce off the inner surface without losing velocity? [closed]

Take an shell or bubble. The bubble is strong enough to maintain it's static sphere shape, except when a photon bounces off the inner surface. A photon fires from inside the bubble. The inner ...
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708 views

Differences between absorption, transparency, reflection, and emission

Can someone help me conceptualize the differences between a photon's involvement with absorption, transparency, reflection, and emission? To be more specific, my current understanding of the matter ...
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2answers
459 views

Photons have no mass. So, why does $E = pc$ hold? [duplicate]

It's a somewhat theoretical question. In special relativity, The energy of a photon is given by $E = pc$. But, my argument is that, since photons have no mass, how can they have a momentum $p$? The ...
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1answer
71 views

Can a classical (or quantum) field, particularly the EMF, have a frame of reference?

I understand that a massless particle (such as a photon) cannot have a frame of reference. But the electromagnetic field does have mass; does it have a frame of reference? If so, I have a second ...
5
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1answer
121 views

Photons and perfect mirror

A perfect mirror means, that all the photons which collided with the mirror will be reflected in the same amount, with the same energy and with the same - except sign - angle. Will the mirror get an ...
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4answers
2k views

What is difference between white objects and transparent objects as far as photons are concerned?

Transparent materials let photons through because the energy gap of electron is so large that the photons cannot be absorbed. If the material absorbs a photon, the photon disappears; does this mean ...
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6answers
698 views

Is it possible that galaxies' redshift is caused by something else than the expansion of space?

I was thinking that maybe photons loss energy naturally when they travel great distances. Or maybe the mass of all matter is increasing over time and therefore photons emitted in the past are ...
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4answers
337 views

Do magnets redshift light?

Do magnets redshift light? Suppose we have an extremely powerful magnet (say the size of the Sun) and we have a smaller paramagnetic material above it (say. Titanium Brick which is indestructible)...
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2answers
118 views

Single photons: Is there a 90° offset of the electric to the magnetic component in the direction of propagation?

Single photons: Is there a 90° offset of the electric to the magnetic component in the direction of propagation?
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1answer
200 views

Relationship between the material properties of an edge and the fringes behind this edge

The double-slit experiment shows fringes on a screen. Closing one of the slits there is still an interference pattern on the screen behind the slit. Making the slit wider we still see fringes between ...
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2answers
2k views

Interesting relationship between diffraction and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle?

I recently came across an interesting explanation of diffraction through an aperture which does not use Huygens' Construction but instead relies on Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle: The ...
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3answers
99 views

Photon Quantum Field proportional to Electromagnetic Field?

Does it make sense to say that the quantum field of a photon is exactly proportional to the photon's electromagnetic field? \begin{align} \bar{\Psi} = \dfrac{\bar{E}+i\bar{B}}{\sqrt{\int (E^2+B^2)dV}}...
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1answer
216 views

Are photons electromagnetic waves, quantum waves, or both? [duplicate]

Are photons electromagnetic waves, quantum waves, or both? If I subdivide an electromagnetic field into smaller electromagnetic fields, should I eventually find an electromagnetic wave of a photon? ...
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2answers
178 views

Can a photon move at another speed that's not the speed of light?

I was reading an article about the new collider photon-photon, and the writer says "the scientists accelerate photons in a very high speed". It's non sense to me, because as far I know a photon only ...
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4answers
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If I'm floating in space and I turn on a flashlight, will I accelerate?

Photons have no mass but they can push things, as evidenced by laser propulsion. Can photons push the source which is emitting them? If yes, will a more intense flashlight accelerate me more? Does ...
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2answers
109 views

Photon dispersion in an optical fiber

What is the law of spatial dispersion of a photon in an optical fiber? Say I have a femto second photon ($\lambda$ around $700\,\text{nm}$) with gaussian shape ($\sigma = c\cdot 1\,\text{fs}\approx 3\...
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Photons and Absorption

Hello and thanks for reading my question: Imagine we send one photon at an atom, and it happens to be the right frequency such that it gets absorbed fully by an electron in this atom. Obviously that ...
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3answers
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Compton Wavelength

I have the formula for Compton wavelength: $$\lambda_{c}= \frac{h}{m_{0}c}$$ In this equation, is $m_0$ the mass of the electron that the photon hit? I got online that this might be the photon rest ...
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1answer
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Black Body and Electron [closed]

My questions are: How does a black body absorb photons? Why does a black body absorb the most photons of all objects (e.g. those with another color)? Are there any relationship between the ...
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1answer
83 views

relation between photon number and energy

Suppose there are two light beams. One is red while the other is violet. The energy of both is the same. Which one of these beams has a larger number of photons, or is the number of photons relevant?
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Do plasmons depend on the ambient EM field?

Imagine a situation: There's an illuminated metal slab in vacuum. Normally, there are some plasmons created running all over the slab. What would happen if we had turned a giant magnet near the slab? ...
6
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2answers
109 views

Energy in electromagnetic radiation

I learned that power intensity in EM (electromagnetic) radiation is $$ I=\frac12c\varepsilon_0E_0^2 $$ This equation implies that the energy in EM radiation is frequency-independent I also learned ...
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1answer
82 views

Light Waves and Light Photons gedanken Experiment

Suppose you have a source of light that emits light with a wavelength of 2 meters, and you set the device to be turned on and switched off alternately. You also set it so that each interval the device ...
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410 views

What do Allowed and Forbidden transitions tell us about the properties of a photon?

What do Allowed and Forbidden transitions tell us about the properties of a photon? Allowed transitions have the change in angular momentum $\ell=1$, all the others are forbidden. But what does it ...
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2answers
47 views

Light absorbs and Color [closed]

I'm curious about how the material absorb the light and reflect the light back as colors in a sense of Quantum Mechanics (Quantum Electro Dynamics) Does Hadron related to the absorbs of photon ? or ...
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7answers
379 views

Effect of wavelength on photon detection

When some photon detector detects a photon, is it an instantaneous process (because a photon can be thought of as a point particle), or does the detection require a finite amount of time depending on ...
2
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1answer
194 views

When photons are emitted, do they accelerate to reach the speed of light? [duplicate]

Photons are considered mass-less particle with a specific velocity but according to the electromagnetic theory, a photon is considered to have both energy and momentum. So what happen when they are ...
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2answers
3k views

What is the difference between light and visible light? [duplicate]

After watching a few videos on light and electromagnetic radiation, I am a little confused. The way things are explained, is that light is just the same as electromagnetic radiation I thought this ...
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1answer
65 views

Estimating quantum efficiency of gated avalanche photodiode

I have a photon counting system that uses a gated avalanche diode to detect single photons. The repetition frequency of the gates is $f_1$ and the temporal gate width is $\tau_1$ (so the duty cycle is ...
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3answers
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If a neutrino has a rest frame, why can't a photon have a rest frame as well?

Concerning Rest Frame Wikipedia states: For example, in the rest frame of a neutrino particle travelling from the Crab Nebula supernova to Earth the supernova occurred in the 11th Century AD ...
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3answers
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Why electrons have less energy than photons with the same wavelength?

I am studying quantum physics and I have a question: what is the physical explanation for electrons having less energy than photons with the same wavelength? Energy of a photon : $E = h ...
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0answers
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How do the single photon energy and em-signal energy correlate? [duplicate]

If the photon (as a quantum of the electromagnetic field) has no defined(?) amplitude, how does (or where from?) the electromagnetic wave's amplitude appear? The formulation of the question is not ...
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4answers
217 views

About the speed of light and gravity

I read (I think ) that part of relativity theory is that a strong gravitational field distorts the uniform passage of time. If this is true and a lightwave 'travelling' to Earth passes a star near ...
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3answers
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Do photons occupy space?

Total noob here. I realize that photons do not have a mass. However, they must somehow occupy space, as I've read that light waves can collide with one another. Do photons occupy space? and if so, ...
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2answers
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Can we glue femto-cameras to photons? [closed]

I know its not as easy as saying to glue nano-cameras to photons. Please consider the following extract (related to Heisenberg's Uncertainty principle) from the Modern's abc of Chemistry: ...to ...
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3answers
687 views

What is a proportionality constant? (Planck's constant)

I understand that Planck's constant is essentially the ratio between the energy of a photon and its frequency. There are 2 things that im trying to verify: isn't the number that Planck's constant ...
3
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3answers
404 views

Why do tunneling photons outrace their non tunneling counterparts in vacuum?

If we describe a photons with a wave packet, moving towards a potential barrier and E smaller than V, there is a finite chance that it will tunnel to the other side. In this process it is likely that ...
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2answers
386 views

Spatial and Temporal Coherence

How is it possible to achieve waves which are spatially, but not temporally, coherent? Can this be done with a bandpass filter? Conversely, how is it possible to achieve waves which are temporally, ...
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4answers
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How can a star emit light if it is in Plasma state?

I understand that star is in Plasma state (all nucleus and electrons are not bound to each other and moving around freely) Photon is emitted when an excited electron moves back to lower orbit. So in a ...
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2answers
163 views

Photons emitted at the event horizon?

While looking through the questions, a came across a section about black holes. I immediately though; what would happen if an atom is orbiting a black hole and emitted a photon perpendicular to the ...