Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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Plane Mirror as the Screen in Young's experient

If I place a plane mirror instead of the screen in the Young's double slit experiment, what will I see? Will the bands appear on the mirror face?
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3D movie optics mathematics

I get the idea that we use two polarized light sources and a parallax rendered film such that the objects seem to resemble true parallax in our eyes once it passes through the polarized glasses, but ...
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72 views

Propagating higher order Hermite Gaussian modes. What are complex amplitude coefficients?

I've been tasked with writing a code (in MatLab, but I'm currently using Mathematica because I don't know MatLab %\ ...) to simulate the propagation of a Gaussian beam. I don't really know anything ...
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29 views

hexagonal patterns when we look at bright light or sun

when we look at bright light or sun, we many a times hexagonal patterns are observed. these are easily observed when we click their images. why all this happens? is all this is just a lens flare or is ...
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26 views

coherent length measurement of a monochromatic laser source

i need to learn about how to measure coherent length of a monochromatic laser source.I know that I can use michelson interferometer or spectrometry.For laser which has long coherent length michelson ...
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36 views

Position dependent refractive index [duplicate]

How to determine the angle of refraction when the medium has position dependent refraction index? Lets say that the angle of incidence on the glassy slab is $\theta_1$ and the ray goes through the ...
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28 views

Rayleigh scattering equation for optical frequencies

I would like to know if there is an empirical/generic equation for Rayleigh scattering at optical frequencies in the atmosphere, similar to the Mie scattering model from Kim and Kruse which states ...
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30 views

Disadvantages of viewing a diffraction grating at larger order?

If you are using a diffraction grating as a spectrometer you are likely to use high order, because you have a better resolution (as a result of larger dispersion??). But are there any disadvantage? I ...
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62 views

Why infrared light waves is visible through camera? [duplicate]

For example We know that some television manufacturers have the limited IR-based remotes which cannot be seen by our eyes directly but while playing when I just put my camera in front of my TV remote ...
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76 views

How do I convert lux to lumens

Overview... I'm a novice in the very basics of light physics and calculation between various units. I'm sure this is a very simple problem to those who know the process. And, before we continue, this ...
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Is true black possible?

Black is the absence of light because it absorbs light, but when we create black paint or black objects, light is always reflected, either in all directions in matte or smoothly in shiny black ...
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48 views

What's the size of the smallest possible CCD/CMOS pixel size?

For a given wavelength $\lambda$, is there a limit on the size of the sensor pixel, regardless of the optical equipment attached to the sensor?
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112 views

Why can I turn light red or blue by holding my finger up to it?

This is a difficult phenomenon to explain. Imagine you have an opaque object partially covering a very bright light source, for example, an object held up against the sky. The left hand diagram is ...
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118 views

Is the output of a laser pointer polarized or not?

How to verify it? Is a laser necessarily polarized? I have a laser pointer with wavelength 532nm in hand.
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30 views

Optical spectrometer

I am new on optical spectrometer, my particular interest is the spectrometer in which the deflection is produced by diffraction in a diffraction grating. But I can not find a good schematic and the ...
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28 views

Magneto Optical Kerr Effects

I have a few questions on MOKE setup. Firstly, why is calibration of the coils necessary? Is it to get a relationship between the voltage and the Magnetic field? Secondly, why do we have to normalise ...
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30 views

How accurately do Airy discs need to be superimposed in an optical interferometer to create fringes?

In an astronomical optical interferometer, what is the largest amount of error in the alignment of the Airy disks of point source star images from different arms of the interferometer that will still ...
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143 views

Viewing computer screen through 3D glasses, why the asymmetry?

I have 3D glasses made up of plastic. First case: When I hold front side of the 3D glasses (by this I mean that side on which light falls) in front of a computer screen, light coming from screen is ...
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35 views

How to deal with coma and oblique spherical aberration in a Czerny Turner configuration?

I am modelling my own spectrometer using Zemax when all of a sudden I've been told that: even if you manage to optimize the angles or positions of the grating and the mirrors, you won't get ...
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30 views

Apparent motion in a convex mirror

Why is it that if we look at the image of a person running with a constant velocity, in a convex mirror (for instance the rear view mirror of a car), the man's velocity seems to be accelerated?
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59 views

Is refraction of light a thermodynamic process?

Is refraction of light a thermodynamic process? Can it be explained by conservation of energy? If so, does temperature has an effect on refraction of light?
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99 views

Why don't extraordinary rays follow Snell's law?

I understand that ordinary ray (O-ray) and extra-ordinary ray (e-ray) have different refractive indices. This should mean O-ray and e-ray move with different velocities in a substance and they should ...
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85 views

What are the purposes of slits inside a spectrometer (Czerny-Turner)?

I am building a Raman spectrometer with a Czerny Turner configuration (with RamanPi). Why does the light source (A) appear to be converging into the entrance slit (B)? When a sample is excited by ...
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49 views

In the photon picture, how can light slow down and yet not be absorbed? [duplicate]

Many materials, such as glass, are transparent over some wavelength interval. In the photon picture, as far as I understand it, this is because there are no allowed transitions corresponding to the ...
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39 views

Would obstacles cause light diffraction if it has the same refractive index as the surrounding material?

Restatement of title: Would an obstacle still cause diffraction of light if it has the same refractive index as the surrounding material?
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61 views

Why do spatial filters use microscope objectives, and not other types of lenses?

A spatial filter is a device to 'clean up' a laser beam with an irregular intensity profile, and create a smooth Gaussian profile at the output. It is usually said (e.g. here) that you need a ...
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20 views

How to convert the molar attenuation coefficient, ie. molar absorptivity, to heat capacity?

In spectroscopy techniques, such as infrared spectroscopy, light of a certain wavelength is absorbed. I see parallels to the concept of heat capacity, i.e. the heat necessary to change the temperature ...
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32 views

How to convert from transition dipole moments to oscillator strength?

I'm having some trouble converting from transition dipole moments (in atomic units) to oscillator strength. I've found the following equation in Modeling Molecular Photochemistry by Nick Turro, which ...
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22 views

Finite Value of Cross Section of (Scattering/Absorption) of Localized Surface Plasmon at Resonance

According to textbook written by Stefan A. Maier, ch.5, p.70, cross section of scattering and absorption are defined as: $$C_{sca}=\frac{8\pi}{3}k^4a^6 ...
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25 views

For a light of given frequency, what does the amount of refraction in a variable medium depends upon?

I want to know whether the amount of refraction of a given monochromatic light depends solely upon the density of the of the medium ( increase the density to increase the angle of refraction), or ...
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65 views

Does Fermat's principle of least time apply to sound waves?

I am reading Feynman's presentation of Fermat's Principle of Least Time, which explains the behavior of light; does it apply to waves in general? for example sound waves or waves on the surface of ...
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77 views

Determining the path of a light ray

Let's consider a ray in the plane $xy$. Let the refractive index be defined in any point of the plane with the function $n(x,y)$. In time $t=0$ the ray is located in coordinates $(x_0, y_0)$ and its ...
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441 views

why cant we use a pair of polarizer ( whose pass axis are oriented at 90 degrees ) to protect from entry of harmful radiation?

If a pair of polarizers can block EM waves passing through it, then can we use them for protecting against harmful radiation (in nuclear reactors and also in spaceships) in thermo flasks to ...
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27 views

473 nm light through a single mode fiber designed to operate between 1500 and 1600 nm

Can we send light with 473 nm through a single mode fiber designed to operate between 1500 to 1600 nm spectrum? The radius of the fiber core is 4.25 micrometer, NA=0.12 and the single-mode cut-off is ...
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45 views

How is angle measured by telescope in spectrometer is twice the prism angle [closed]

While measuring the angle of the prism with the help of telescope in a spectrometer (see figure below), the observed angle is twice the angle of the prism. Can someone prove it geometrically? Edit : ...
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Is my window's semi-transparency a consequence of elementary quantum mechanics? [duplicate]

Studying mathematical concepts of quantum mechanics, I have recently become familiar with the classical model of one-dimensional particle being scattered by a potential barrier. As a mathematician, I ...
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50 views

Why does radiance remain constant along rays of light through empty space?

In Radiometry, radiance (L) is defined as flux density per unit area per unit solid angle. If we move further along a ray, away from a point, shouldn't the radiance decrease? I am unable to grasp an ...
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28 views

Is there any review paper on spatial light modulator?

I need a review paper on the various types, principles and characterization of spatial light modulator. But it seems I could not find one. Any one has a good idea?
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18 views

Lens to optimize field of view through a tube

I have a tube of length L and radius R with L>>R. I want to place a lens in the tube such that I have the biggest field of view when I look through the tube. Is the correct answer just the obvious ...
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1answer
61 views

Why the image is being formed at the surface?

Last week I encountered a very cool optical phenomenon. A photo was sandwiched between the two glass plate to make the paperweight. The cool part is the picture seems to have been pasted on the top ...
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90 views

How I can launch light into PM fiber

A polarization maintaining fiber preserves the linear polarization of the light at the output, the light at the input must be linear polarized to see signal at the photodetector... However I can't see ...
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50 views

How does light manage to change its course at the boundary of two media of different optical densities?

This is a conceptual question. I already know the law of refraction but I need something like an idea of the Physical process from both particle and wave theory standpoints. Why does a ray of light ...
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Why is forward brillouin scattering difficult to observe?

Generally we talk of only the backward Brillouin scattering. And I just know forward scattering is difficult to observe? Why is it so? Does it have something to do with phonon life time? Is it ...
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61 views

Optical system for cloning an image of a light source?

I need to create an optical system for cloning an image of a light source to human eyes. Is there a correct solution(design) for this problem. Reflectivity of the mirrors must be equal. Because ...
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1answer
60 views

Single particle passing through the double slit at a time [duplicate]

In modern experiments, With the classical setup of photons or electrons passing through double slit, the intensity is kept extremely low, such that one can detect a single particle passing through ...
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197 views

How to interpret single photon interference when the two possible paths are different in length?

Here is my question. I struggle with the definition of single photon interference. Let’s assume we have a Michelson interferometer and the interference pattern we observe is a single photon result, ...
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35 views

What is the formula of power of an optical instrument?

I have searched and found that the power of a lens, with surrounding medium of refractive index $n$, is $n/f$ where $f$ is the focal length, the formula is $$n/f=(n'-n)/R1 + (n-n')/R2.$$ But in my ...
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19 views

Point Spread Function of a Complicated Optical System

suppose I image a point source using a single lens, then at its focus (image plain) I'll get a spot resembling a Fourier transform of the point. As far as I know, that is defined to be the lens's PSF. ...
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About Powell lens

I am a Post graduation student and I am doing a project on the conversion of a Gaussian beam into a flat top beam using optical components. I have found that the best component to do the same is a ...
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What is the maximum of information in a beam of light?

If I look at the space I can see the Andromeda Galaxy as a small dot in the sky. If I look through a telescope, I can see the spiral shape. If the saw right through a huge telescope, I could see a ...