Particle physics is the study of the fundamental forces of nature as they are embodied in the interactions of elementary and composite particles at high energies and short time and distance scales.

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Sterile neutrino constraints (summary of results)

Constraints on sterile neutrinos come from an amazingly wide range of different sources. From astrophysical observations (review1, review2) to particle physics experiments (MiniBooNE, Daya Bay, LSND, ...
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58 views

Two double slit experiments after each other

Does the act of observation forever destroy a photon or electron's wave like behaviour? What would the result be if the electron was observed, and instead of displaying the two lines or particle like ...
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26 views

Writing the Interaction Hamiltonian for pions in a different way

$\pi^+$, $\pi^-$ and $\pi^0$ are scalars particles with masses approximately equals. Their interaction is, approximately, given by $H_{int}(x) = g \epsilon^{abe}\epsilon^{cde}(\phi^a\partial_\mu ...
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30 views

What is the role of the hyperfine interaction in singlet-triplet transition of spin correlated radical pairs?

I don't really understand the hyperfine structure. I understand, that the magnetic dipole moment of the nucleus interacts with the spin of an electron, causing a split between the energy levels of ...
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33 views

How to explain binding energy of electron in Geant4 particle transport code?

The question is related to binding energy of electrons in oxygen atom. First I will put the question and later explain how did I came across it. ========= The question =============== In the ...
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18 views

Why spurious pulses are likely in partial discharges?

My notes The gas multiplication in the proportional counters is based on the secondary ionization created in collisions between electrons and neutral gas molecules, resulting in some visible ...
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36 views

Covariant projection method - Meson bound states

I have seen many papers that discuss the production or decay of mesons ( quark bound states ) to make use of the covariant projection method where the product $\upsilon\bar{u}$ of the quark spinors ...
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56 views

Is there a local canonical ensemble partition function for a Bose-Einstein gas?

The grand canonical partition function for a Bose-Einstein gas is $$ Z_{\text{grand bos}} = \exp \left( \sum_{j=0}^{\infty} -\ln \left( 1-e^{\beta(\mu-\epsilon_j)} \right)g_j \right) $$ where $\beta$ ...
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86 views

Is there any difference in mixing and oscillation of neutral mesons?

I have often read about neutral Kaon oscillation or neutral B meson mixing. Both are described by the similar box diagrams. So I want to know if we can say neutral kaon mixing and D meson oscillation. ...
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29 views

No bottom quark in parton distribution function

CTEQ6M Parton Distribution: http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Introduction_to_Parton_Distribution_Functions My understanding is that bottom/top quarks can exist (at least temporarily) as ...
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52 views

Thomas precession and neutron star accretion discs

Assuming, based on this wikipedia article Accretion Discs That accretion discs surrounding neutron stars are composed of a gas and / or plasma. That the accretion disc material can achieve a ...
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106 views

What are the differences between the Jetphox, Pythia and Herwig event generators?

I know Jetphox is a parton-level event NLO generator program. But I want to know more about other generator programs such as Pythia and Herwig. What are the differences? I am undergraduate student so ...
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71 views

What are these arcs in bubble chamber photos?

In photos such as this one, or this one (too large to fit inside post), what are the highly frenzied arcs that are really prominent in these photos? Are they simply physical walls in/of the ...
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57 views

Total cross section of particle decay

Suppose a particle A travelling along the $z$-axis and decays into particles B and C. The cross section is given by $$\frac{d\sigma}{d\cos\theta^*} = k(1+\cos\theta^*)^2$$ where $k$ is a constant ...
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155 views

What does conservation of strangeness imply for the nature of interaction?

If the conservation of strangeness holds for a decay, then the possible interactions are Strong, Electromagnetic and Weak. But how does one determine which one is it, out of the three?
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53 views

Why doesn't the decay mode of negative omega conserve rest mass?

There are 3 modes of decay via which a $$\Omega ^{-}$$ particle can decay This is one of the decay: $$\Omega ^{-} \rightarrow \Xi ^{0} + \pi^{-}$$ Baryon number is conserved. Strangeness number is ...
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112 views

Is gauge invariance essential to a theory be renormalizable?

Let's consider a model of New Physics in which all operator have dimension smaller than four, but which breaks explicitly $SU(2)_L$ gauge symmetry. Is this model necessarily renormalizable? ...
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106 views

How is an atom ionized by electron impact?

Can someone walk me through in detail what happens when an atom is ionized by colliding with an electron? I would prefer a solid example so I can understand it more concretely. What I think:- -The ...
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16 views

What theory is used to describe photonuclear reaction and photodisintegration?

Assumption: electroweak interaction Background: I am interested in interactions of photons with matter. I just like to know at what point we can purely use the limiting case of QED and where we have ...
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62 views

Pion decay exercise in Griffiths books

I have questions about pion decay problem. In Griffith "Introduction to Elementary Particles" 1st edition, 1987, question number 10.10 : Analyze $\pi^-$ decay as a scattering process, using the ...
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56 views

Is there a typology of different fundamental physical objects?

As I understand it (and of course, I may be wrong!).... In classical mechanics, all objects are basically the same in the sense that They are composed of atoms bunched together. These atoms occupy ...
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74 views

Understading triplet Majoron model

In the Higgs triplet Majoron model, the spontaneous breakdown of ungauged lepton number gives rise to two Numbu-Goldstone bosons. But isn’t the SU(2) symmetry also broken? I mean when the neutrak ...
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31 views

How to calculate D0->K+K- decay with QCD factorization?

I am studying the decay of D0->K+K- and I calculated the result of Branching Ratio by Naive QCD and I wrote all the equations for amplitude and branching Ration and Hamiltonian and... for this decay ...
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38 views

How come plasmon resonances of metals are capable of being tuned to different wavelengths?

I read in this article that plasmon resonances though being a pre-determined property of a metal are capable of being tuned to other wavelengths when these same metals are made into tiny ...
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173 views

Radiation Safety of some Particle Accelerators in CERN?

I am trying to study the radiation safety and what kind of roles are required there with particle accelerators. Radiation safety groups of CERN is here. I contacted their a few members of them. I ...
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28 views

Techni-Higgs Particle

I read online that a professor from Denmark alleged that the particle that was found in Cern is not necessarily Higgs Boson, it has many characteristics that match with the "god particle" , but it ...
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Upper bound to annihilation cross section into heavy particles

For a process in which two relativistic particles annihilate to produce two or more heavy(er) particles of mass $M$: Is it true that the cross section $\sigma_{ann}$ cannot be larger than ...
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82 views

Why do weak interactions give such slow decay rates, if the analog of the fine structure constant isn't signifigantly small?

Intuitively, it seems as though the reason would be a small value for the coupling constant, as the probability for emitting $W^{-}$ bosons would be low. However, it's value is almost the same as the ...
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54 views

Charge Conjugation Operator in Supermultiplet

Consider an $\mathcal{N}=1$ left-handed chiral supermultiplet. The particle content is $$L = (\phi\quad e_L) $$ where $\phi$ is a complex scalar and $e_L$ a left handed Weyl fermion. People usually ...
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172 views

Mechanism of Supersymmetry Breaking (F-term, D-Term, Mediated)

I will make my question clear. SUSY is broken symmetry because we haven't seen superpartners. As far as I know, there are two mechanism of SUSY breaking, F-term and D-Term. Besides, there are some ...
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87 views

How to construct singlet and other multiplets from two triplets

Let an $SU(2)$ isotriplet operator is given by\begin{equation}\bar{l^c}i\tau_2\vec \tau l=l^T Ci\tau_2\vec \tau l\sim 3\end{equation} and an isotriplet Higgs field \begin{equation}\vec \Delta\sim ...
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31 views

Conservation of charge on Higgs production by bremsstrahlung

The Higgs production channel $$q+\bar{q} \rightarrow W^++ H^0,$$ depicted below, seems to be violating charge conservation, or am I missing something? The quark and its antiquark have the same ...
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83 views

What's the value of the coupling constant in interacting field theories?

Consider this Lagrangian : $L = \frac{1}{2}(\partial_\mu \Phi)^2 - \frac{M^2}{2}\Phi^2 +\frac{1}{2}(\partial_\mu \phi)^2 -\frac{m^2}{2} \phi^2 -\mu\Phi\phi^2$ Its interaction term is given by : ...
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Books on collision probability and collision processes

Are there any books specifically on collision processes between atoms and molecules and collision probability? I would like to get an overview of the factors that determine collision probability ...
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51 views

About Paschos-Wolfenstein relation (Weinberg angle measuring)

There is Paschos-Wolfenstein relation: $$ \tag 1 \frac{\sigma^{NC}_{\nu_{\mu}} - \sigma^{NC}_{\bar{\nu}_{\mu}}}{\sigma^{CC}_{\nu_{\mu}} - \sigma^{CC}_{\bar{\nu}_{\mu}}} = \frac{1}{2} - ...
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129 views

Mathematical model that allows the existence of an infinite number of smallest, but different particles

Does there exist a mathematical formalism (model) in particle physics that assumes the existence of an infinite number of different, yet smallest particles (building blocks)?
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169 views

Chirality of Weyl Semimetal

For Weyl semimetal, the effective Hamiltonian reads: $$H=E_0 \mathbb{1} + v_0 \cdot \mathrm{q} \mathbb{1}+\sum_{i=1}^{3} \mathrm{v}_i \cdot \mathrm{q} \sigma_i$$ Why is the chirality given by ...
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80 views

Physical interpretation of scalar tadpole loops

In Feynman diagrams, fermionic loops are drawn like this: While scalar loops are drawn as tadpoles: I assume the difference comes from the scalar not having an anti-particle. But how should one ...
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38 views

Chern bands and HEP Lattice Fermions: the emergence and the exact map

Chern bands or Chern insulators in 2 spatial dimensional(2D) are a way to construct the bulk insulating gap, but with edge or surfaces with gapless fermions. Such gapless fermions are emergent, and ...
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45 views

Subnuclear physics vs wave function

This question is more a philosophical question than a physics one. When we appreciate particle physics we study that in order to explain some experimental results we have to introduce a new particle ...
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39 views

Entropy of Reeh-Schlieder correlations

Any state analytic in energy (which includes most physical states since they have bounded energy) contains non-local correlations described by the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in AQFT. It is further shown ...
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278 views

Fundamental difference between neutron and proton

As I try to understand the elementary particles,I was reading strong interactions and Isospin from a book.Then I came across this: Thus,the strong interactions do not distinguish between a proton ...
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41 views

Superconducting loop as a particle detector?

Imagine that one has induced a persistent current in a superconducting loop. If a particle interacted with an electron in one of the Cooper pairs then would some decoherence and dissipation occur? I ...
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129 views

Oscillations and Majorana Neutrino

In neutrino oscillations, neutrinos can convert from one flavor to another. This implies individual lepton number is not conserved. Doesn't it also imply that, if the neutrinos have mass, the mass ...
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37 views

Preons as scalar-like fermions?

The symmetry of the standard model between the fermions and each generation of them is strongly suggestive of components as proposed in the Rishon model. Having discovered the Higgs boson, we know the ...
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113 views

Running chargino/neutralino masses in MSSM

Consider the plot below, showing the running of different masses due to renormalization for a certain point of the (c)MSSM. I am able to exactly reproduce the plot, including the running of M1, M2, ...
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343 views

Is total angular momentum conserved in particle interaction?

Imagine that two electrons interact by exchanging a virtual photon. I know that the total energy and linear momentum of the two electrons is conserved by the interaction. Is the total (orbital) ...
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How do I build an alpha emitter?

I would like to build an alpha emitter. I suppose I had some vague idea of knocking the electrons off of some helium. But upon further examination the idea does strike me as...naive? My question is ...
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107 views

What's the most precise test of electroweak unification in the standard model?

As I understood, there is a coincidence of the weak coupling constant $g$ calculated in two different ways: 1) The muon lifetime $\tau_{\mu}$ is related to $g$ by the formula $(m_{\mu} c^2)^5 ...
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Can TOTEM's T2 detector measure differential cross sections?

My current research involves making a prediction for data collected by the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. The experiment is primarily designed to measure the total inelastic and elastic scattering cross ...