"Photon" is the name given to particles of light in the quantum mechanical understanding. In interaction where the classical and quantum mechanical understandings of light agree they are fully equivalent to electromagnetic waves.

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What would be the photon's effective mass in Newton's Law of Gravitation?

If we equalize the force from the Newton's Law of Gravitation to Force on a photon in a gravitional field (I don't know if there is an equation for it). What would be the photon's effective mass? (I ...
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If 2 photons collided head on, what would happen? [duplicate]

If 2 photons, in perfect synch (frequency, amplitude, etc. were all equal) and they collided head on, what would happen? Would they pass right through each other? Would they interfere, then go back to ...
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How to use quantized version of Maxwell equation in photonic entanglement experiment? [on hold]

Can you use maple to demonstrate the quantization of maxwell equation? how to use quantized version of maxwell equation in photonic entanglement experiment? is it used for controlling the magnetic ...
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How does electron excitation work for the Bohr model with non hydrogen atoms?

I've seen a lot of explanations of electron excitation by photons in the Bohr model but they all use a hydrogen atom which only has one electron. How does the excitation work for atoms with more ...
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Is colour a purely quantum effect?

If the colour of an object is determined by the wave-lengths of light that is absorbs and reflects (?) then can colour be described as a purely quantum effect (i.e. without quantum effects an objects ...
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Why photons are having energy when they are massless? [duplicate]

As per the Einstein equation $E=mc^2$, the energy of the particle is depends on the mass of the particle. Or else in other terms the energy is proportional to the mass. If the photons are having zero ...
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What is the difference between photon and phonon? [on hold]

In quantum mechanics, I have read about photons. The photons are the light particles, which has no mass. and it has energy. photons travels with the velocity of light. on the other hand I have heard ...
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How can we prove that a photon is absorbed only once?

When I first heard about the photons and the double-slit experiment my immediate thought was the following: Alright, energy is not absorbed continuously but in discrete units, photons, but nature ...
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Calculation of the efficiency of a Carnot engine for photon gas

I am working on a problem considering the Carnot cycle for a photon gas. The cycle has two isothermic processes at $T_{H}$ and $T_{C}$ and two adiabatic processes. The entropy of the photon gas is ...
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458 views

Width of a photon. And its length

Everyone is always talking about photon's wavelength. But what about its dimensions? What is length and width of it? And does it even have a point to think about such things? Or those dimensions are ...
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How can a single photon or electron create a small visible dot on a photosensitive plate?

The photon or electron is just one subatomic particle, but if it hits the film and creates a dot visible to the human eye (btw, modern technology can do this), then the dot must be a collection of ...
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Slower than light photons in vacuum?

This report on the BBC site suggests that optical photons have been prepared that travel slower than c in vacuum. How is this possible?
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How are photons related to the nucleus? [closed]

What do Photons do to produce energy in the nucleus, is this pair production?
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Can photons travel through space independent of time?

I read an article about advanced photons and they stated that photons traveled back in time to hit an electron. Can photons really travel back in time and if so, how?
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Proca Equation and Nonzero Rest Mass of Photon. Don't know where to begin [closed]

I'm a 3rd year undergraduate and have to do a 15 page assignment about the Proca Equations and their derivation and how those lead to an effective photon mass that isn't zero. I'm having considerable ...
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Intuitive model to show difference between photon energy and light intensity?

What would be a good (intuitive, easily comprehensible) model to explain the quantum nature of light insofar as there is a fundamental difference between intensity and photon energy? One example (not ...
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237 views

Can very high power laser beams self focus in vacuum?

I first recall reading about such an effect in a SF story entitled "Rails Across the Galaxy" which involved self focusing laser beams. And in a science paper here
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Are there any theoretical limits on the energy of a photon?

Is there any lower or upper limits on the energy of a photon? i.e. does the mathematical framework we currently use for Quantum Mechanics blow up when a photon surpasses a certain upper limit of ...
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Combination of 2 photons in opposite phase

We can explain conservation of energy in interference phenomena by saying that there is redistribution of energy. However if only 2 photons in opposite phase "combine" then how can we explain ...
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What happens when light is reflected from a surface moving in a medium with a huge refractive index?

Imagine a mirror is moving away from a light source in a substance through which the speed of light is very slow -- so slow that the speed of the mirror is close to being the same as the speed of the ...
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What are high energy photons?

I have often read the term High Energy photons, does this mean that there do exist photons with low energy? Aren't they supposed to have constant energy according to $E= h\nu$?
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I want to know why light even moves at all.

Never mind in a vacuum, why and how does light even move at all? What propels it?
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If two photons collide, does the resulting particle have zero velocity?

If two photons traveling in opposite directions along the same line collide, will the resulting particle have a velocity of zero relative to the rest of time space in the instant of the collision?
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Increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic power cells

Given that solar cells use one or more semiconductor materials to convert light to electricity, and that the efficiency of that conversion is dependent on the material and the wavelength of the light, ...
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In how many possible ways can a photon be emitted?

I am currently studying atomic physics, and I encountered the question above. I am posting this question because I can't afford to move on with even the tiniest bit of uncertainty in my understanding ...
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Do we really not know why atoms 'decide' to produce a photon?

I was watching the Cosmos documentary where Neil deGrasse Tyson explained how certain energy photons get absorbed by an atom, which causes the electrons of that atom to climb into a higher energy ...
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What is the frequency of a single photon? [duplicate]

What frequency means for a single photon?
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If photons have no (rest) mass, why would black holes attract light? [duplicate]

I was told that photons have no (rest) mass. However I thought that black holes are called "black" because no light can go escape the gravity force in their vicinity. I somehow think that, if light is ...
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Fundamentals of Light

Is it possible to determine the number of cycles in a single photon? Do photons with higher frequencies have more cycles in each photon than those with lower frequencies? Would this mean that all ...
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Why does light from a laser end up in a concentrated spot?

I've heard from several people that photons will always take the past of least action while travelling, so why does laser light projected on a surface appear concentrated to a single spot when ...
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Can the intensity distribution behind edges and slits be explaint by the interaction with the surface electrons of the edges?

Reading about diffraction of EM radiation on edges, slits and multi slits as well as about electron diffraction around a wire I came to the conclusion that the intensity distributions on an observers ...
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48 views

What happens to a photon sent to an atom has no electrons?

Suppose that there is an atom has no electrons. If we sent a photon to this atom, what would happen? Reflected or absorbed?
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Temporal properties of a photon

Naively, one can attempt to consider the (impossible) light-speed inertial frame. From there you arrive at nonsense conclusions like 'the universe is flattened in the direction of travel' which must ...
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What happens when an atom absorb electron/photon?

I'll give you a scenario or two, and please tell me what will happen and that shall answer my question. Thanks in advance. Scenario 1: Will an atom absorb an electron with kinetic energy greater ...
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What is the action for a photon? [duplicate]

If I understand correctly, the action for a massive free particle is: $$ S = -mc^2 \int \mathrm{d}\tau = -mc \int \sqrt{g_{\mu\nu} \frac{\mathrm{d}x^\mu}{\mathrm{d}\lambda} ...
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How can the thrust due to radiation pressure be amplified in photonic laser thruster?

The thrust is amplified due to repeated bouncing of photons between two mirrors as shown in the diagram in this: Why does repeated bouncing of photons produce amplified thrust when the answer in ...
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Is there any difference in radiation pressure for two observers in different gravitational potential?

Suppose that a light beam is shone upwards from surface of a planet. So, due to gravitational redshift, the frequency of the light perceived by observer far from the surface will be lower than that ...
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Does Poincare recurrence imply that a photon shot into a box will exit the way it came in?

If you have a big closed cube that has perfectly mirrored surfaces on the smooth flat walls or faces of the cube and only one corner has a tiny 'entrance' , a narrow hole at a specific angle , say ...
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Difference between spin and polarization of a photon

I understand how one associates the spin of a quantum particle, e.g. of a photon, with intrinsic angular momentum. And in electromagnetism I have always understood the polarization of an EM wave as ...
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In which direction due to a polarizing grid the photon's electric field is oriented?

After a photon passes the slit, is it's electric field oriented perpendicular or parallel to the slit and why this is so?
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Mass of photon, is it possible? [duplicate]

$P=E/C$ In relativistic mechanics a Photon is defined as. $P=hf/C$ Replacing "P" $ mc=hf/C$ $M=h/CT$ What does it mean, did they have mass?
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Photon walk in stars with convection

I'm having trouble figuring this out. I've read, that when photons are created via nuclear processes inside a star, it can take about 1 million years for photons to actually reach the surface of a ...
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Non-polarised light

We know the beam of light oscillates in electric field and magnetic field, both perpendicular to both the wave of propagation and each other. What does, however, a non-polarised beam of light look ...
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Linear polarization measurement - what QM observable is measured?

My understanding is that photon can have spin +-1 along propagation direction, corresponding to two circular polarizations. Linear polarization is superposition of two. Since one can measure linear ...
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What does a completely negative Greens function in frequency mean?

What can a Greens function of frequency mean when it is always negative? The Greens function is for the photons as the following: (It's derived by Matsubara method to enter the thermal effects and the ...
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can we detect the photons in the interaction of two charged bodies?

if the interaction of two charged bodies is through the photon exchange: 1) how much is the energy of these photons and how do we calculate their energies? 2) can these photons be detected by a photon ...
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High photon flux for ultrashort photons?

What is currently the highest photon flux one can achieve for single photons with a coherence length of femtoseconds? Does some know roughly know the order of magnitude? Unfortunately I was not very ...
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Do twice more atoms absorb twice more photons?

Let's assume you have a photon detector that detect individual photons striking it when exposed to a weak light source. Now let's assume you somehow managed to make a denser detector from the same ...
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Spin statistic in spontaneous parametric down-conversion

In a spontaneous parametric down-conversion a photon will be converted into two photons with half energy and correlated polarization. How the spin from the ingoing photon will be transfered to the ...