Particle physics is the study of the fundamental forces of nature as they are embodied in the interactions of elementary and composite particles at high energies and short time and distance scales.

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1answer
122 views

Is this particle reaction possible?

I'm currently going over some undergraduate exams on particle physics and I'm havin problems with a specific reaction, namely $$ \pi^- + p \rightarrow K^- + \Sigma^+ $$ which, in my opinion, is not ...
5
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0answers
148 views
+100

Integration & bremsstrahlung calculation

In this paper (relevant pdf section) that I'm reading, involving the calculation of bremsstrahlung in electron proton scattering (diagram below), the author calculates the integral over outgoing ...
1
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0answers
24 views

Mechanism of Supersymmetry Breaking (F-term, D-Term, Mediated)

I will make my question clear. SUSY is broken symmetry because we haven't seen superpartners. As far as I know, there are two mechanism of SUSY breaking, F-term and D-Term. Besides, there are some ...
4
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1answer
78 views

Engineering new particles

I am not a physicist, but I have a somewhat philosophical question regarding particle physics. In chemistry, and biology, there is a notion of synthesis, which has led to the creation of novel ...
3
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1answer
31 views

The differences of R parity and $U(1)_R$ symmetry

I know that we introduce R-parity to avoid proton decay. But some papers introduce $U(1)_R$ Lepton Number, e.g claudia, thomas. I have questions 1.What is the differences of R parity and $U(1)_R$? ...
6
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2answers
579 views

How is antimatter made?

How is antimatter made in laboratory? Can anyone explain, at the particle level, specifically how anti-protons and anti-electrons are made?
0
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1answer
33 views

Building blocks of particles in different theories

If I understand it correctly, in most theories in physics we exploit the notion of point, i.e. we have e.g. point-like particles. In string theory, we don't have points, but a notion of string. What ...
6
votes
3answers
449 views

What allows the modified Urca process to work at lower density than direct Urca in neutron star cooling?

The dominant method of neutron star cooling is neutrino emission. There are two regimes usually presented, the "direct Urca" and "modified Urca" processes, each of which are sequences of neutron decay ...
11
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2answers
552 views

Why can the Euler beta function be interpreted as a scattering amplitude?

The Wikipedia article on the Veneziano Amplitude claims that the Euler beta function can be interpretted as a scattering amplitude. Why is this? In another word, when the Euler beta function is ...
1
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0answers
42 views

How to construct singlet and other multiplets from two triplets

Let an $SU(2)$ isotriplet operator is given by\begin{equation}\bar{l^c}i\tau_2\vec \tau l=l^T Ci\tau_2\vec \tau l\sim 3\end{equation} and an isotriplet Higgs field \begin{equation}\vec \Delta\sim ...
0
votes
1answer
168 views

Photons and proper time

Why is there no proper time without inertial frame? In question n°95054 I learned that there is no proper time zero and no proper distance zero for photons because they are no inertial frames. That ...
-1
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0answers
12 views

What is the difference between wigglers, bending magnets and undulators?

At storage ring of a synchrotron we have three systems: wigglers, bending magnets and undulators, which have influence on the electron flow. Could you answer, what exact difference between them in a ...
28
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6answers
4k views

Do electrons have shape?

According to the Wikipedia page on the electron: The electron has no known substructure. Hence, it is defined or assumed to be a point particle with a point charge and no spatial extent. Does ...
3
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2answers
268 views

Is there a connection between gluons and photons?

I was wondering if there is any sort of connection between a gluon and a photon since they are both considered massless.
10
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2answers
111 views

Why do fermions come in generations, but not bosons?

Why does the $1/2$ spin of fundamental fermions (electrons, quarks, and neutrinos) split them into three variants that differ only in mass, while the integer spins of massless fundamental bosons (e.g. ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

Is this summary of modern theoretical physics correct?

This is not exactly a physics question; it's more of a question about physics. You'll see what I mean in a minute. My understanding of modern theoretical physics is below. What I want to know is: Is ...
5
votes
1answer
370 views

How can mesons have spin greater than 1?

My understanding was that a meson, being made of a quark and an antiquark (spin 1/2) could only have spin 1 or 0, by addition of angular momentum states. I just saw an article ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

Is it possible to make superpartner of Standard Model live in Mirror World?

In the ordinary Supersymmetry (SUSY), the superpartner of SM live in SM world (matter world). Then we introduce mirror world with mirror particle live there. I would like to make a new concept that ...
4
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0answers
23 views

What are hadronic uncertainties?

I am reading articles about recent findings at CERN and the possibility of New Physics contributions, and they keep saying that the discrepancies may be due to hadronic uncertainties... What are ...
1
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0answers
37 views

How the neutron magnetic moment was measured?

How was the neutron magnetic moment measured? Was the antineutron magnetic moment measured too?
3
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2answers
355 views

What is meant by the spin of a particle? [duplicate]

I have been studying that electrons have quantum number called spin quantum number(s), this number can have either +1/2 or -1/2 value. If s=+1/2, the spin is clockwise and if s=-1/2, the spin is anti ...
4
votes
1answer
136 views

Why is Planck's constant the same for all particles?

This question came to me while reading "Where does de Broglie wavelength $\lambda=h/p$ for massive particles come from?". This question has a nice answer that explains that wave number has be ...
9
votes
3answers
143 views

What are the main algorithms the LHC particle detectors use to reconstruct decay pathways?

I am just starting to look into how we understand the data from particle collisions. My question is, what are the algorithms or ways that these detectors interpret the data? Are there standard ...
7
votes
2answers
271 views

How detectors in particle colliders can differentiate neutrons from antineutrons?

Their mass is the same. None of them interacts with EM fields. And their decay (around 1000s) is far too slow to see their decay products yet in the detector. How is it then possible to differentiate ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Constraints on new unknown stable fermions?

This question is rather speculative, but I would like to ask it anyway. What are the constraints on possibility of discovering new unknown stable fermions of some sort in the future? If I am not ...
2
votes
1answer
23 views

$B^{0}$ decay into $K^{+}$ and $K^{-}$: equally probable?

One of the decay modes of the $B^0$ meson is $B^0 \rightarrow K^{*0} \mu^{+}\mu^{-}$, with $K^{*0} \rightarrow K^+ \pi^-$. But because of the $B$-meson oscillatios, we can also have $ B^0 ...
3
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0answers
17 views

Symmetric neutrino mass matrix?

(i) Is there basis in which the $3\times 3$ sub-matrices $m_L$ and $M_R$, of the $6\times 6$ neutrino mass matrix $$m_\nu=\begin{pmatrix}m_L & m_D\\ m_D^T & M_R\end{pmatrix}$$ can be made ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Why does the weak force distinguish left and right handedness?

I'm wondering why the weak interaction only affects left-handed particles (and right-handed antiparticles). Before someone says "because thats just the way nature is" :-), let me explain what I find ...
4
votes
2answers
137 views

Scalar field divergent mass correction interpretation question (hierarchy problem)

Simple power counting tells you that a scalar field coupled to some fermions at one-loop picks up a correction to the mass of the order $\Lambda^2$. Based on this people say things like "it's natural ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Tetrad choice for Pauli-Lubanski in the massless case

The Pauli-Lubanski pseudovector coincides with intrinsic spin in the rest frame of the particle. In a more general frame, one defines a tetrad and projects the PL vector on it to define intrinsic spin ...
0
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1answer
24 views

Why is a “Semi-leptonic” Decay Mode called so?

Why is a semileptonic decay mode called so? I mean, if there is one lepton amongst the decay products, it should be leptonic, right? If there are two, that should be called bi-leptonic or something ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Range Of An Interaction

Why is the Compton wavelength $\lambda_c=\frac{\hbar}{mc}$ used as a sensible measure for the range of an interaction, where m is the mass of the corresponding mediator?
4
votes
1answer
129 views

Does accelerating generate gravitons?

If gravity and acceleration are indistinguishable, then does that mean converting potential energy to kinetic energy generates gravitons... but only temporarily until you stop accelerating?
2
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1answer
27 views

“Radiative” particle decay?

This might be a very simple question, so sorry. I have encountered the expression "radiative particle decay" quite a few times now, and none of the sources ever explain what they mean by radiative: I ...
4
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2answers
1k views

Maximum electron momentum in $\beta^-$-decay

This should be easy, but I think I have a mind-block... For $\beta^-$-decay, what is the maximum possible momentum for the electron? The two equations I can use are conservation of energy and ...
3
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0answers
17 views

Cronin enhancement in p-A collisions

What is the physical picture behind Cronin enhancement in proton-nucleus collisions at intermediate transverse momentum?
2
votes
1answer
122 views

Group Theoretic definition of a particle

We intuitively have a sense of what a particle means in the conventional sense. But is it possible to have a group theoretical definition of a particle, I mean in terms of irreducible representations ...
9
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3answers
234 views

Why is fundamental physics taught in terms of particles?

According to this paper, there can be no relativistic quantum theory of localizeable particles ("relativity plus quantum mechanics exclusively requires a field ontology"). Sean Caroll has also argued ...
3
votes
3answers
371 views

Second baryon octet

Let's temporarily ignore spin. If 3 denotes the standard representation of SU(3), 1 the trivial rep, 8 the adjoint rep and 10 the symmetric cube then it's well-known that 3 x 3 x 3 = 1 + 8 + 8 + 10 ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Deriving Feynman rules from a Lagrangian for vertex factors for “more complicated” interactions

I am trying to derive Feynman rules from a given Lagrangian and I got stuck on some vertex factors. What for example is the vertex factor that corresponds to the four-scalar interaction that is ...
3
votes
0answers
83 views

Computing box diagrams with non-vanishing external momenta

I'm trying to explicitly compute the following box diagram in the Feynman-t'Hooft gauge: If I neglect the impulsion of the $s$ quark, then the final amplitude is given by $$\mathcal{A} \propto ...
3
votes
1answer
98 views

Fierz identity for Weyl spinors in tensor currents

Using Fierz identity I found that certain four-fermion operator with left $l_i$ and right-chiral $r_i$ Weyl spinors vanish $\bar{l}_1\sigma_{\mu\nu} r_2 \bar{r}_3 \sigma^{\mu\nu} l_4 =$ $ ...
40
votes
4answers
5k views

What is spin as it relates to subatomic particles?

I often hear about subatomic particles having a property called "spin" but also that it doesn't actually relate to spinning about an axis like you would think. Which particles have spin? What does ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Penning Trap Simulation

I'm currently working on a particle tracker and I would like to implement a Penning trap. I think I might have a problem with the field of the electrical quadrupole. My idea was to place 2 dipoles and ...
2
votes
3answers
80 views

What happens to photons after they hit objects?

If I am not wrong when light hits for example white wall most of the photons are absorbed and transformed into heat and few of the photons at certain wavelength are reflected from the object. So white ...
0
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0answers
38 views

What's the symbol for the antiparticle of the delta plus baryon?

It can't be $\Delta^-$ since that is another particle also made up of quarks (not antiquarks). I can think of four possibilities: $\overline\Delta^+$ $\overline{\Delta^+}$ $\overline\Delta^-$ ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Simultanously HOT and DENSE in QCD?

Take this form of the QCD Phase Diagram for example: This baryon density is a number density - i.e. number of baryons in some volume. Why are baryon density and temperature regarded as ...
9
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1answer
155 views

Why Lorentz group for fields and Poincaré group for particles?

Wigner treatment associates to particles the irreps of the universal covering of the Poincaré group $$\mathbb{R}(1,3)\rtimes SL(2,\mathbb{C}).$$ Why don't we consider finite dimensional ...
2
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2answers
24 views

Meaning of SIS in accelerators

With reference to accelerator facilities, the term "SIS" is often used. e.g. SIS-100, SIS-300 etc. What does SIS stand for, in this context? (The last S is probably for Synchrotron) Google appears ...
26
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6answers
5k views

How come neutrons in a nucleus don't decay?

I know outside a nucleus, neutrons are unstable and they have half life of about 15 minutes. But when they are together with protons inside the nucleus, they are stable. How does that happen? I got ...