Particle physics is the study of the fundamental forces of nature as they are embodied in the interactions of elementary and composite particles at high energies and short time and distance scales.

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How to know the cross section in this Fig

I wonder how to calculate the cross section of ( p p > gamma gamma b b~) (blue region) in the opposite plot, the y-axis is the number of events divided by 100 GeV with luminosity = 100 $\mbox{fb}^{-1}...
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3answers
71 views

How can fields interaction give rise to particles?

We say light a matter-wave, meaning along with its wave property it shows particle nature. But how can fields interaction (electric and magnetic) give rise to particles (photon)? I wish someone could ...
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1answer
213 views

Understanding CP-violation from a toy model of two fermions and a scalar boson

Consider a field theory given by the following Lagrangian $$\mathcal{L}_{int}=y\overline{\psi_1}\psi_2\phi+y^*\overline{\psi}_2\psi_1\phi^\dagger$$ where $\phi$ is a complex scalar field, and $\psi_1,\...
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2answers
267 views

What's the symbol for the antiparticle of the $\Delta^+$ baryon?

It can't be $\Delta^-$ since that is another particle also made up of quarks (not antiquarks). I can think of four possibilities: $\overline\Delta^+$ $\overline{\Delta^+}$ $\overline\Delta^-$ $\...
3
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2answers
75 views

Does the Flavor symmetry forbid $uu\rightarrow cc,ss$?

This question comes from the reading of this paper. They suppose a flavor symmetry group $G_F = U(3)_q\times U(3)_{d} \times U(2)_{d}$ which acts on the three LH quarks $q_L$, three RH quarks $u_R$ ...
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2answers
66 views

Can we see/detect things which don't have electrons

Whenever we sees a thing the process happening at atomic level is the electrons of that stuff absorbs the energy from packets and goes to higher state and then comes to ground state and emits ...
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7answers
2k views

Is it possible to destroy proton in proton-proton collision?

Or in proton-electron collision. To destroy is to turn into other particles, not baryons. In context of the baryon asymmetry.
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1answer
105 views

How do I calculate the differential cross section with respect to the transversal momentum?

First of all, sorry for my English, my first language is German. My problem is: I calculated the matrix element of the quark-gluon-Compton process (q+g -> gamma + q). With the kinematics of ...
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0answers
13 views

Why Weyl fermion in Weyl semimetals(WSM) have high mobility only at low temperature?

I read several papers reporting high Weyl fermion with very high mobility in WSMs such as TaAs, NbAs, WTe2 and so on. However, this high mobility looks like (=Weyl fermion) always appears at only low ...
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0answers
36 views

Acceleration of particles, de Broglie wavelenght [on hold]

I have an exam in two days and one of the questions I could get, that I cant find the answer to is: What's the point of accelerating particles based on the de Broglie Wavelenght? Is there some sort of ...
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0answers
25 views

What is meant by interactions being mediated by force-carrier particles?

When a photon interacts with an electron, what is observed to happen? Force-carrier particles are described as the mediators of these interactions. What does this mean and how is this concluded?
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1answer
63 views

Do photons interact with everything?

Suppose you shoot a beam of photons in a particle collider. Are there any particles in which the photons do not interact with? Q2: What is an interaction between particles?
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2answers
55 views

Why isn't proton radiation by decay on earth known in nature?

Perhaps asking for why isn't appropriate in physics, but as there is neutron and alfa radiation what causes proton radiation not to be very common in nature (in laboratory it is seen although)
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2answers
116 views

What is the meaning of the size of an elementary particle in QFT? What is the meaning of a point particle? [duplicate]

I have often seen people refer to the size of a particle being at most a given value, or a particle being a point particle, in the context of quantum field theory. Examples are the Wikipedia entry on ...
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1answer
31 views

Weak decay iff or if strangeness changes? [duplicate]

I know that for a decay if the strangeness changes then the decay is a weak decay because strangeness is conserved in both strong decays and electromagnetic decays. However, is it also true that if a ...
2
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1answer
31 views

Why could the Tevatron collider only exclude high masses of the Higgs boson?

I wish to know why the Tevatron collider could only exclude high masses of the Higgs boson ($158-175~\rm{GeV/c^2}$). The two mainly facts you must to consider are that the Tevatron uses energies off $...
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1answer
33 views

How do flavoured mesons decay?

I've seen (Cf. Griffiths' book) many diagrams of weak interaction of the type $q_1 \rightarrow q_2 + W^{\pm}$ (which are justified ultimately in terms of CKM transition values). But I don't understand ...
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2answers
39 views

Is uniqueness a fundamental property of nature? [closed]

The Laws of nature are universally applicable and at every point in force. Together they shape our universe but are all "shapes" unique? For example, is it possible that there is a second identical ...
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1answer
131 views

Excitation energy of carotene using the particle in a box model

I'm practicing for an exam and I came across the following question: The linear, conjugated π-electron system of a carotene molecule comprises 11 atoms and the distance between two atoms is 1.4 Å. ...
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1answer
140 views

Helicity angle of electron in $B^0 \rightarrow K^{*0} \gamma$, with $\gamma \rightarrow e^+ e^-$?

I haven't been able to find the exact definition of a helicity angle, and the ones that I found don't apply to this particular case, because they'd require to boost to the electrons' 4-momentum to the ...
2
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2answers
68 views

How is one element capable of radiating (almost) every wavelength? [duplicate]

Black bodies are considered as emitting all wavelengths. A incandescent light bulb has (nearly/almost) also the continuous blackbody spectrum near-perfect color rendition. In this bulb is only one ...
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0answers
66 views

Generalisation of a particle in QFT

In classical mechanics, we assumed a particle to have a definite momentum and a definite position. Afterwards, with Quantum mechanics, we gave up the concept of a time-dependend position and momentum, ...
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1answer
179 views

Singlet neutrinos decaying to Higgs bosons during leptogenesis

(i) The Lagrangian of electroweak model extended with right-chiral singlet neutrinos $N_{iR}$ contains the Yukawa coupling term+ the bare Majorana mass term $$f_{\alpha i}\overline{l_{L\alpha}}\hat\...
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2answers
279 views

How it is possible to mediate a weak interactions by very heavy particle such as Boson?

When considering a weak decay interaction such as leptons , the weak force is mediate by huge particle such as bosons (W+ or W- ). How it is possible to have a such heavy particle within less massive ...
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1answer
79 views

Is the usage of the Fock space a postulate in QFT?

In this question, when I write Fock space, I mean "the direct sum of the symmetric or antisymmetric tensors in the tensor powers of a single-particle Hilbert space H", as it is described by Wikipedia. ...
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1answer
38 views

C-parity violation evidence

I know about the CP-violation experiments from the 60's and the P-violation from the 50's. But, is there a similar experiment which displays (perhaps historically in the same way as the experiements ...
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0answers
45 views

The Mechanism Behind Massless Particles Acting As One Massive Particle

I am reading a historical account of the development of the Higgs Field theory by Sean Carroll. In it, he states that the 1963 paper by Anderson postulated that "the massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons ...
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1answer
26 views

How to detect particle resonance with cross section measurement?

During one of the final year under-graduate courses, we had a lab experiment about particle physics. In this experiment we got some data from a detector regarding the electrons in the event. If we ...
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52 views

Branching ratio for a bound state

Consider the meson $\Upsilon(10860)$. It decays into $B\bar{B}$, $B\bar{B}^*+cc$ and $B^*\bar{B}^*$. The mass of $B$ is $5.28 ~\textrm{ GeV}$ and mass of $B^*$ is $5.33~\textrm{ GeV}$. The branching ...
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22 views

What would be the craziest (but still plausible) plan for launching a small payload to the moon? [closed]

I wonder what would be the cheapest possible (that means cheaper than anything else that's out there already) to "just" launch a small payload (like a ball less than a kilogram) and crash it somewhere ...
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0answers
8 views

How do a boundary layer and velocity affect a gas? [closed]

In the Field of Mechanical Engineering they talk about velocity And boundary layer. I want to know how do these relate to gases and how they move, do gas molecules every stop moving. Do gas molecules ...
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0answers
17 views

Is the bandgap energy at the same level quantasized as other orbits of electrons?

Usually to excite an electron to an 'higher orbit' there has to be an exact quantity of energy of a photon. I don't know hów exact this quantity of photonenergy has to be, but is there a difference ...
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1answer
69 views

Understanding type of force interaction in particle decays

Are there any fundamental rules of thumbs that can be used to identify the type of force interaction (weak, electromagnetic, strong) in a particle decay without drawing the Feynman diagrams at the ...
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1answer
37 views

Stopping power of charged particles in matter

So I have this diagram of how the stopping power of muons changes with energy: Depending on energy different equations are used to describe the stopping power variation. Now, currently I'm reading ...
3
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1answer
100 views

Proton is made of 3 quarks of each spin 1/2, but the total spin of proton also 1/2, how it is possible?

Proton is made of 3 quarks (UUD) each has a spin of 1/2, so if you follow the constitution the total spin of the proton must be (3/2), but the spin of the proton is still 1/2. How it is possible? But ...
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0answers
22 views

how spin of a particle can be measured from the angular distribution of its decay products

To measure the spin of Higgs boson the angular distribution of its decay products from the higgs rest mass frame is measured, but how the angular distribution of the decay products of a particle is ...
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0answers
23 views

Diffusion Equation for Particle Hopping with drift

First of all, I haven't studied partial differential equations yet, hence this question might sound silly. I am doing a simulation for particle hopping on a lattice with python. I was said that in ...
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3answers
196 views

How do we know that an electron “spins”?

As far as I know, you can't necessarily isolate an electron to observe it, you can only observe its effects on other particles due to fields. Moreover, we can't know an electron's exact location or ...
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23 views

Collins Soper frame

What I understand is when a particle is produced by pp collision at LHC, the transverse momentum of the produced particle depends on the pt of the colliding parton. To minimise the effect of parton's ...
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1answer
33 views

How does a hydrogen ion gas cool?

Ok I understand that a hydrogen gas of non-ions at a temperature higher than its surroundings exists with many excited electrons. These electrons, either spontaneously or due to collisions, will ...
29
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8answers
5k views

Is (rest) mass quantized?

I learned today in class that photons and light are quantized. I also remember that electric charge is quantized as well. I was thinking about these implications, and I was wondering if (rest) mass ...
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1answer
51 views

Angular momentum in annihilation $n\overline{n} \rightarrow \pi^0 \pi^0$

Consider the annihilation of a neutron by an anti-neutron $$ n\overline{n} \rightarrow \pi^0 \pi^0 $$ so that the initial relative angular momentum is zero. Because the spin of neutrons is $1/2$, $J_i$...
7
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1answer
287 views

Why is there no fundamental force following from the $SU(4)$ symmetry?

I've understood that the three fundamental interactions described by the Standard Model (the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong force) are thought to correspond (roughly) to gauge invariances ...
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0answers
14 views

meaning of ISR and Heavy signal

I was reading a paper on particle physics and came across two undefined terms which are ISR and Heavy signals. I would really appreciate any help explaining what those terms mean. Thank you in advance....
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2answers
21 views

Cinematics; Equation of movement

What's the difference using the fórmulas v=d/t , or a=v/t, instead of equations of motion? I dont get it.
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1answer
28 views

Does increasing the energy of a relativistic particle increase thrust?

I know this particular chestnut has been asked before, but I have a specific variation on the theme: Particle accelerator space thrust. Specifically, cyclotrons to generate the thrust. They are ideal ...
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1answer
282 views

effect of a simultaneous local and a global $U(1)$ symmetry breaking

EDIT : I am trying to figure out the effect of symmetry breaking in a $U(1)_Y\times U(1)_Z$ invariant lagrangian where $U(1)_Y$ is local symmetry of the Lagrangian and $U(1)_Z$ is a global symmetry of ...
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2answers
98 views

Did people ever thought of accelerating neutrons?

It is shamefully charge-free. But presumably, if we can tune its velocity, a lot of interesting things can be done, right? So, was there any proposal for obtaining high velocity neutrons?
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0answers
30 views

What is the difference between selection efficiency and acceptance in high energy physics?

Often in papers the product of these two quantities is mentioned, but I'm not sure what exactly they mean separately. My guess would be that one of these is the fraction of the events that you are ...
3
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1answer
36 views

Can anyone please explain the meaning of vector resonances in the scenario of particle physics?

I was reading some material on Particle physics and I came across the sentence: pseudoscalar D and B meson states and the corresponding vector resonances D* and B*. What are vector resonances? ...