Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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How to perform a rotation of field of view using only mirrors/lenses?

How does one rotate a "microscope" fluorescence image on the detector using only lenses and mirrors in the set-up shown above? I am trying to do ray tracing to understand how to do this, but lenses ...
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7answers
5k views

How do we see? Where do the photons disappear?

I know that the light is reflected from a object to my eyes, but I don't understand exactly how. The photons appear from the light source and disappear in my eye! Can someone explain the phenomenon of ...
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6answers
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Do people wearing glasses have different field of view than those who don't?

There is one thing I sometimes wonder about ever since I was a child. Do people who wear eye glasses see objects in different size than those who don't?(Technically different size means different ...
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29 views

Given a light diffracting through an aperture of radius r, how would we find the radius of the beam at a position x meters away?

If we have a light source, say a laser or LED, diffracting through a circular aperture of radius $r$, how would we find the radius of the beam at a position $x$ meters from the optical axis? I ...
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1answer
72 views

Why do we see just one octave of light? [closed]

When one takes a look at the usual chart of EM spectrum one cannot help but notice that visible spectrum is slightly below one octave of frequencies; that is, the ratio between the highest and least ...
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3answers
77 views

Reflection during refraction

I have observed in a book that a light ray reflects during refraction, which is a partial reflection, but when does that occur? Is it related to the propagation of light from a greater to lesser ...
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0answers
19 views

Special case of mirror formula [closed]

Can anyone show me how to prove the mirror formula when the object is between focus and pole in a concave mirror
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4answers
2k views

3D glasses giving the opposite effect to that expected

I have just finished watching the new Star Wars movie (The Force Awakens), and during the end credits, text is shown upon a background of stars. Wearing the 3D glasses, I noticed that the text appears ...
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2answers
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3D glasses: how do we tell whether a doubly-rendered image is closer or farther than the screen?

This is a followup to this question: 3D glasses giving the opposite effect to that expected The current top answer explains that objects perceived as beyond the plane of the screen, as well as object ...
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Are the fast axes on Thorlabs quarter-waveplates mislabeled?

Some members of my lab are performing a polarization-sensitive experiment where they need to use a quarter-waveplate (QWP) with the fast axis in a specific direction. In the process of carefully ...
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133 views

Fringe Width and Spacing and Number of Slits in Diffraction Experiments

In a single slit experiment, the fringes are not equally spaced and aren’t of equal widths—the central maximum is the widest, the secondary maxima grow narrower and narrower outward, and the minima ...
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3answers
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3d holograms - How are they created?

How do 3d holograms work exactly? I read that there is a laser in use, but how are the multiple perspectives generated and how is the light trapped? in a certain area to create the effect? ...
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2answers
231 views

Luminance from multiple light sources

I have a LED diode: Given Luminance intensity [I] of $1.85$ cd. I want to have Luminance [B] from the light source of $75 \ {\rm cd/m^2}$. From $B=I/S$, where S is light source plane area, I get ...
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0answers
38 views

Which Method for finding velocity of an object in the mirror is correct? [closed]

My Professor asked a question, "A person is seen jogging in a rear view mirror of focal length $1$m. He is at a distance $39$m from the mirror. His jogging speed is given to be $5 \frac{m}{s}$. ...
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0answers
35 views

3D hologram without a requirement of screen [closed]

How can I project a 3D hologram outdoor without a screen? is it possible to do it? Basically I just want a hologram of a square shape or a cube in a field at daylight.
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2answers
93 views

Would a mass of bare iron nuclei be visible ?

As I understand it most of how objects look is because of how photons interact with electrons and photons emitted when excited electrons fall to lower energy levels producing photons. So if one traps ...
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1answer
35 views

Michelson interferometer

I'm reading about an experiment done with this piece of equipment. The aim is to measure the thickness of a piece of plastic. They use white light, so the central fringe in the interference pattern, ...
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2answers
283 views

Fiber optics with broadband, incoherent light

I wonder if someone could help clarify waveguiding with broadband, incoherent light please. If we take a telecomms fiber, which is single-moded above ~1.4 μm and couple a laser beam in, we assume ...
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0answers
25 views

What are ways to measure light scattering for a science fair project? And how exactly does scattering work?

How does scattering work? And why? I am still in middle school. I am doing my science fair project on scattering and so far the resources I found have either oversimplified it or made it in a way ...
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1answer
52 views

How to determine the radius of curvature of a convex lens?

Suppose there is an equi-convex lens made of glass which has a focal length ($f$) of 30cm. Then, can we not say that the radius of curvature, $R$ of the lens is twice the focal length, i.e. $R = ...
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1answer
46 views

Stacking lenses for higher magnification (a DIY microscope)

Recently, I have made a DIY microscope stand for my phone according to these specifications. I am using a lens that I found in home, the closest match that I could find is here. I got some great ...
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4answers
35 views

What is the distinction between a “ray” and a “wave” in optics?

What is the distinction between a ray and a wave in optics? From what I can gather, the only discernible difference is in nomenclature, where a ray simply refers to an EM wave with short wavelengths. ...
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1answer
203 views

Rayleigh-Plateau instability and optic [closed]

Let a liquid jet fall onto a surface. If the contact point is illuminated by a lase beam, rings of light around the jet can be observed . (pic.1) and we know it that the reason of this phenomenon is ...
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1answer
652 views

Geometric optics- Sign conventions

Why do we need to use the sign convention again in the mirror equation while solving numericals when we know we have already used a convention while deriving the mirror equation? The question is not ...
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2answers
424 views

On solving a two lens system

A common method to solve for the image formed due to a two lens system consisting of two thin-lenses separated by a distance is: Locate the (intermediate) image formed by the first lens, ignoring ...
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0answers
22 views

The sign of a focal length

We know that for converging lens, $f>0$ , for diverging lens, $f<0$. But for many materials I have read so far, it says that: "the focal length of a concave lens is 8 cm." I thought that the ...
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13 views

The image of an object through a curved surface

We have a curved surface, separating two different medium, with refractive index n1 and n2. We know the radius R of the curve,then how can we find the position v of the image? I read that the ...
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2answers
69 views

Speed and multiple images

Why an object (or something else) create multiple images of itself when it is moving fast? An earphone spinning in circle for example.
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1answer
31 views

Wave equation for spatially incoherent light beam

I would like to know what happens to a plane wave from a laser $$\Psi(r)=e^{ikr}$$ after it passes a ground glass. Would I just get a superposition of spherical waves? $$\Psi(r) = ...
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0answers
20 views

Coupling into FC/APC fiber

I am currently attempting to couple a 405nm laser diode into FC/APC fibre. The fibre is mounted on a flexure stage approximately 15.3mm from an f=15.29mm lens. I have managed to couple into the core ...
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1answer
40 views

how can interference occur within diffraction?

My book says : The number of interference fringes occuring in the broad diffraction peak depends on the ratio d/a that is the ratio of the distance between the two slits to the width of a slit. In ...
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1answer
25 views

Resources on solid state laser resonator design and modelling

I'm an experimentally oriented physics student and have been fascinated by lasers for a longer time. I'm currently building a diode-pumped, frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser from scratch. Before I start ...
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0answers
29 views

Given a focal length and an aperture of the telescope, what is its field of view?

While I know FOV of scope is equal to FOV of eyepiece divided by magnification. How can one find FOV given only the focal length and aperture of the telescope?
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Polarization in high energy vacuum non-linearity?

I heard that the vacuum becomes nonlinear at high energies. What is an intuitive explanation as to why this happens? For example, in classical optics non-linearitiy comes from material field ...
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0answers
32 views

Is there sound diffraction grating? [closed]

Sound is also a wave phenomenon. Therefore, is there any counterpart of the usual optical grating for sound?
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0answers
13 views

How to sketch transmission of ht eMZI in frequency domain?

I enrolled in to Optics&Electronics class and this is my homework: There are 5 questions and they were understandable and familiar(Teached in class) but question 3 is something else! I am not ...
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0answers
18 views

How do phonon modes and other collective atom processes fit in with the Clausius-Mossotti relation?

The Clausius-Mossotti Relation relates the molecular polarizability of a chemical (that is, how much an electric field polarizes the molecule) to its dielectric constant, which determines its optical ...
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0answers
41 views

Rings of light around a jet [duplicate]

When an obstacle is put in the path of a liquid jet, some standing waves are created upstream of the obstacle (see the pic) or we can say a similar form like this for them ( the wavelength of ...
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1answer
53 views

What will happen in this LASER setup?

If I have 3 rectangular mirrors, say of dimensions length of 1 meter and width of 0.5 meter and I arrange them in the form of an equilateral triangle, which is of side 0.5 meter.(The mirrors are ...
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4answers
2k views

Spectrometer vs. Spectrophotometer

I have been researching about the difference of a spectrometer and a spectrophotometer. They both sound the same. What is the difference?
2
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1answer
49 views

Is it possible to view an atom? [duplicate]

Is it possible to view an atom? What would it look like? Would it resemble a traditional atomic diagram?
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2answers
129 views

Why doesn't a Gaussian beam converge to a point?

No matter what lens is put in the beam path of a Gaussian beam, it will always go through a waist of non-zero width. Why not just a point? I know the maths, I'm wondering whether there is any ...
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0answers
15 views

Stark broadening and Voigt fitting

I have LIBS spectral data acquired with a CT spectrometer of resolution 0.4nm. I fitted the Voigt profile into the spectral peak at $\lambda_0$. The lorentz $\Delta \lambda_L$ and the gaussian ...
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2answers
35 views

Why is fiber coupling efficiency dependent on core diameter?

I read on Thorlabs' website that the coupling efficiency of a fiber is primarily dependent on the core diameter and numerical aperture of the fiber. It makes sense to me that if the beam of light ...
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1answer
44 views

The confusion of fractional error calculation

I need to find the focal length of a lens by using equation 1/u + 1/v=1/f I have: u= 50+-3 mm v= 200+-5 mm I calculate the value of f as 40mm. Now i need to find the uncertainty in this value. ...
2
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1answer
266 views

Can horizontally and vertically polarized light combine to become circularly/elliptically polarized light?

Well, we know that circularly/elliptically polarized light is made up from orthogonal components. So is it possible then to create circularly/elliptically polarized light by combining horizontally and ...
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0answers
37 views

Plane wave interaction with dielectric slab

Can anyone help me with this classical EM / optics problem? A plane wave is incident on a rectangular slab of a dielectric material. What is the form of the field in the region beyond the slab? ...
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1answer
54 views

Why does the wavelength gets shorter in the denser medium in refraction? [duplicate]

In the refraction, the wavelength gets shorter if it enters denser medium. Why is that happening? Is it just a phenomenon?
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1answer
92 views

How do hotel peepholes only work in one direction?

Basically the title. Light can go into my room through some lenses so that I can see it, but light can't escape my room so that people outside? The article about peepholes on Wikipedia doesn't ...
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Confusion with Fermat’s principle of least time [closed]

Here is an illustration used in my book to prove format’s principle of least time. My book says that ACB will be the shortest path. It is obvious that light reaches E first, and then X. If the ...