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Physical limits to number of particles per collider bunch

Currently, colliders work with around $\sim\!10^{11}$ particles per colliding bunch. Recently LHC has increased this number to $10^{13}$. I would like to know if there are, in principle, physical ...
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0answers
10 views

Transverse momentum [duplicate]

I'm having an introduction on detector systems in particle physics. The sources I read constantly talk about the measurement of "transverse momentum". However, I cannot find a definition of what is ...
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1answer
35 views

How come two protons create top-antitop quark pair? (A question regarding CERN courier May 2016)

I am not very well versed in particle physics lingo but as much as I know $p$ stands for proton and $t$ stands for top-quark. Then, how could this be possible? I hope I am wrong about what is ...
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0answers
31 views

Colliding beams vs static target

In this problem I need to find the threshold energy of a positron-electron collision that creates a Z boson (the reverse of the following picture; Z mass 92 GeV) in two distinct cases: collision ring ...
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1answer
36 views

is there explicit eqution between radiation electromagnetic wave and accelerator a charge that has curve moving path?

i had a basis question i read a rule in electromagnetic when a charge is moving and it has accelerator it will emit electromagnetic wave. now i want to find a explicit equation that describe this rule ...
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0answers
13 views

After positron is produced after the target,what will the magnetic strength of the solenoid change phase space of the particle?

When positrons are generated from a particle beam hitting a dense target, solenoids are used to focus them, so what is the relationship between the magnetic fields of the axial direction(parallel to ...
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0answers
19 views

can we actually substitute electrodes in linac to electromagnetic coil?

I did some readings and researches for linear particle accelerator as I want to create one for my school science project. But I realised that most linac uses electrically isolated cylindrical ...
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1answer
110 views

Why do we need to build photon colliders? Since electron-position colliders are very “clean”

What's the advantage of gamma-gamma colliders? What new physics can be done with it? Reference: http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/26/1/26-1-kim.pdf
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1answer
41 views

Finding the direction of the magnetic field acting on protons in a cyclotron?

I have been trying to answer part b) of the question below: (The image is the image of the cyclotron in question) To find the direction of the magnetic field acting on the protons I tried using ...
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1answer
65 views

Can we use a particle accelerator to create elements?

i'm a student of 11th grade. i studied about working of particle accelerators, cyclotrons in particular in a chapter of electromagnetism. i also read that the whole periodic table after element number ...
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0answers
16 views

Would the ultra high energy particle beam be scattered in plasma accelerators?

Plasma wakefield accelerators accelerate particles in hot plasma instead of cold vacuum chambers of superconductor linacs. Would the particle beam collide with ions, electrons or thermal photons in ...
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0answers
64 views

Electric field inside the “Dees” of a Cyclotron and why no “Cups”

I read about cyclotron and how does it work. Several references say that the particle to be accelerated is only accelerated when it is between the gaps of the "Dees" or the semicircular disc like ...
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2answers
120 views

What physics does the Super Proton Proton Collider intend to explore in the $\lesssim 100\:\mathrm{TeV}$ range?

Chinese scientists have completed an initial conceptual design of a super giant particle collider which will be bigger and more powerful than any particle accelerator on Earth. With a circumference of ...
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1answer
22 views

Why it is good to have the frequency of cyclotron independent of the energy of the particle

In my book it is shown that the frequency of revolution of the charged particle in a magnetic field is independent of its energy. Now I understand that why if a particle is in a magnetic field then ...
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0answers
98 views

How would you build a small cyclotron (particle accelerator)? [closed]

I heard Michio Kaku built a small cyclotron when he was young. I bought a book called "Principles of charged particle acceleration" where it explains the basic functioning of particle accelerators. ...
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1answer
91 views

Could the Large Hadron Collider accelerate one kilogram of protons at once?

Is it possible to accelerate a very large number of protons in a particle accelerator as opposed to only a few as is regularly done? What's to keep someone from accidentally dumping too many particles ...
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1answer
46 views

How would the CLIC accelerator work?

After reading what I could find about the CLIC accelerator, I still don't understand how it would work. If someone could explain how the CLIC would work, I would greatly appreciate it.
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1answer
202 views

How many particles can a particle accelerator accelerate at once?

Does a particle accelerator lose its accelerating effectiveness as the number of particles being accelerated increases? According to Wikipedia, the mean acceleration of a proton in the Large Hadron ...
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1answer
90 views

Electron decay in high-energy accelerators

As far as I understand, electrons are infinitely stable since they are the least massive particle with non-zero electric charge. However, when accelerated to high-energies, the energy (or mass) of the ...
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0answers
38 views

Magnetic field of a circular particle accelerator

Suppose there's a $500 \ GeV$ proton beam ($q=1.6 \times 10^{-19} C$) inside a circular particle accelerator, what would be the magnetic field intensity $B$ in Teslas required to keep it stable at a ...
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0answers
28 views

Why can't electrostatically accelerated deuterium beams neutralized by electrons produce net energy fusion? [duplicate]

I was looking through the various nuclear fusion approaches and it struck me that they all suffered from one of two problems. Either they wasted a lot of energy trying to accelerate fusion fuel to the ...
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1answer
623 views

Do particle accelerators centrifuge the quarks of a proton?

Is it right that circular particle accelerators use magnetic fields to deflect the particle beam? Using the simple equation of "a charged particle in a magnetic field": ...
0
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1answer
66 views

Why can't a compact 10 MeV electrostatic particle accelerator not be built?

I've been thinking about this problem for a while, since I want to see if a compact accelerator driven nuclear reactor can be built for powering aircraft and rockets. The reaction I am considering for ...
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2answers
50 views

Advantage of using higher luminosity accelerator

If two accelerators operate at the same energy but different luminosity, is the only advantage of accelerator with a higher luminosity that there will be more events in a given amount of time, thus it ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Plasma field particle accelerators [closed]

I was discussing about particle accelerators with my friends and it came to my mind whether it is anyway possible to make a table-top accelerator(accelerator that can fit on a table). I asked this to ...
3
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1answer
85 views

Why is an electrostatic accelerator so inefficient at converting wall power to beam power?

I was reading up on electrostatic particle accelerators when I read a statistic stating the efficiency of converting wall electrical power (the electrical power from the outlet) into beam power in an ...
4
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1answer
152 views

Why would an alpha-beryllium neutron source generating a radioisotope not produce controllable net power?

I have a question. I was looking through the table of nuclides and noticed that the energy needed to produce certain radioisotopes was less than the energy given off by the radioactive decay of that ...
3
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1answer
58 views

Mechanism for inelastic collisions in the particle world

We know that inside particle accelerators we collide ionized particles. But we also know that in the microworld all collisions are elastic (due only to the electrostatic force?) between the particles. ...
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2answers
89 views

How can Particle Accelerators even crash particles?

In quantum mechanics there is a law that states we cannot know a position and the momentum of a particle and so in a particle accelerator, we need to know the position of the particles we are going to ...
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2answers
64 views

Can high speed moving hydrogen atoms drive turbines?

We know that hydrogen is a part of air so if we accelerate hydrogen atoms in a circular vacuum tube as done in a particle accelerator, can the high speed moving atoms of hydrogen drive a turbine if we ...
2
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1answer
197 views

Using particle accelerators for nuclear fusion [duplicate]

Apologies this is probably a stupid idea but I am curious and my knowledge of physics is limited as I am 14. So I was wondering if we could use particle accelerators to achieve nuclear fusion. I have ...
2
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2answers
173 views

Plasma wakefield acceleration for Protons

Laser plasma acceleration is a promising technology that could replace the current method of accelerating particles (which is via electric fields). It is somewhat cheaper also as it makes the ...
0
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1answer
78 views

Does elementary particle emit photon?

Charged particles are accelerated by the magnetic field in a particle collider before allowed to smash together at specific location where the detectors are housed. My question is do the ...
3
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0answers
43 views

Colliding proton-proton and antiproton-antiproton?

Would there be any difference in the measurable observables between collisions of proton-proton and antiproton-antiproton? I guess that colliding protons with anti-protons enable far more ...
0
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1answer
45 views

Is there any difference between fusing and smashing particles?

Fusion reaction In fusion process, a condition is required to allow the process to take place. Temperature (energy) + close contact (overcome coulomb barrier). The process normally observed inside of ...
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3answers
2k views

Why collide a moving particle with a particle at rest, rather than two moving particles?

I was just reading some lecture notes about relativistic and quantum mechanics, and in the later part of this page the author demonstrates that any relativistic particle collision in the "lab" ...
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0answers
177 views

Radiation Safety of some Particle Accelerators in CERN?

I am trying to study the radiation safety and what kind of roles are required there with particle accelerators. Radiation safety groups of CERN is here. I contacted their a few members of them. I ...
0
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1answer
75 views

Particle accelerators by focused laser beam?

My (layman) estimate is that such accelerators could relatively easily and cheap override the current high-end, multimilliard-$ accelerators. Some years ago I've read some interesting breakthrough in ...
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1answer
2k views

How does a cyclotron work? [closed]

Doing high school level physics and I got stuck at a question regarding a cyclotron. I need to know how does it work and the reason alternating current is used and the structure of the two semi circle ...
3
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1answer
67 views

Mathematical Formulation for Accelerating Charges Generating Light?

I haven't been formally taught the fact that accelerating charges generate light, and I have seen the picture of an accelerating charge sending ripples down its field lines, but is there a ...
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1answer
129 views

Reusing the bremsstrahlung energy in circular accelerators?

I think the Bremsstrahlung happens as a strong radiation emitted by the accelerated particle stream. As in this question is visible, it is the main cause of the energy loss in such big particle ...
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5answers
1k views

Can we squeeze atoms?

Lets consider few water molecules (or monoatomic noble gas or $H^+$ ions or electron gas) to be present inside a vessel, now if we enclose the vessel with certain hard material which could act as ...
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2answers
8k views

What is $p_T$? (transverse momentum?)

I've been looking at a few papers in experimental physics (from the ATLAS collaboration, for example) and I've often run across phrases such as "high-$p_T$ electron." What exactly is $p_T$? Is it ...