Perturbation theory refers to methods for understanding physical systems by treating them as small modifications to exactly solvable systems.

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Capturing (perturbatively) non-equilibrium field theory effects using “elementary” methods

I am considering a system of two interacting scalar fields: $\psi$, and $\phi$. The Lagrangian is given by: \begin{equation} \mathcal{L}[\psi]=\frac{1}{2}\partial_\mu\psi\partial^\mu\psi+\frac{1}{2}\...
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Is string theory over a time varying background a conformal field theory to all orders in perturbation theory?

When computing the first order perturbative corrections to string theory over a curved background, we find the background has to be Ricci-flat if the dilaton is constant and we have no fluxes. Such is ...
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81 views

No mixing in light cone perturbation theory

In hep-ph/0609090, Triumvirate of Running Couplings in Small-x Evolution, Kovchegov et. al. calculated the running coupling correction to the Jalilian-Marian, Iancu, McLerran, Weigert, Leonidov and ...
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Symmetry of interaction lagrangian and symmetry of full lagrangian

Suppose we have lagrangian $$ \tag 1 L = \frac{\theta}{f_{\gamma}}F_{EM}\tilde{F}_{EM} +\frac{1}{2}(\partial_{\mu}\theta)^2 - \frac{1}{2}m_{\theta}^2\theta^2 + L_{SM}, $$ where $\tilde{F}_{EM}$ ...
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Integrability of the many body problem

In classical canonical perturbation theory of many degrees of freedom we encounter the problem of small divisors when attempting to find a solution for the generating function of the canonical ...
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221 views

Cubic perturbation to coupled quantum harmonic oscillators

I recently came across this two-dimensional problem of a particle in a potential of the form $$V = \displaystyle{\frac{1}{2}m \omega^2} \big(y^2 + x^2y \big) - \alpha y,$$ where $x$ and $y$ are known ...
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315 views

Question about the perturbative renormalization group

I'm currently learning about the renormalization group (RG) in condensed matter physics and just want to clarify a couple of things: When doing the RG transformation, there's a flow to a fixed point. ...
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36 views

Why is stat mech involved in mean field theory?

Mean field theory involves approximating an interacting system by a non-interacting one, by replacing some operators with their expectation value. However, to my surprise, free energy is involved in ...
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533 views

Solving the quantum an-harmonic oscillator pertubatively?

Background Generally while solving the quantum an-harmonic oscillator: $$ -\frac{d^2 y}{dx^2} + k_1 x^4 y + k_2 x^2 y= E y $$ Most people (I've googled) on the internet always solve this using: ...
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86 views

Gauge invariance of Fermi's golden rule

I am having some issues with gauge invariance of Fermi's golden rule. Say we have a system Hamiltonian for a particle in an electric field and some additional potential $V$ with \begin{equation}H=(p-A(...
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Textbooks on algorithms for the perturbative calculation of High energy physics

For the perturbative calculation of High energy physics, I have known some packages such as FeynArts, FeynCalc, MadGraph, CompHEP, GiNaC, and so on. But I am wondering whether there exists a textbook ...
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Estimating volume of moduli space of genus-g Riemann surface with n marked points

I wanted to know how can I estimate the volume of the moduli space of a Riemann surface of genus $g$ and having $n$ marked points. I am reading some old string theory papers which discuss divergences ...
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314 views

What does it mean to expand a Hamiltonian using perturbation theory?

On UC Davis chemwiki website, the Hamiltonian for quadrupolar coupling in NMR is analyzed. (The details of this aren't important.) It is said in the analysis that: The expansion of the ...
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45 views

Wavefunctions “adapted” to the perturbation ? Relation to Faraday effect

I came accross the following statement in a book: If one wants to switch on a magnetic field, one must first choose the appropriate complex unperturbed wave functions (that are "adapted" to the ...
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78 views

Relation between the reduced Green's function and the full Green's function

Let us assume that we have some Hamiltonian and we know its spectrum $$H_0 \psi_n = E_n \psi_n .$$ We define the Green's function in as $$ G(x,y,E) =\sum_m \frac{\psi_m^*(x)\psi_m(y)}{E-E_m}, $$ and ...
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140 views

Number of distinct Feynman Diagrams for different orders of $\phi^4$ theory for 2 point function

There is 1 distinct Feynman diagram for zeroth order and 2 distinct diagrams for first order in $\phi^4$ theory for two point function. I want to know is there a way to predict the number of distinct ...
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50 views

How is translational symmetry related to Fourier decomposition?

The book (The Cosmic Microwave Background By Ruth Durrer) about cosmological perturbations says that because of translational symmetry of the background at a constant time, we can decompose our ...
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Rigorous Proof of General Relativity's Non-renormalizability?

The answer to this question and the comments on it implies that general relativity has not been rigorously shown to be non-renormalizable for all loop diagrams -- only shown for two loops. However, ...
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Second-order correction in Quantum-Confined Stark effect

In the wikipedia article, there is a second-order correction in the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect. I could not understand how it was solved. I did not understand the meaning of 2(0) and 1(0) and how I ...
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176 views

Perturbation theory : quadratic external field

I'm trying to derive the explicit form of S-matrix of an interaction Hamiltonian $$H' = \frac{1}{2} \lambda \left[ \int d^3 x \rho({\vec x}) \phi({\vec x}, t)\right]^2\tag{1}$$ Even though the ...
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Decay of some particle involved quarks vs mesons as outgoing states

Let's have decay width of some mother particle into the state which involves hadrons. For simplicity, let's assume that creation of hadrons (on diagram) is possible only through electroweak vertices (...
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Why does the time-independent perturbation theory become no longer useful when its order gets larger?

In Griffith's Introduction to Quantum Mechanics p. 256, after figuring out $$E_n^2=\sum_{m\neq n} \frac{|\langle\psi_m^0|H'|\psi_n^0\rangle|^2}{E_n^0-E_m^0}$$ he says We could go on to calculate ...
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63 views

What's the importance of background field gauge?

Recently I've read that background field gauge is very convenient for gauge theories, because it fixes the connection between normalization constants of gauge field and gauge coupling constant one. I ...
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409 views

“Good” States In Degenerate Perturbation Theory

During the section on Degenerate Perturbation Theory, Griffiths (Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 2ed) starts with a general linear combination of two orthogonal eigenfunctions of $H_0$. He walks ...
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One question about renormalization

The idea of renormalization of "naked" perturbation theory is in principal possibility of addition counterterms which reduce infinity when calculating matrix elements. But I have met such concepts as ...
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How does one expand gravity Lagrangians about an $AdS$ background?

I had previously asked this question. This is kind of a continuation of that. I recently found this expression which seems to be called the "Fierz-Pauli action" which is apparently the quadratic ...
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101 views

General formula to compute the redshift (first order perturbations)

Consider an expanding universe with the following metric in conformal time/co-moving coordinates: $$ds^2=a^2\left[-c^2\left(1+\frac{2\phi}{c^2}\right)d\eta^2+\left(1-\frac{2\phi}{c^2}\right)\left(dx^...
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48 views

Difference between positron and electron scattering in Coulomb field

In first order of perturbation theory the S-matrix amplitude for electron scattering in the Coulomb field will be (up to normalization factors) $$ S_{fi} = \frac{iZ q^2}{\sqrt{2E_{f}2E_{i}}}\bar {u}(...
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238 views

Why do some terms vanish in first-order perturbation theory?

In first order perturbation theory, we usually express the first order perturbation in the eigenket of the perturbed Hamiltonian in the basis of the unperturbed Hamiltonian $H_{0}$: $$|b\rangle=\sum_{...
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Stationary Perturbation Theory : Estimating higher order corrections for anharmonic oscillator

Note $\hbar = 1$. $$H = H_0 + \lambda V =\frac{p^2}{2m} + m\omega^2x^2 + \lambda m^2\omega^3 x^4$$ Supposedly the perturbation expansion diverges. We are supposed to estimate for what order we have a ...
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QM perturbation theory : When do I have to use degenerate/non-degenerate perturbation theory?

I am considering a perturbation theory problem in quantum mechanics. The unperturbed hamiltonian is $$H_0 = A_1 \boldsymbol{B} S_{1z} + A_2 \boldsymbol{B} S_{2z}.$$ The eigenstates of the unperturbed ...
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115 views

Adiabatic theorem in the regime of quantum optics

I am wondering whether there is a version of adiabatic theorem in the regime of quantum optics. My understanding of quantum optics involves with the interaction between photon and atom. This ...
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124 views

Derivation of Brillouin-Wigner theory for coupled subpaces

I recall faintly from my quantum theory lecture that there was a really neat way to derive Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory for the special case of two coupled subspaces that involved a geometric ...
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Can an azimuthally symmetric perturbation lift the 2l+1 degeneracy of angular momentum eigenstates?

Assume the initial Hamiltonian of a spinless, non relativistic particle is $$H_0(r,\theta,\phi)=\frac{{\bf p}^2}{2m}+V_0(r)$$ Such that the eigenstates are angular momentum eigenstates $|n,l,m>$, ...
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On the Stability of Circular Orbits

Bertrand's Theorem characterizes the force laws that govern stable circular orbits. It states that the only force laws permissible are the Hooke's Potential and Inverse Square Law. The proof of the ...
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The Hilbert space that contains the first order correction to the state vector in Time-independent Perturbation Theory

When deriving the expression for the first order correction to the state vector of the new hamiltonian( H = H0 + H' ) we assume that $|\psi$n1> = $\sum_{m \neq n}$ C$_m$(n) $|\psi ^0 _m>$ $...
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What is the exact meaning that QED perturbative series is only asymptotic and eventually diverges at very high orders?

When I read paper PRB89, 235431 about the effective field theory of graphene, there is a statement that QED perturbative series is only asymptotic and eventually diverges at very high orders (e. g. ...
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“Zero overlap” of initial and final states in meson to nucleon + antinucleon scattering of scalar Yukawa

I'm currently studying QFT from David Tong's lecture notes and video lectures. In meson to nucleon + antinucleon decay (section 3.2.1 in this ) in scalar Yukawa theory to order $g$, without using ...
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Intuitions on perturbation theory?

I'm a QM newbie and I want to ask some questions on how to accept some peculiar points on this perturbation theory thing naturally. While they can be natural for most of the people, I find it somewhat ...
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Perturbation theory, eigenvalues and eigenvectors for degenerate case (1st order)

I was trying to understand the perturbation theory, but I was lost in the notation... I have understood that I have to identify the unperturbed kets that are degenerated and find the matrix $V$, ...
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Definition of linear response kernel in terms of wavefunctions (Parr/Yang)

I'm trying to understand the derivation of the linear response kernel in Parr/Yang's "Density-functional theory of atoms and molecules". First some background information: We look at a system of $N$ ...
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Quantum perturbation theory recommendations

What are some concise resources, in particular, online resources, for perturbation theory in quantum mechanics? I want something like a crash course to perturbation theory in quantum mechanics that is ...
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Corrections in Perturbation theory

Is there a way to construct a bound on the perturbative corrections to a problem in perturbation theory? For example, if I have the standard 1st order correction to the eigensolutions of a problem \...
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166 views

How do the renormalization enter the actual amplitude calculation in QFT?

I have studied QFT from Peskin and Schroeder and from a few other books and lectures and I think I understand the procedure of renormalizing various parameters in the Lagrangian like mass, coupling ...
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Expectation value in spin-orbit coupling

So I was just trying a question where it asked to find the Energy shift due to a spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian to first order using perturbation theory. The Hamiltonian is $$H_{LS} = \frac{Ze^2}{8\...
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What is a diffusionless fluid?

I'm taking a course in astrophysical fluid dynamics and have come across a problem involving "small diffusionless disturbances" of a fluid. Based on the nature of the course I expect the examiner to ...
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Variational principle perturbation

I am trying to learn 2D SHO and free particle variational principles. However, I came across a perturbation like so: $Ax^2y^2$. The particle is simple harmonic in $x$ and a free particle in $y$? I'm ...
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Applicability of perturbation theory

Consider some system in some initial state $|k^{(0)}\rangle$. The probability that such a state makes a transition to some other state $|m^{(0)}\rangle$ can be computed to various orders in time ...
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59 views

On GR with perturbation

Could anyone explain to me what I have misunderstood/missed when trying to understand this paper on GR perturbation? The paper is http://arxiv.org/pdf/0704.0299v1.pdf In equation 25 for $R_{00}$, $...
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197 views

Splitting of degenerate energy levels with a perturbed particle in a box

Suppose you have a particle in a square box $[0,L]\times[0,L]$. As the box is a square, the (2,1) and (1,2) eigenfunctions will have the same energy. If you were to apply an oscillating electric field ...