Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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What is the relation of scattering, extinction and absorption cross sctions with scattering parameters?

In optics and electromagnetics, they frequently calculate the extinction, scattering or absorption cross sections of a single particle (e.g. a sphere). Scattering cross section which is the ratio of ...
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24 views

What is the minimum bend radius of a square optical fiber on a microfluidic chip interface?

I want to make a microfluidic chip with colorimetry cuvettes with 100um square optical fibers coupled to the side of them. They should bend at a 90 degree angle to exit the side of the chip in a ...
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3answers
113 views

Missing factor of 1/2 in the definition of light intensity

The light field can be written as $E=A \cos\theta$ where $\theta=kz+wt$ is the phase of light wave. What we measure or see is the intensity which is the square of the light field $$I=E^2=A^2 ...
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1answer
67 views

Good resource for geometric optics

I'm looking for a good resource (preferably a book) on geometric optics. I am thorough with the basics (the mirror formula, lensmaker's formula, thin lens formula, etc). What I want is something that ...
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2answers
97 views

Describing a single photon with creation and annihilation operators

Since I am not fully aware of the creation and annihilation operator formalism for single photons, I want to ask, if the following is correct: I am considering a photon in the vacuum which travel ...
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1answer
20 views

if you're wearing goggles, will the light beam appear to travel straight?

if person A is outside a pool and person B is inside a pool with goggles, won't the light beam travel closer to the normal inside the pool but then away from the normal when it enters the goggles (due ...
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55 views

Why isn't Zemax showing a tilt on the wavefront on my telescope design?

Attached is a Zemax file Zemax File for an afocal telescope system. When i tilt the field by an angle of 2 degrees (In green) I would expect a wavefront tilt at the "Image " plane, however when I ...
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3answers
288 views

How noisy are photon detectors?

I have a single photon detector and $N$ photons per second arrive at the detector. Then something happens and the number of incoming photons per second changes by the factor of $\alpha$. So now ...
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1answer
66 views

Why does sea colour differ from place to place?

If you notice the colour of sea changes from place to place. At some places it is of blue or green and even different in beach. What must be the reason?
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1answer
30 views

Do TN and IPS displays are subject to diffraction?

Sometimes displays with the same resolution, diagonal and aspect ratio appear to have different level of sharpness . In optics there is this concept of diffraction and if you can lower your ...
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16 views

Autocollimator independence from lens to measuring object distance

i have been reading about metrology for a while, however in the angle measuring section, when introducing the autocollimator it says the distance from the lens to the object doesn't introduce error, ...
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1answer
50 views

Solving Optics problem with and without differentiation result in different results

In a recent class of physics-calculus, I and my friends were discussing about a certain problem about optical lens. The problem was: "I a certain laboratory setup, there are a lens of focus $f$, an ...
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71 views

Why does electromagnetic refraction happen?

Why does refraction happen? In high school textbooks, it is stated that it happens because the speed that electromagnetic waves propagate in the media change. But why cant they continue propagating in ...
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20 views

Particle collision: relationship of incident and reflected particles [duplicate]

A photon traveling through a curved fiber optic cable advances by reflection, yes? If each reflection is the product of a collision between the incident photon and, say, a wall particle that ...
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1answer
41 views

Could a lens be used to melt sand into glass

Could I melt sand, like that inside a sand dune, into glass using a focused lens? What factors would affect a lens melting sand? I was thinking you could use a lens to melt sand, to gather sand ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Single photon pulse and its electromagnet field

I describe the temporal distribution of a single photon pulse in an interferometer experiment in vacuum via the Gaussian function $\psi$: $$ \psi(t) = \tfrac{1}{(2\pi\sigma^2)^{1/4}} \text ...
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2answers
38 views

Lowest detectable power of a laser?

What is the lowest power of a laser beam which is still detectable? More precise: If the intensity of my laser beam is reduced by a factor of $10^{-8}$, can I still detect it? Of course this depends ...
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4answers
667 views

Why is an opaque body opaque?

When does a body qualify to be called an opaque body? Is it anybody which cannot let visible light through it or is there any other definition? And when and how does a body allow radiations through ...
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34 views

Increasing the volume of a object in a photograph

I have two images which look like this --- These images are two views of a calibration object --- the white die that you see hanging in the middle. The problem is that, the die is too small and ...
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32 views

Third-order dispersion of glass

When working with short laser pulses, it is important to compensate the dispersion of a pulse passing through a material because it changes the pulse's shape. The effect of dispersion can be described ...
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39 views

Reflectivity of gases

According to the principle of the conservation of energy, the following is true for an object: emissivity+reflectivity+transmittance=1; where emissivity=absorbtivity according to Kirchoff. When ...
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2answers
39 views

How to construct matrix to apply U(2) beam splitter to a N dimentional Beam

So I am trying to read this paper (no paywall here). In this the formal construction of a matrix $T$ is given as The product of matrices is equivalent to setting up experimental devices in ...
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0answers
17 views

Circular diffraction onto uneven surface

I'm trying to figure out how to solve for a surface using a circular diffraction. I have a pinhole diffraction that I'm projecting into a surface and I'm trying to figure out how to derive the shape ...
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55 views

Two thin lenses in contact [closed]

Two thin lenses with same focal length are in contact. what is the resultant focal length? Options a) f b) 2f c) f/4 d) 4f My Answer By both plotting the light ...
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1answer
84 views

How does Huygens Principle explain interference?

How exactly does Huygens theory about the propagation of wavefronts account for interference?
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14 views

How can an interference pattern encode both the angle of incidence and relative phase in a hologram?

For example - there are two "object" beams, both 180-degrees out of phase with the reference beam, which hit the recording plate at angles of incidence of 30-degrees and 90-degrees respectively. ...
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45 views

How can Young's double slit experiment explain the wave nature of light?

I've been reading about wave theory of light and the famous experiment performed by Thomas Young. But how does this experiment prove that light is a wave ?
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1answer
183 views

Optics simulation software for iypt #12 question thick lens [duplicate]

(As I'm writing these I viewed previous posts about optics simulation) me and some of my friends are working in iypt problems. one of the problem is named "thick lens" which says: A bottle filled ...
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1answer
30 views

Construct classical computer using classical light

Quantum light (i.e. photons), linear optics, adaptive measurements and feed forward can be used to build an efficient universal quantum computer. ref: Knill et. al. 2001. Clearly the above resources ...
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51 views

Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem [closed]

I take this course at university called Waves and Optics, and a few lectures ago our teacher talked about the Fluctuation Dissipation theorem but I didn't really understand it. The math behind it is a ...
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1answer
47 views

Why Does Thin-Film Interference Manifest Visibly Only on Thin Films? [duplicate]

We know that thin-film interference creates colors by constructive and destructive interference of different wavelengths. One of the better images I refer to is this: Though the example only traces ...
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1answer
71 views

Wavefront sensor specifications Shack-Hartmann

Why is the dynamic range of Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensors (As seen in the first image below) quoted in wavelengths and not in angles? I thought that one of the most important aspects of the ...
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2answers
297 views

Is reflection instantaneous?

I was wondering while reading "On the Electrodynamics of moving bodies" by Albert Einstein (1905) (Translated to English). In the paper, he describes the time as being: by definition that the ...
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0answers
38 views

Can multiple lasers be concentrated in a circular area using some optical arrangements?

Can multiple lasers be concentrated in a circular area using some optical arrangements such as using a paraboloid surface? If yes, why do in high laser power systems do they use only 2D arrays of ...
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2answers
63 views

What are some examples of non-Lambertian light scatters/radiators in everyday life?

What are some examples of non-Lambertian light scatters/radiators in everyday life? How to easily demonstrate their difference from Lambertian ones?
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67 views

Changing light beam direction

I'm using a rotating mirror to reflect a beam of light like that: where A is the beam source, B is the projection of the reflected beam on a surface at a distance y from the mirror, x is the ...
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1answer
71 views

Can one calculate the distance from Earth to the camera, given a single picture?

Given an image of (part of) a sphere of known size, can one calculate the distance to the camera based on the relative size of the sphere in the image? My instinct is "no" unless you have some fixed ...
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1answer
64 views

What temperature is achieved in focus point by 5000 flat 1x1cm mirrors onto a satellite dish?

There is this video ("R5800 Solar Death Ray") where teenager built a 5000 mirror device which concetrates the solar rays which is showing the potency of the mosaic method of concentrating sunlight ...
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60 views

How can colors from heat tinting depend on temperature only?

Colors caused by heat tinting of a material can be listed by temperature. For example, for carbon steel: ...
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1answer
55 views

is it possible to extract spectrum (color in general) from an animal [closed]

if i may ask....can this be ASAP? :3 my problem: okay this is going to sound lame, but i was wondering if it is possible to extract color (specifically spectrum) from an animal. this question ...
3
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2answers
132 views

Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor concepts, pupil conjugate planes?

I am just starting to looking at the application of wavefront abberommtery to measure abberations in the human eye. I am confused over the pupil conjugate planes, do you use relay lenses to image the ...
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2answers
71 views

Safety glasses for a CO₂ laser

I am working on a CO$_2$ laser project and I know glass blocks the wavelength of the laser, 10,600 nm, well. So, should normal glasses work good as safety glasses or do I need to buy a specific one? ...
3
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2answers
175 views

Why can't we reach the ends of rainbow?

Rainbows are spectacular things. But I imagine why we can't reach to the ends of rainbows. Do rainbows have no ends ? If so, why can't we reach at them? If you go closer,they will go further. Why?
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1answer
102 views

Diffraction to be explained without Huygens principle

Can we explain diffraction without using Huygens principle?
2
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1answer
121 views

Why do propellers look like they are moving really slow when they are moving really fast?

I was just looking at an airplane video and was wondering why it looks like the propellers are moving relatively slowly when they infact have a RPM in the thousands probably.
3
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2answers
161 views

Spherical mirror ray diagram question

why does a ray, parallel to the principle axis, intersect the principal axis at half the radius of curvature, i.e. focus? EDIT I was taught that in a spherical concave mirror, the rays parallel to ...
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1answer
38 views

Does Bragg's law take into account atom size? (And should it?)

Bragg's law explains wave diffraction and interaction when electromagnetic waves hit a lattice structure: $$n \lambda = 2 d \sin \theta$$ See picture and details on Wikipedia. I am wondering if ...
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1answer
28 views

How can you determine the direction of the polarizing axis of a single polarizer?

How can you determine the direction of the polarizing axis of a single polarizer?
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0answers
22 views

Proof of the Burns-Schlueter Theorem

In a multiple lens system, when the image of the first lens lies behind the second lens, you treat the second lens as a lens of its negative focal length. That is, a converging lens becomes a ...
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1answer
36 views

Ideas for improvised UV filter

I am doing a project where I would like to do some UV exposure to some concrete and stone samples. Therefore I have bought a couple of 400 watt UV bulbs, the product specification says it has an ...