"Photon" is the name given to particles of light in the quantum mechanical understanding. In interaction where the classical and quantum mechanical understandings of light agree they are fully equivalent to electromagnetic waves.

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Difference between electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and Electromagnetic Field?

I'm a freshly graduated electrical engineer. One course that I really struggled with was Field Theory, because it was a lovely assortment of vector calculus and things that were explained to me well ...
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Why does Lorentz factor not hold for relativistic mass when we apply it to photons? [duplicate]

We know that the photon itself is massless particle $m_0=0$. But we also know, that the mass of the objects does increase with their energy. And we know that under certain circumstances (gravity, ...
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In solar cells, do photons break apart electron-hole pairs, or create them?

Some sources say that when a photon hits the PV cell, it breaks apart electron-hole pairs. Other sources say that photons create electron-hole pairs. Can anyone explain which one is right? I've read ...
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Energy needed to raise energy level of an atom? [duplicate]

Suppose I have an atom at rest which is at energy level $E_i$. Would it be possible to raise it to the next higher level $E_{i+1}$ by shooting a photon of energy $E_{i+1}-E_i$ at it? I ask because ...
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Where is the amplitude of electromagnetic waves in the equation of energy of e/m waves? [duplicate]

Does the amplitude of the photon oscillations always stay constant and if it is not - what are the physical differences between the photon with higher amplitude in comparison to the one with the less ...
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EM Waves Energy Loss

Where does the energy go when two photons interfere destructively at a point on a screen in Young's double slit experiment ?
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Infinite reflection of light and the conservation of energy / momentum

First off, I confess I'm no physicist, but I have been asking people with a more extensive knowledge this one question, without a definitive answer so far. Basically, I'm playing around with the idea ...
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Physical significance of effective wave function

In Yanhua Shih's book on quantum optics, the coherence functions are expressed in terms of effective wave function. Here are the expressions for single photon wave packets. To derive the coherence ...
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Neutrinos vs. Photons: Who wins the race across the galaxy?

Inspired by the wording of this answer, a thought occurred to me. If a photon and a neutrino were to race along a significant stretch of our actual galaxy, which would win the race? Now, neutrinos ...
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Interaction photons-matter and dimensional analysis

I know that when photons pass through matter, the law that describes the intensity in function of the thickness is: $$I(x)=I_0 e^{-\mu x}$$ where $\mu = \rho \frac{N_a}{A} \sigma$ and ...
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Do photons have mass? [duplicate]

As a student in a highschool physics class, my teacher has repeatedly told me that photons are massless. Yet, I have also heard from other sources that photons have momentum. If photons were to have ...
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How does QED deal with wavelength of quanta [duplicate]

Since QED treats photons as individual units (quanta) how does it treat the concept of the "wavelength" associated with the photon?
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Finding the maximum kinetic energy of any photoelectrons?

An incident photon, $f=5.5\times 10^{14}\ Hz$, hits a metal with a work function of $2.8\ eV$. Find the maximum kinetic energy of any photo-electrons (in Joules). I'm confused exactly how to do ...
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Color of a Metal's Threshold Wavelength?

How do I find the color of the threshold wavelength if the metal has a threshold wavelength of $\mathrm{6.5\times 10^{-7}m}$? I know that converts down to $\mathrm{650\ nm}$, but can I still use the ...
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53 views

Color of an incident photon?

If the incident light at 360nm causes photoemission of electrons, wouldn't the color be ultraviolet? I know that really isn't a color, but that's what my chart of the light spectrum says. Unless I ...
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How the inverse square law in electrodynamics is related to photon mass?

I have read somewhere that one of the tests of the inverse square law is to assume nonzero mass for photon and then, by finding a maximum limit for it , determine a maximum possible error in ...
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What is the cause the light is affected by gravity? [duplicate]

I know that photons have no mass and that a photons exist only moving at the speed of light. So what is the cause that a massive astronomical object can bend a ray of light? I have two thoughts, but I ...
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Transfer of electron energy to atoms (heating up of matter by absorption of photons)

If an electron absorbs a photon to get exited to a higher energy level, it should either come back to same state or any other lower state by emitting the required photon. How then can there be a net ...
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What is the mass of a photon moving at the speed of light? [duplicate]

What is the mass of a photon moving at the speed of light? And if it does not have mass, how is it affected by gravity? Also why does Einstein's general relativity support that a gravitational wave ...
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Single photon's effect on conservation of momentum?

When your looking at basic Compton theory you find that if you shoot a stream of photons at a particle (usually atoms or electrons), then you have the basic laws of conservation of momentum. The ...
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Conservation of Angular Momentum: atomic transitions vs exciton decay

I have a question about the role of photon angular momentum in two different sets of selection rules: In atomic transitions within the dipole approximation, I've seen the selection rule as: $\Delta ...
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If photons can be absorbed by electrons, wouldn't that mean light has a charge? [duplicate]

I am a biochemistry and molecular biology major. If photons can be absorbed by electrons, wouldn't that mean light has a charge? Electrons only attract positive charges. Isn't it?
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Seeing colors: photons vs waves

As an atmospheric physics major I am familiar with electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere and what dictates what wavelength objects will emit at. When observing radiation in the atmosphere it is ...
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Does a photon have mass? [duplicate]

I have seen questions assume photons have no mass. But I have not seen any questions that directly ask whether or not photons have mass. If photons have no mass, then how do they occupy space? How ...
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Does performing a measurement on a system change its internal energy?

I'm studying Quantum Mechanics in my spare time from a general point of view (no technical details) so some fundamental question came into my mind: How is it possible to detect a single photon ...
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Are there “gaps” in light, or will it hit everywhere?

Not sure how to word my question. Picture a light source in vacuum, so nothing disturbs the light (or similar conditions), 2d. If I move very, very far away, will it happen that some of the light ...
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How does a photon leave trace of its polarization state in a photon detector but not trace of which direction it came in?

Some quantum erasure experiments involve polarization of photons. In one such experiment with a double slit, a horizontal polarizer is used in front of one slit, and a vertical polarizer is used for ...
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Hurdles in creating (close to) infinite images [duplicate]

Let's put an object (hypothetical superman) inside a "well sealed" box containing only mirrors. Is it possible to create number of images that will be close to infinity, assuming that resolution of ...
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the temperature of photon and its energy

Do photons have temperature? If not, does it mean that photon lose energy while travelling through space? As the planets farther away from the sun are comparatively cooler than the one that are ...
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Are there 2 kinds of photons, one that mediate the electromagnetic interaction and the other the quanta of light?

It is usually said that photons are the force carriers or the mediators of the electromagnetic forces between electric charges. At the same time we know also that electromagnetic waves on the quantum ...
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How photons represent colors that you see?

Right now, my understanding is that, a mixture of photons of many different frequencies is perceived as white by your eye. While no photons at all, is perceived as black. And photons with the blue ...
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Do protons exchange photons with electrons?

I'm sorry for this question but, I just don't get it. According to the electromagnetic field theory, electrons repel each other by exchanging photons. How do protons attract electrons, by photon ...
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If light is linearly polarized, does it have some spatial extent?

If light (a photon) is linearly polarized, say vertically, does it have some vertical spatial extent (perhaps in amplitude)?
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Single photon interference experiment

In short: the question is, does the length of the path affect the outcome of detecting a photon? Consider the single photon beam splitter experiment. Does the probability of detecting the photon ...
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Couldn't we measure electrons with good enough technology? [duplicate]

I am a bit confused about the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle - just read about it in How to Teach Physics to Your Dog, by Chad Orzel. He states that the reason electrons can't be measured is ...
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How can photons exert gravity if they are wave-like?

As a reference, see this question: Does a photon exert a gravitational pull? It turns out the answer is "Yes" -- but this does not seem consistent with light being wave-like. I am imagining a ...
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Is this mental picture of photon correct?

What is exactly meant by a statement like "there are about 400 photons per cubic cm in certain region"? Should I mentally picture this as 400 discrete photons enclosed in that volume, each moving at ...
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Does light really “travel”?

From what I've so far understood about light, a photon is emitted somewhere and after some time it's absorbed somewhere else. Have we had experiments that confirm the path taken or something akin to ...
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Photon detection rate for pure / mixed states coming from single mode point source

Let the pure states be in superposition of horizontal and vertically polarized basis states. They are arriving at the point detector one at a time. So, a pure state is $|\Psi\rangle = \alpha|V\rangle ...
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Why does Quantum Electrodynamics Allow a Photon to Exist Temporarily as a Positron and an Electron?

In this question... Why does a photon colliding with an atomic nucleus cause pair production? ...I asked why a photon colliding with a atomic nucleus can become an electron and a positron. The ...
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Why does a photon colliding with an atomic nucleus cause pair production?

I understand that the photon needs to have enough energy to produce a lepton and it's antimatter partner, and that all of the properties are conserved, but why does the photon do this in the first ...
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Absorption cross section for direct dissociation and predissociation - Photoelectric absorption

Why the absorption cross section in direct dissociation process is wide and structureless while the absorption cross section in the predissociation process is structured and containing lines which are ...
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Do photons actually generate a slight kinetic force?

My question is even though photons have no (rest) mass, do they emit a external force due to EM radiation causing electrons to be excited and jump to higher energy shells which electrons have mass ...
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If photons move linearly, what's actually stopping them from passing through a microwave oven mesh?

So, my understanding is that the wavelength of a photon is the distance traveled in the time it takes it's magnetic field to oscillate. And it's inversely proportional to it's energy and it's ...
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What is a two-photon process?

I am reading some introductory materials on modern optics, in which they mention two-photon processes everywhere. I know fundamental optics and a bit on quantum mechanics. Can anyone explain in a ...
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How many orders of magnitude in energy spans the Standard Model phenomenological spectrum?

I am wondering if it makes sense to state that the upper limit is roughly 1012 eV (up to know the physics probed by the LHC seems to be pretty consistent with the SM) and the lower one is ... the ...
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Where do photons get their energy from?

If energy required to accelerate a particle to the speed of light is infinite then where do they get it from? But first if photon's are massless, then why do they collide to some other thing and get ...
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What is light, and how can it travel in a vacuum forever in all directions at once without a medium?

I know there are many questions that are similar (maybe identical?). I am not a physicist nor a student - I am just interested in physics and have been watching many physics channels on youtube ...
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A question about how light hits a surface

my question is about how photons travel from a light source and hit an object. When you look at an object being hit by light the whole surface becomes brighter. What i'm trying to understand is why ...
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Speed of Light in a Medium [duplicate]

For light travelling in a medium with refractive index greater than one: The "average" speed of light is slower than the speed of light in a vacuum. As far as I know, the instantaneous speed of light ...