Particle physics is the study of the fundamental forces of nature as they are embodied in the interactions of elementary and composite particles at high energies and short time and distance scales.

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397 views

Where did the idea of a neutrino come from?

Exactly what paper by W. Pauli introduced the idea for the existence of a neutrino and how was its existence confirmed experimentally (who did that and in what paper)?
3
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2answers
311 views

What is the highest accuracy of measuring time differences achievable today?

I was wondering if it would be possible to shorten the distance between detectors when measuring the speed of neutrinos to, say, 7m rather than the current ~700km? In this way the distance traveled ...
6
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2answers
217 views

How is the distance between Geneva detector and the Gran Sasso one measured?

Does anyone know how is the distance between detectors in the now famous neutrino experiment measured? Also, how was the time of flight measured?
3
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1answer
150 views

$\frac{1}{(1-x)_+}$ type distributions and parton distribution functions

I am trying to get to grips with Altarelli-Parisi-type equations. In chapter 17 of Peskin/Schroeder, they first develop the equations for a similar problem in QED. Equation $(17.123)$ introduces the ...
2
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1answer
416 views

Do the particles that were found to break the speed of light really break Einstein's theory of relativity? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What would be the effects on theoretical physics if neutrinos go faster than light? Update: Loose cable caused faulty results Apparently, researchers at CERN have found ...
9
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1answer
56 views

Dual Pairs in Four Dimensions

Following the conversation here, I am wondering if anyone knows of an example of dual pair with 4-dimensional N=1 SUSY which relates a non-Abelian gauge theory on one side to a theory with a ...
9
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1answer
351 views

Does the ruling out of TeV scale SUSY breaking disfavor grand unification?

One of the arguments in favor of TeV scale SUSY breaking is that it leads to the appropriate running of the gauge coupling strengths leading to grand unification, i.e. $k_Y = \frac{5}{3}$ instead of ...
13
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1answer
384 views

How are neutrino beams emitted at CERN?

As far I know they come from accelerator collisions, but I have read confusing things like magnetically focused. How could neutrinos be guided magnetically if they aren't affected by the ...
1
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0answers
300 views

What are the implications of superliminal neutrinos? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicates: What would be the immediate effects if light does not go at the maximum speed possible? Superluminal neutrinos Do we re-write physics? Or can it be fitted in current ...
34
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4answers
315 views

Models of neutrinos consistent with OPERA's results

I guess by now most people have heard about the new paper (arXiv:1109.4897) by the OPERA collaboration which claims to have observed superluminal neutrinos with 6$\sigma$ significance. Obviously this ...
19
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1answer
1k views

What happened to the idea of tachyonic or other superluminal neutrinos?

While hunting around for information about the recent OPERA measurement that hints at superluminal neutrinos, I discovered that this idea was actually considered back in the 1980s. Wikipedia lists as ...
18
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6answers
4k views

What would be the effects on theoretical physics if neutrinos go faster than light?

Earlier today, I saw this link on Facebook about neutrinos going faster than the speed of light, and of course, re-posted. Since then, a couple of my friends have gotten into a discussion about what ...
3
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1answer
163 views

What does “single inclusive” mean exactly?

I thought I knew what single inclusive scattering was, but today when I went to look up a definition to check my memory, I couldn't find one. A Google search yielded no shortage of papers that use the ...
10
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2answers
131 views

ATLAS Higgs Interpretation

I came across this abstract, and I am curious as to what the ATLAS Team has actually discovered: Abstract Motivated by the result of the Higgs boson candidates at LEP with a mass of about ...
1
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0answers
65 views

What is the variable plotted on the y-axis on these Higgs exclusion graphs? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Particle physics plots I have seen graphs like this in lots of talks by phenomenologists talking about the Higgs search (see for example FIG 3 in this paper or this blog ...
3
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3answers
1k views

How can I explain why the weak nuclear interaction between individual nucleons is 'weak'?

By considering the energy-time uncertainty principle, estimate the range of the weak nuclear interaction at low energies. Compare this range to the size of a typical nucleon (for example, a proton) ...
9
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1answer
230 views

Why is it common to plot $xG(x,Q^2)$ and not simply $G(x,Q^2)$?

I'm trying to understand the modern description of high-energy scattering processes involving hadrons in the initial states. The phenomenological parton distributions functions play a central role, ...
1
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1answer
141 views

Elastic collisions with neutrinos

1: Do neutrinos undergo elastic collisions with fermions? 2: Would this imply a variable speed for neutrinos? 3: Can neutrinos transfer momenta in interactions?
7
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2answers
275 views

Can the process $u\overline{u} \rightarrow s\overline{s}$ be mediated by the EM interaction?

I’m working on a homework problem which asks for the dominant contribution (e.g. EM, strong, or weak) to the process $p + \overline{p} \rightarrow \Lambda + \overline{\Lambda}$). I know that the EM ...
3
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2answers
677 views

What are the implications for quantum gravity if the LHC sees no higgs?

Following the news in serious "non-hype" physics blogs I`ve learnd that as things are now one needs a lot of patience and more data to learn what happens in the higgs sector. There are already a ...
3
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2answers
567 views

Quarks as preons for the whole standard model

This is a sequel to an earlier question about Alejandro Rivero's correspondence, the "super-bootstrap". The correspondence itself was introduced in his "Supersymmetry with composite bosons"; see the ...
6
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2answers
794 views

How do Leptons arise from Lambda decay?

I have a question for an assignment: Use your understanding of the quark model of hadrons and the boson model of the weak nuclear interaction to explain how leptons can arise from lambda decay, ...
5
votes
1answer
278 views

Inelastic nucleon-nucleon cross section at LHC energies

I am trying to reproduce the number of participants $N_{part}$ in Pb-Pb Collisions at LHC using a Glauber Monte Carlo simulation, specifically aiming to reproduce the values given in Phys. Rev. Lett. ...
12
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3answers
778 views

So, no Higgs boson then?

There are a lot of articles being posted in the wake of a CERN announcement that they have not observed the Higgs boson in the range of energies so far searched (between 145 and 466 billion eV), e.g. ...
1
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1answer
350 views

in SUSY, does WW scattering unitarisation needs the higgs boson?

One of the arguments of LHC "win-win situation" is that the scattering of W particles needs to include new terms to preserve unitatity begond 500 GeV or so. In the SM, this is realized by the higgs ...
15
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2answers
2k views

Please explain the physics of a Cloud Chamber

A friend of mine was telling me about building a cloud chamber while he was in graduate school. As I understand it, this allows you to "see" interactions caused by high energy particles going through ...
8
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1answer
558 views

What's with Mandelstam's argument that only linear regge trajectories are stable?

While thinking about how to answer a "describe string theory" question, I remembered an old argument of Stanley Mandelstam's that linear Regge trajectories implies stability. I never fully understood ...
3
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0answers
153 views

Treatment of sbottoms in prospino

Could someone please explain the details of the following "propaganda plot" from the prospino website? There is one curve for stop pair production $\tilde t \bar {\tilde t}$, and one for general ...
69
votes
5answers
8k views

Gauge symmetry is not a symmetry?

I have read before in one of Seiberg's articles something like, that gauge symmetry is not a symmetry but a redundancy in our description, by introducing fake degrees of freedom to facilitate ...
3
votes
1answer
870 views

Are There Strings that aren't Chew-ish?

String theory is made from Chew-ish strings, strings which follow Geoffrey Chew's S-matrix principle. These strings have the property that all their scattering is via string exchange, so that the ...
2
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1answer
737 views

What are the average matter, antimatter, and binding energy composition of protons and neutrons?

For a free baryon at rest at room temperature, how much of its ~1Gev (rest) mass can (on average) be considered as matter, as antimatter, and as binding energy? For a baryon in a nucleus, I assume ...
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2answers
377 views

Why are the antimatter compositions of neutrons and protons different? Why by about 1%? References?

In his blog at http://motls.blogspot.com/2010/09/can-antimatters-gravity-be-repulsive.html Lubos Motl writes "...neutrons contain a slightly different mass contribution from the antiquarks ...
7
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0answers
387 views

How well is the $\rho$ and $\omega$ coupling universality measured?

Is there any good recent experimental data that tests whether the $\rho$ coupling constant depends only on the isospin multiplet of the produced particle? EDIT: I got a downvote, so I should explain ...
13
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3answers
2k views

What are the details around the origin of the string theory?

It is well-known even among the lay public (thanks to popular books) that string theory first arose in the field of strong interactions where certain scattering amplitudes had properties that could be ...
2
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2answers
474 views

If LHC is the most powerful microscope in the world, what does it magnify?

Some experts (and non experts) have called LHC the most powerful microscope in the world. I am wondering, what does the LHC magnify? Or is calling it a microscope just wrong and misleading?
8
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1answer
926 views

What is a quark condensate?

What is a quark condensate? is it a bound state between 2 quarks? can we have 3(or more)-quarks condensate? What mediates the interaction between the constituents of the condensate? Are the ...
7
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3answers
2k views

Left and Right-handed fermions

Is there a simple intuitive way to understand the difference between left-handed and right-handed fermions (electrons say)? How to experimentally distinguish between them?
21
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3answers
5k views

Do anti-photons exist?

I know what anti-matter is and how when it collides with matter both are annihilated. However, what about anti-photons? Are there such things as anti-photons? I initially thought the idea ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Maximum electron momentum in $\beta^-$-decay

This should be easy, but I think I have a mind-block... For $\beta^-$-decay, what is the maximum possible momentum for the electron? The two equations I can use are conservation of energy and ...
18
votes
1answer
2k views

What the heck is the sigma (f0) 600?

At one point, I decided to make friends with the low-lying spectrum of QCD. By this I do not mean the symmetry numbers (the "quark content"), but the actual dynamics, some insight. The pions are the ...
7
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1answer
535 views

What does “tagging” mean in experimental high energy physics?

Could someone explain in details the meaning of the terminology "tagging" in experimental high energy physics and how is it used in the analysis?
9
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2answers
995 views

How are Monte Carlo simulations used in experimental high energy physics?

How are Monte Carlo simulations used in experimental high energy physics? Particularly in studying detectors limitations (efficiencies?) and data analysis. I will appreciate giving a simple example ...
3
votes
1answer
660 views

Fitting to a high density scatter plot

I am trying to do a crude particle identification, using a Bethe Bloch tenchnique. Here is a plot I made from the data that I have From what I've read, the standard method to identify charged ...
5
votes
2answers
461 views

How are the HEP experiments' invariant mass plots generated?

I am experimenting and playing around with some data, and I'm having trouble seeing how to generate invariant mass plots. The data I have has a bunch of events, and variables such as ...
1
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0answers
77 views

Scaling an electron microscope to fit within 1 cubic cm when running multiple parallel scans [closed]

Yes, I'm serious. What components correspond to an individual scan vrs what components can be cascaded across all objects? Ex: The vacuum chamber can be cascaded ( colocate the sample chambers ...
13
votes
1answer
571 views

How come random matrices can predict energy spectra of heavy atoms?

Some of the applications of random matrices is to find the spectra of heavy atoms in nuclear physics which are usually difficult to find otherwise. How can starting from randomness of some kind, ...
4
votes
1answer
65 views

Is accelerating particles through a chain of accelerators a continuous or batch process?

At the Advanced Photon Source, they use two accelerators before injecting the electrons into the large storage ring. Is the addition of particles to the storage ring done in "batches" (however ...
15
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2answers
3k views

Particle physics plots

I'm having a hard time understanding what some of the plots that are presented by ATLAS/CMS actually show. See for example: http://resonaances.blogspot.com/2011/07/higgs-wont-come-out-of-closet.html ...
3
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1answer
592 views

Cheat sheet of elementary particles

I am trying to teach myself some particle physics. There are too many particles and its too much for me. I hated biology just because of this sort of stuff. Too many names and it was all Greek to ...
2
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2answers
333 views

Question concerning Isospin symmetry

I'm currently taking an introductory course to particle physics and I'm now trying to understand the concept of isospin. However I do have some trouble. So let's write the up- and down Quark as a ...