As I understand it, a free electron laser can basically be pictured as a synchrotron light source with an undulator which by the particular setup causes the electrons to self-attune so that they ...
I have seen similar posts, but I haven't seen what seems to be a clear and direct answer. Why do only a certain number of electrons occupy each shell? Why are the shells arranged in certain distances ...
I'm trying to get some specific numbers for electron degeneracy that I can understand, using a concrete example. Take for example this portion of carbon crystal: Exactly how much energy would be ...
In Sommerfeld theory for metals, after determining all of the possible levels for a single electron, one says that we build up a state for a system with $N$ electrons by filling up those levels, ...