Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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Radiometric Intensity of Non-Monochromatic LED

So I have a problem with the LED with the spectrum shown below I am asked to find the radiometric intensity in Watts/steradian given that the LED produces $5.6\times 10^{-3}$ mcd. We are also told ...
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43 views

Relection of light [duplicate]

If I recall my physics correctly, and it was a long time ago, when a photon strikes a reflecting surface that specific photon is not what is reflected--rather the photon excites an electron which ...
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31 views

Rotation speed measurment

Could anyone please explain with simply how we can measure the rotation speed of an object using the Sagnac Interferometer ?
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41 views

What Material for reflective surface of a solar grill/barbecue? [closed]

I have been planning on building a solar grill for quite a time now, and the one problem, which is also the biggest - I need to shape a mirror into a paraboloid, so it bundles solar energy ...
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1answer
74 views

Apparent depth and the viewing angle [closed]

Does the viewing angle of a person observing a coin placed in a bucket of water affect the apparent depth in any way?
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1answer
101 views

Why is a rainbow curved in shape?

Why is a rainbow curved in shape? When dispersion of light takes place, light splits into seven colors, but when rainbow is formed it appear to be bent. Why does this happen even though light travels ...
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1answer
52 views

Pfund's method for refractive index

I wish to obtain the refractive index of a smooth surface using only a laser of given wavelength and a light sensor. I thought of using the Pfund method (attached), but I can't understand how the ...
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2answers
47 views

The velocity of light changes from one medium to another, but does its energy change?

Does energy of light change when a light travels from a medium to another of different optical density?
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1answer
51 views

Can a full image be made in mirror if we change the distance between object and mirror?

To see the full height of man, the height of mirror should be half of the height of the man. What happens when we decrease the distance between mirror and man?
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42 views

Can zinc nitride be used as light emitting material?

I cannot manage to find any journal papers about the applicability of zinc nitride as active layer of an light emitting diode (LED). But certain papers got mention that zinc nitride with a direct ...
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94 views

Optics Brewster's Angle Reflection Intensity

An incident unpolarised light beam of intensity $I_{0}$ strikes glass plate B at Brewster's Angle. The reflected light travels vertically and strikes a second glass plate A, again at Brewster's Angle. ...
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3answers
55 views

Clear vs black in terms of light reflection?

I've heard that clear things such as the gaseous components of the atmosphere or water reflect no light, and that is why they are clear. I've also heard that black things such as asphalt are such ...
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1answer
24 views

Equivalent temperature: laser and cell containing Rb

What's the meaning of "equivalent temperature" related to a cell containing rubidium and crossed by laser?
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1answer
22 views

Practical hardware question regarding optical source for an array of fiber bragg gratings

I have a single 1 meter array of 5 fiber bragg gratings that has FC/APC connectors on both ends. I will be embedding the array in a material and want to be able to do a quick check that the array is ...
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2answers
80 views

What really makes a rainbow happen?

Yes, a rainbow is formed when a raindrop refracts light, but why then does the whole sky not become a huge rainbow when it rains? Would the light not be dispersed into ordinary 'white' light? What ...
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1answer
68 views

Diffraction problem - How do I interpret

Here is a problem on diffraction - Diffraction pattern of single slit of width 0.5 cm is formed by a lens of focal length of 40 cm. calculate the distance between first dark and next bright fringe ...
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1answer
44 views

Characteristic quantities in Fiber optics

I'm having trouble finding typical quantities in fiber optic communication. In particular, what kind of powers are generally used (or what is the minimum that fiber optics receivers can detect ...
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3answers
59 views

Simple Experimental Laser Characterization Parameters Ideas?

I have 2 months to do a project on characterization of a laser parameter. We have typical optics lab equipment (DFB Lasers, oscilloscopes, random number generator, etc.). I was told to choose a laser ...
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1answer
24 views

Microscopic origin of optical transmission

When light interacts with matter, it is abosrbed, reflected and transmitted. With repect to the UV-Vis range, electronic abosrptions occur, where if the incident photon mode matches the energy ...
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2answers
635 views

What causes multiple colored patches on a wet road?

I was going to school (after a rainy hour) when I saw some patches of shiny colours lying on road. Some small children surrounded that area and thought that it's a rainbow falling on the Earth. (For ...
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3answers
115 views

Does optical fiber preserve the angles of incoming light?

I am reading up on optical fibers and there's one thing I haven't understood yet: Does an optical fiber preserve the angles of incoming light? For example, if we light two LEDs in front of an ...
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2answers
94 views

Why does a picture of a person seem to be looking in the same direction irrespective of the angle of observation? [closed]

If you observe a picture of a person hanging on a wall who seems to be looking directly towards you always seems to be looking at you even though you change your angle of observation to the extremes. ...
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1answer
25 views

Isotropic systems and homogeneity

In isotropic systems, the atomic arrangement is homogeneous in all directions. In the case of glass, which has the atomic structure of a liquid and, therefore, a random atomic structure that is ...
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1answer
38 views

What type of interferometry set up do I need to image a small structure at a distance?

Please forgive me, optics isn't my forte. I'm trying to work out how to image the surface structure of an object at a distance. Considerations are: Monochromatic light- it must be imaged in the ...
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1answer
78 views

Phase Shift of Tunneling Wave

What is the phase shift of a wave that tunnels through a barrier, meaning the difference in phase between the incoming (in front of the barrier) and the outgoing (behind the barrier) waves? For ...
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1answer
34 views

How would the composition of the Venusian atmosphere visually affect the sunrise and sunset there?

The Venusian atmosphere is according to CalTech's webpage What is the atmosphere of Venus like? is 90 times heavier, than Earth's, containing predominantly carbon dioxide, some nitrogen, sulfuric acid ...
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3answers
55 views

How can fiber optic image conduits consist of only fiber core, no cladding?

Looking at fiber optic image conduits, I found that they have a packing fraction (the ratio of the fiber core's area to the total area) of 100% (source here). In other words, they consist only of ...
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3answers
310 views

Proof of minimum distance between object and image of a convex lens image being 4*focal length

I can prove that the minimum distance between an object and its image, through a convex lens is 4*focal length, if I assume that the distance between the object and the lens is the same as the ...
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1answer
59 views

Determining a person's sight from his speech [closed]

Suppose we meet a person wearing glasses.Can we determine whether the person is short-sighted or long-sighted? However,due to courtesy,we are not allowed to ask him to try the glasses and in general ...
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1answer
76 views

Visible light through a single-mode optical fiber?

If I understand things correctly, the optical fibers used for (long-range) data transmissions are generally single-mode fibers, transmitting light in the 1300-1500 nm spectrum. Now, could such a ...
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2answers
144 views

Is the frequency/wavelength of light modified when multiple light sources are combined?

Let's say I light a wall with two spotlights: One red and one green one. Where they overlap, I'll see a yellow area at the wall. My question is, whether this is caused by an modification of the ...
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1answer
93 views

Shot noise at high frequencies (can it really be ideal white noise?)

Quantum shot noise (either optical intensity noise or electrical current noise) described by the noise spectral density of $2 e I$ (electrically) or $2 h \nu P$ (optically). So it is white noise. I ...
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87 views

what is the 'resolution' of the reality in pixel terms

1.What resolution should a TV screen have so that its image were so faithful as reality as if the TV were a window ? 2.Also what would happen if Physics could reproduce a 'pixel' of the size $ ...
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34 views

Spatial light modulation for mode multiplexing, how does it work?

If a laser light becomes spatial phase modulated (by phase only spatial light modulator) what happens to the intensity distribution and frequency spectrum of the laser light ? I know that this ...
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2answers
129 views

White light diffraction

I have a hard time understanding why light waves of different wavelengths diffract in a different manner. According to Huygens' principle, every point on the wavefront is a source of a secondary wave. ...
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56 views

Why is the angle of a triangular prism equal to the result of the following 2 calculations? (Experiment with optical goniometer)

I know there are two ways of measuring the angle of a prism with a goniometer: let the collimator shine (monochromatic) light on 2 sides of the prism and measure the angle between the 2 reflected ...
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2answers
54 views

Do acousto-optic modulators shift the frequency of the diffracted beams?

Today I read an introduction on an optical device called an acousto-optic modulator, which is used in many optical experiments. It is the first time I have heard of this element. The material showed ...
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2answers
57 views

How does one measure the frequency of a laser?

I am taking a short introduction course on lasers. I never knew that the frequency of a laser is so high for a given wavelength (e.g. 780nm). I am wondering how people can measure the frequency of the ...
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2answers
138 views

Is it possible to project an image onto water? [closed]

Is there a way to create an image/projection in the water? Or form the water to project an image, little dot/pixel? Use some type of frequency to modulate the little dot in the fluid?
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How does a liquid crystal on Silicon affect the phase of incident light?

When a polarized light beam is directed to a phase-only LCoS system how is the phase modulated ? What is the physical effect behind ? Does voltage modulation has an impact on birefringence ?
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99 views

Why doesn't a typical beam splitter cause a photon to decohere?

In many experiments in quantum mechanics, a single photon is sent to a mirror which it passes through or bounces off with 50% probability, then the same for some more similar mirrors, and at the end ...
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62 views

Bragg's law in photonic crystals

So in photonic crystals when looking at diffraction the refraction of light has to be taken into account. I am told this would lead to the "photonic bragg's law" which is $$n \lambda = ...
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3answers
157 views

Refraction through prism

We know that the light gets refracted when it enter a medium low/high refractive index. But why light is not refracted when it comes out from the vertex of a prism.
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95 views

During reflection does the emitted photon have same properties?

When light (photon) is reflected the the original photon is absorbed by an electron and then emitted again. Does this "new" photon have the same wavelength, frequency etc. as the original?
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131 views

Why does the point of intersection of two shadows look brighter?

When I sit in my garden during the day I always keep looking at the two intersecting shadows of two rods. It looks something like this: What I find weird about it is that at the point of ...
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1answer
49 views

Why electric field has a major role in vision?

Although the electromagnetic wave is made op of both electric and magnetic fields the electric field contributes much in vision and is thus, called the light vector. But, why is it that the electric ...
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1answer
133 views

Is there a way to increase the speed of light itself?

When light enters materials it slows down due to its refractive index (due to absorbing and re-emission of photons). But, is there a way to increase the speed of light itself? Can there be some ...
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2answers
54 views

Minimum seperation between two Airy disks as a function of the distance between two point sources of coherent light passing through the same objective

I have two coherent point sources of light, $A$ and $B$, separated by a distance $L$, which I focus down to the diffraction limit using a high-powered objective (e.g. a $\approx 100x$ objective). If ...
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1answer
103 views

What causes refraction of visible light? [duplicate]

Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where its speed is different. The refraction of light when it passes from a fast medium to a slow medium bends the light ray toward the ...
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2answers
96 views

If you “disobey” the constraints of the Kramers-Kronig relations, what happens? Do you get non-physical results?

If you "disobey" the constraints of the Kramers-Kronig relations, what happens? Do you get non-physical results? I am simulating reflection and transmission off/through a slab of material. I specify ...