# Tagged Questions

Particle physics is the study of the fundamental forces of nature as they are embodied in the interactions of elementary and composite particles at high energies and short time and distance scales.

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### What's smaller: a neutrino, or a string from string theory

I've recently read an article that stated "If an atom were as big as the solar system, a neutrino would be the size of a golf ball". I watch the science channel, and on (I believe) the show How the ...
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### Can neutrinos interact by the EM interaction and gravity?

A definition of a lepton is: A particle that does not interact by the strong force but does by the 3 other forces.$^1$ Neutrinos are leptons, so from the above definition one would expect it to ...
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### The interpretation of bubble and oyster Feynman diagrams?

I am reading 'A Guide To Feynman Diagrams in the Many Body Problem' By R.D.Mattuck, in which their is reference to oyster and bubble Feynman diagrams, shown respectively below. In these diagrams I ...
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### Sufficient conditions for a interaction to be classified as weak, strong, …?

Let us say I have been given the equation of a interaction/decay/etc. between particles: $$X+Y\rightarrow A+B$$ Are their any sufficient conditions that we can use to determine the type of interaction ...
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### Does Compressing Energy over a Multiverse Dimensional Rupre Create Mass? [on hold]

my question is only on a specific method of creating mass through super collapsation of enormous amount of energy in at a singular point or point of singularity.
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### Doesn't quantum uncertainty disprove string theory? [duplicate]

String theory states that the oscillations of little strings are responsible for all the particles in and the evolution of the universe. The specific type of particle created by a string depends on ...
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### How to understand CP-violation in kaon systems with Feynman diagrams and matrix elements?

I am trying to understand CP-Violation in the Kaon system using feynman diagrams and matrix element. Here is a slide from Mark Thomson corresponding exactly to what I am looking for (http://www.hep....
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### Wave function of particle and antiparticle

The wave functions of particle and antiparticle are related by complex conjugation and wavefunction $Ψ$ must be complex for particle such as $n$, $p$. Is there way to prove this mathematically? Can we ...
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### If there are long-lived elements in the Island of stability, why are they not present in Nature?

To my understanding, some (but not many) physicists speculate that the Island of stability may contain long-lived elements, as in a billion or so years. But couldn't we rule that out just by the ...
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### Why do we need to build photon colliders? Since electron-position colliders are very “clean”

What's the advantage of gamma-gamma colliders? What new physics can be done with it? Reference: http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/26/1/26-1-kim.pdf
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### Internal structure of electrons and quarks

I have some questions about experiments to probe the internal structure of electron and quarks. What type of experiments were done, in the recent years, to probe the internal structure of the ...
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### Relation among anomaly, unitarity bound and renormalizability

There is something I'm not sure about that has come up in a comment to other question: Why do we not have spin greater than 2? It's a good question--- the violation of renormalizability is linked ...
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### Lepton masses in the Standard Model

Some simple questions regarding leptonic masses in the Standard Model (SM): Why there is not an explicit mass term in addition to the effective mass term that arises from the Yukawa terms after ...
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### Do all the particles acquire mass in the Standard Model due to the Higgs mechanism only?

I know that a mass term for an intermediate boson is not compatible with the gauge symmetry. But in principle a mass term for the electron field does not violate a gauge symmetry. However to build an ...
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### Alpha Particle moving through a magnetic field [closed]

How would I find the acceleration of an alpha particle moving through a magnetic field given the force of the magnetic field, the charge, the initial velocity and the strength of the magnetic field.
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### Do massless particles really exist? [duplicate]

I was in doubt, so I went to wikipedia. There it says "the photon has zero rest mass", but on the side description it says the mass is $<1.10^{-18} \:\mathrm{eV}/c^2$. So is the mass of the photon ...
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### Mathematical method of Physics [closed]

Please any one can tell me how to get lecture of mathematical method of physics complete course online download complete lecture series. Which professor best for this subject please guide me how to ...
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### Connection between Veneziano amplitude and Regge amplitude

I have tried to read about Regge theory, and I continue to run my head against the Veneziano formula, which is said to produce correct Regge trajectories by eg. t'Hooft at page 6 here: http://www....
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### At what density and conditions would Californium-251 reach a supercritical mass? [closed]

If I were to obtain a sample of Californium-251 that weighs 1mg, how would I make that sample reach a supercritical state at which it would create a cataclysmic nuclear detonation? In a sphere, at -...
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### Running of $\alpha$ and scattering amplitudes

Consider a QED scattering process $e^-+e^-\rightarrow e^-+e^-$. The scattering crosssection at the tree-level depends on the square of the fine-structure constant $\alpha$ (apart from the electron ...
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### how do electrons in 2 separate atoms change its energy level when atoms come close together to form molecule?

The question is just as the title. It's said that electron must receive a specific amount of energy in order to go or drop to another energy level. So how can electrons of separate atoms which have ...
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### How would cold neutrinos get trapped by stars?

Continuing on from the cool physics Q&A'd on the threads Where are all the slow neutrinos?, Is it possible that all "spontaneous nuclear decay" is actually "slow neutrino" ...
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### Why particle needs spin? [closed]

I know the slight difference between rotation about the axis and intrinsic spin of a particle. But, I was puzzle why there is spin other than rotation?
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### How do Physicists picture an Electron in their minds? [closed]

What is the first image that appears in your heads when I say the word "Electron"?
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### Why you need a graviton when you have the higgs boson?

Since I studied General Relativity I had this question running on my mind. As I see it (just taking lectures of Quantum Field Theory right now) "Why you need a gauge boson for gravity when the higgs ...
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### Definition of a meson? [closed]

I am looking for a definition of a meson that does not include the quark model. After some research I have come across this definition: A meson is a particle that is (1) believed to be ...
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### Function of distribution of gravitation & mass inside a particle [closed]

Let's consider a neutral particle like a neutron. Let's consider the hypothesis this particle might have a size which isn't 0 in space-time. Let's not consider the weak and strong interaction at ...
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### Can we give particle with no mass, mass? [duplicate]

Is it possible to take a particle with no mass and give it mass. For example light? Or increase mass?
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### Particle Data Group book

Many PDG data books have 'July' marked on their covers, does this mean they are published (and made available on their website) in July? When is it expected to be available this year? (date or month ...
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### What actually happens when an anti-matter projectile collides with matter?

I'm trying to understand what would really happen when large quantities (e.g., 10g) of anti-matter collide with matter. The normal response is that they'd annihilate each other and generate an ...
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### If particles are points, then aren't atoms empty space?

Zero dimensional points do not take up space, so then wouldn't everything in the universe be literally empty? Or is there something that I'm missing?
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### Which theoretical models are there between quantum mechanics and cosmology? [closed]

I'm an enthusiast/hobbyist right now and I'm quite curious about the subject of understanding which scales come between the quantum scale (ab initio/first principles) and the macroscopic scale. After ...
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### Where are all the slow neutrinos?

The conventional way physicists describe neutrinos is that they have a very small amount of mass which entails they are traveling close to the speed of light. Here's a Wikipedia quote which is also ...
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### Constructing singlet from doublets

Can we construct a gauge invariant term using the SU(2) doublet $l_L=(\nu_e e)^T$ and $(l_L)^c=C\bar{l}^T_L$? Since, both are doublets under SU(2), and $2\times 2=3+1$, I wonder what will be the ...
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### Why Do Glueballs Have Mass, When Individual Gluons Are Massless?

From Wikipedia Glueballs Glueballs are predicted by quantum chromodynamics to be massive, notwithstanding the fact that gluons themselves have zero rest mass in the Standard Model. Glueballs with ...
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### Is it possible that all “spontaneous nuclear decay” is actually “slow neutrino” induced?

This thought was inspired by a comment from the current leading answer, by @Sentry, to the question Where are all the slow neutrinos? This [slow-neutrino induced nuclear decay] will still be an ...
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### With the LHC about to restart as max energy, are there absolutely no hints or tantalizing signs of Supersymmetry in previous data?

Over the last couple of years I've seen several articles talk about hints or bumps in the data that might point to Supersymmetry. An article in NewScientist from Summer 2012 discussed the discovery of ...
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### Can a superpartner be less massive than its SM counterpart?

Theoretically, can a superpartner be less massive than its standard model counterpart? I realize there are experimental constraints.
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### How to find SUSY with near-degenerate masses?

In SUSY models, you can have the case that sparticles and their decay products have near-degenerate masses. For example $$m(\tilde \chi^\pm_1) - m(\tilde \chi^0_1) < 1\,\mathrm{GeV}$$ Then in ...
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### Why are the third generation superpartners lighter than the other sfermions in MSUGRA

In the MSUGRA breaking scenario, the stop particle typically appears at energies reachable at the LHC. Other sfermions, notably the partners of up, down, strange and charm are assumed to be degenerate ...
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### Are oscillations of electron chirality experimentally observable?

Is there any plausible experiment by which chirality oscillations in electrons could be observed experimentally, such as through some analogy to neutrino oscillation experiments?
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### Does our existence cost us energy?

When something needs to inform its presence, such as the electromagnetic presence of charged particles , or the gravitational presence of particles due to their mass. Is this made by sending ...
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### Quantum flux tubes possible shapes

If given energy, can flux tubes be any shape as long as all quarks are connected and the amount of energy is insufficient to form a quark-antiquark pair, or will the shape of the flux tubes be a ...
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### Basic calculus of the adjoint spinor being transformed under parity

In Modern Particle Physics (p.287) Thompson says that under the parity transformation of the adjoint spinor we have \bar u=u^\dagger\gamma^0\rightarrow^p (\hat Pu)^\dagger\gamma^0= u^\dagger\gamma^{...
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### Preventing Heat Escape

Is is possible to completely prevent heat from escaping from a closed container? Here is a diagram of vacuum flask, which tries to implement the design - Vacuum Flask prevents heat from escaping ...
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### Scalar field divergent mass correction interpretation question (hierarchy problem)

Simple power counting tells you that a scalar field coupled to some fermions at one-loop picks up a correction to the mass of the order $\Lambda^2$. Based on this people say things like "it's natural ...
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### Can a magnetic or electric field deflect subatomic particles?

I always wondered if the subatomic particles can be deflected by a magnetic or electric field. Basically I am asking the viability of the typical "Force Field" in movies.