# Tagged Questions

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### Are there alternatives to steam in thermal power stations?

'A thermal power station is a power plant in which heat energy is converted to electric power. In most of the world the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam ...
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### Why does Triple point exist?

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. Is the ...
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### Understanding the $\phi^4$ phase diagram

I'm having trouble making sense of this phase diagram. The model is a $V(\phi)=g_2 \phi^2+g_4\phi^4$ scalar field theory. Here's what I think I understand: the capital letters represent different ...
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### Understanding this metaphor involving e-mails, chaos and phase transitions [closed]

I asked this question on the English Stack Exchange and people advised to try get the answer here. I can’t get the idea of metaphor in the last sentence of the following quote: Instead, email ...
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### What is our most complete microscopic theory for the elastic-plastic transition point?

I suppose its all stated in the title. What is our most successful description of the microscopic behavior of material at the elastic-plastic transition point. My condensed matter physics prof was ...
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### Nature of phase transitions in Kitaev honeycomb model

Short version of my question is this : what is the nature of the phase transition in the Kitaev honeycomb model ? Longer version: Kitaev honeycomb model undergoes a phase transition from a gapped to ...
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### Fermi estimate for ice nucleation timescale

My friends in a Cryo-EM lab freeze their very samples quickly, a process they call vitrification. The timescale for this process is milliseconds (from wikipedia): The production of amorphous ice ...
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### The temperature a liquid would boil: question incorrectly formulated or not?

I have met a question in a high school physics book which I think is incorrectly formulated. The question is this: In order to reach boiling temperature, a certain liquid requires twice the amount of ...
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### The question about codimension of fixed point and about irrelevant operators

Recently I've read about Wilsonian renormalization group (WRG) in context of condensed matter phase transitions. The important concepts of WRG are fixed points and type of operators (eigenvalue, ...
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### What is the real cause of the boiling (forming of bubbles) of water?

I've got a question about the boiling of water. I'm a first year physics student and from the Netherlands. I've searched alot about the boiling of water and this confused me. Everyone said something ...
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### Heat capacity across a phase transition-inconsistency?

In the books I have seen two descriptions of what the heat capacity does across a first-order phase transition. The diagram in this question First Order Phase Transition - Heat Capacity seems to ...
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### What actually makes boiling happen?

Boiling can be breezed over easily with a few rudimentary diagrams and a couple equations, but I seek a deeper explanation. The definition of boiling is that the vapor pressure in the liquid is ...
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### Liquid/solid to plasma?

During a phase change we can go from solid to gas via the process of sublimation. The diagram given below indicates that there is no analogous process for the transition from solid (or liquid) to ...
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### Derivation of a equation in closed, phases coexisting system

I'm trying to show that for a closed system consisting of two phases coexisting in equilibrium at a temperature $T$ and under a pressure $P$. (\frac{\partial P}{\partial V})_S=-\frac{T}{C_v}(\frac{...
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### If an Ising model is in contact with two thermal reservoirs, would it still experience a phase transition if one of the reservoirs is below Tc?

For example; Two reservoirs are at each end of a one dimensional or even two dimensional lattice. One of the reservoirs has the temperature T < Tc. Would the lattice site have a phase transition ...
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### Could a falling office tower cause the melting of its iron or steel support structure? [closed]

Discussion on META: Questions related to geopolitical events Suppose you have an office tower, weighing around 300,000 metric tons, and has a height of ...
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### Liquid phase is a highly compressed gaseous phase

$\mathbf{Q:}$ While teaching "Real Gases", my professor remarked last day that "Liquid phase is a highly compressed gaseous phase." But he did not explain the reason behind it and left it as food for ...
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### Why are there large fluctuations at the critical point and why does Landau theory work despite such large fluctuations?

The question is about the critical point in a second-order phase transition: Why do fluctuations become so large at the critical point? As I understand, Landau’s theory of phase transition is some ...
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### Are particles that locally evaporate off water's surface at T = 100?

Water molecules can evaporate off a surface without needing to boil (How does water evaporate if it doesn't boil?). This is because surface particles are sometimes energetic enough to overcome ...
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### Fréedericksz transition question

What is the lowest voltage needed for a Fréedericksz transition to occur?
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### Why does correlation length diverge at the critical point?

In thermodynamics, the correlation length diverges near the critical point on the phase diagram, I'd like to understand why this is the case. I've found a few different papers / books, but most only ...
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### How do I choose which thermodynamical potential to use to describe a phase transition?

While studying thermodynamics I came across the Gibbs free energy and the Helmholtz free energy... IF I understand thing correctly, when describing a phase transition I can use any thermodynamical ...
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### Finite Temperature Signatures of QPT in the Transverse Ising Model

We know that in the transverse ising model $H=-J\sum_i\left(\sigma^x_i\sigma^x_{i+1}+g\sigma^z_i\right)$ there is a quantum phase transition right at the critical point $g=1$. I am wondering if ...
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### What is the phase (state of matter) of a single particle? [duplicate]

Compressing a gas (or reducing its temperature) can form "agglomerations" in the form of liquid drops and solid grains. But if there's only one particle in the system, can it be assigned with a phase ...
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### Does nucleation depend on the rate of change in pressure in a carbonated liquid?

Carbonated beer flowing from a keg through a short length of tubing results in large quantities of foam. Unintuitively (at least to me), increasing the length of tubing results in a less frothy drink. ...
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### How does moisture exist in atmosphere?

Moisture is the water vapor in air surrounding us where the temperature is 25 degrees Celsius (say). But the water exists as vapor only above 100 deg C at a pressure of 1 atm. Then how does moisture ...
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### Bose-Einstein condensation and phase transition

I would like to ask the following question for which I cannot find a definite answer in the literature. Of what ORDER is the phase transition leading to Bose-Einstein condensation for a ideal and ...
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### Can any material be a fluid?

Please find mistakes in the following (if found): Since any material can change its phase to a gaseous, supercritical, liquid or fluid state any material can be considered as a fluid, so it is wrong ...
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### What is the temperature change for the adiabatic compression of $^3$He?

Given a phase diagram of $^3$He, consider the adiabatic compression of liquid $^3$He until it becomes solid. If the temperature of the fluid is 0.1 K (where dP/dT < 0), will the temperature after ...
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### Phase transitions, Landau Ginzburg theory and Symmetry reduction

On one side of critical temperature (usually for $T<T_{c}$), symmetry is reduced w.r.t the symmetry on the other (usually $T>T_{c}$) regime. I heard on the road (near a theoretical physics ...
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### Why in the first order phase transition, the chiral susceptibilities is volume dependence?(Lattice)

This question is about the chiral phase transition at zero baryon chemical potential. Because of the chiral susceptibilities is not volume dependence, so the chiral phase transition is second order ...
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### What is the smallest possible packing of earth air inside a box?

It is often stated that all the air in a room could suddenly rush into one corner but that there is simply a very low probability that it would do so. One possible way this could in fact happen is via ...
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### Why does the stiffness of organic polymers (plastic) change so much with small changes in temperature?

This is on the borderline between Physics and Chemistry, but I would like a Physics perspective. I am guessing that plastics are a glass-like phase, rather than a true solid.
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### Is it possible to mix a drink with a non-standard phase of ice?

Would it be possible to safely cool and drink a glass of water with anything else than the Ih form of ice? Here and here you can see that some alternative forms of ice have a higher density than ...
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### Why does water boil differently in a microwave than over a flame?

Over a flame, small bubbles will start to form on the bottom of the pot, and as the average temperature rises, the bubbles will become larger until they start rise to the top. As it gets even hotter, ...
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### Decomposition vs Tansition of state? [closed]

When you energize water, when does it melt or evapourate, and when does it break the bond between hydrogen and oxygen and they are separated? I know electrolysis causes decomposition and heating it ...
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### Quenching of binary alloy: Concentration equilibrium

I'm currently reading "Models for phase separation and their mathematics" by Paul C. Fife and there is a paragraph which I don't understand because I lack the necessary background in physics/...
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### When I boil a kettle, what stops all the water from turning (exploding!) in to steam in one go once it reaches 100°C?

While making a cup of tea in the office kitchen, a colleague asked me this question and neither of us could answer with any certainty. We're guessing it has something to do with the pressure of the ...
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### Why is boiling not just a surface phenomenon?

The boiling point of a liquid is defined as The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the external atmospheric pressure. That being the case, why, in a pot of boiling ...
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### Do ice balls in whiskey really make sense?

So, I get the ad copy, the surface area to mass ratio results in more cooling, less dilution. But does this actually make sense? Yes, total cooling is related to the mass/temp of the ice, not the ...
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### Why does a cloud form around ice cream?

Everyone have probably seen the phenomenon as one opens a cool ice cream from its pack, a white cloud begins to flow around the ice cream surface, and it constantly spreads out until the ice cream ...
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### Do we have a good model for what happens to the manifold when a topological phase transition occurs?

To support this question I'm going to use a theoretical example. Suppose we have some Hamiltonian (H) which is a function of a continuous parameter, say $\alpha$. Also suppose that as a function of ...
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### Good broad review of agent-based modeling?

Trying to find some good review of agent-based models and networks, covering opinion dynamics, correlated behavior, phase transition analogies, etc. Are there any articles or books that cover major ...
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### Is lossless storage of cryo liquids practically possible due to pressure?

All cryogenic liquid storage tanks I've seen in labs are equipped with pressure relief valves, which will eventually vent all of the liquid when the tank is stored at room temperature. I am wondering ...
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### Critical temperature and lattice size with the Wolff algorithm for 2d Ising model

When I run my implementation of the Wolff algorithm on the square Ising model at the theoretical critical temperature I get subcritical behaviour. The lattice primarily just oscillates between mostly ...
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### Order parameter in Landau's theory for second order phase transition

Above is a screenshot of Kadanoff's review article "more is the same". The free energy in Landau's theory is very well known, but the highlighted sentence seems to be quite confusing. First of all, ...
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### Why can't liquid nitrogen be sealed in gas cylinders?

By observing the phase diagram of nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide, I discovered the supercritical region. I can easily buy a gas tank of carbon dioxide at 250 Bars. However I never saw any ...
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### Why does Landau theory not fail when dealing with a first order phase transition?

Here is a problem where I can do the calculation, but I am not understanding the philosophy behind it. It is about Landau theory: The Landau theory of phase transitions is based on the idea that the ...