Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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Could laser speckle patterns be used in diagnosing vision defects?

At the London Science Museum some years back, I saw a device which projected a laser speckle pattern and had a sign explaining that it would appear stationary for people whose eyes were correctly ...
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78 views

Significance of colours in photoelasticity

I already checked similar question at Physics SE, but none gives me a clear answer, also it is a bit difficult for me to understand it from wikipedia as I couldn't find relating material to my ...
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66 views

What exactly is an image?

When we say several rays meet to form an image, what is that which is formed? Is it an arrangement of unknown entities? What exactly am I looking at when I see my image in a plane mirror?
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421 views

Apparent depth and virtual image position

Why does the virtual image appear right on top of the object and not a little to the right, for example? Is it explained by some formula or just symmetry of the geometry?
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218 views

Snell's law demonstration

I'm a bit confused about a Snell's law demonstration. I'm reading Communication Systems from W. Tomasi. In the chapter 11, the author applies the Snell's law to θent, and -here comes my problem- he ...
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235 views

How we can calculate the elements of the Mueller matrix?

Disregarding coherent wave superposition, any fully polarized, partially polarized, or unpolarized state of light can be represented by a Stokes vector; and any optical element can be represented by a ...
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211 views

how to trace light after refraction by a camera lens?

I am a programmer and I am doing a camera simulation, I am stuck in a matter of how to know where arrives every ray of light after traveling through the lens and being refracted. Every point of the ...
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39 views

No restoring force in atoms of gas of free electrons (as we have in the upper atmosphere)

While reading about the dependence of wavelength on refractive index, we assume an atom model where atoms stick to their mean position and they are disturbed by the applied electric field causing a ...
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181 views

How does airborne laser system deflect the laser beam?

In the Airborne Laser system, the laser beam is directed from the nose of a Boeing airplane towards the target. In this system, the angle of laser beam with respect to airplane body can be changed at ...
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193 views

Lens surrounded by two different materials?

If have a material refractive index $n_1$ then a lens refractive index $n_2$ then another material on the other side of the lens (but in contract with the lens) refractive index $n_3$. How do I find ...
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54 views

Construct classical computer using classical light

Quantum light (i.e. photons), linear optics, adaptive measurements and feed forward can be used to build an efficient universal quantum computer. ref: Knill et. al. 2001. Clearly the above resources ...
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84 views

Can one calculate the distance from Earth to the camera, given a single picture?

Given an image of (part of) a sphere of known size, can one calculate the distance to the camera based on the relative size of the sphere in the image? My instinct is "no" unless you have some fixed ...
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168 views

Diffraction to be explained without Huygens principle

Can we explain diffraction without using Huygens principle?
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67 views

Ideas for improvised UV filter

I am doing a project where I would like to do some UV exposure to some concrete and stone samples. Therefore I have bought a couple of 400 watt UV bulbs, the product specification says it has an ...
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48 views

Why does an external laser drive only couples certain levels?

I was always wondering how is it that all the quantum optics levels schemes are depicted as if the laser couples only two certain levels with some frequency. For exmaple the standard lambda system ...
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91 views

why an immersion lens is called so in Ion Optics?

In Ion Optics, an immersion lens is composed of two planar apertured electrodes. My question is why it is called an 'Immersion" lens? I know that an Einzel lense has three or more electrodes. But ...
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71 views

What will happen if two photons collide perpendicularly? [closed]

Suppose there is an object placed at (-1,0) on x-axis. A light ray coming from it is observed by an observer somewhere on positive x-axis. In addition, a second object is placed somewhere on y-axis. ...
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619 views

Magnification of an astronomical telescope not in normal adjustment?

I am stuck on this question: A telescope consists of two thin converging lenses of focal lengths 100cm and 10cm respectively. It is used to view an object 2000cm from the objective. What is the ...
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89 views

Calculate transparency from Beer-Lambert Law

I want to calculate a transparency parameter for a superposition of several volumes containing media using the Beer-Lambert Law, which states that $$I/I_0=exp(-\tau)$$ where $I$ is the transmitted ...
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6k views

How to calculate magnification

I have various magnifying glasses and I'm using them when I take macro photos with a phone or a camera. I want to group/label my magnifying glasses by their magnification power. And by magnification ...
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97 views

Frequency difference of absorbed and emitted photons?

In a transparent medium, how does the frequency of incoming light compare to the exiting light? I thought it was the same, but doesn't there have to be an energy difference in two electron states in ...
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92 views

Trouble understanding phase matching equation

consider a 2nd order non linear optical material, i.e. a material in which it holds that $ P = \epsilon_0 E + 2dE^2$. In the Born approximation, the non linear contribution to the polarization density ...
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35 views

How to block coupling between adjacent waveguides?

I have a number of nonlinear waveguides, say six. I don't want coupling between specific two waveguides. Other than keeping them large distance away, what are the other possibilities to ensure no ...
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223 views

How does the color of fine dispersed metal particles change between silver and black?

Small dispersed particles of metals are often black, while a solid object of the same material would be some shade of silver. The most notable example is the use of metallic silver as the black color ...
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613 views

Anti-reflective coating effect on total internal reflection?

If the surface of prism is coated with an anti-reflective coating, (specifically an index matching, refractive index gradient, or moth-eye structure), and light impinges at a greater than critical ...
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78 views

Helicopter blades

Why do the propellers on helicopter appear to be so slow when the propellers is going at full speed? Can you please explain this particular optical illusion to me?
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60 views

Thin Film Interference in Fluid Dynamics: Many are welcome to throw ideas in here, Please!

It was a few days ago, and there was a very heavy storm(currents were flowing beside the sidewalks as normal). I became intrigued by a thin film of gasoline that got caught in one of the currents. The ...
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121 views

Is this a photograph of Surface Plasmon Resonance?

Does this photograph depict surface plasmon resonance? PHOTO 1 - Ellipsometric style photograph produces blue-green and purple resonance waves from nanogold-like tubule. PHOTO 1 was cropped from ...
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536 views

Creating large aspheric lens profile for CNC cutting out of Acrylic plastic for huge Camera Obscura

I plan to use a CNC mill to cut a plano-convex aspheric lens from a large (300mm dia) thick(30mm) block of Acrylic (PMMA/Plexiglass). I need a focal length on the order of 800-2000mm The purpose of ...
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239 views

Quantum theory of light

What's the scattering matrix for a PBS (polarization beam splitter)? Is it just unitary? If one polarization never couples into another polarization (then there's a lot of zeroes in that 4x4 matrix) - ...
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48 views

Optical Waveguides with grating

I have some problems about mode analysis in grating-coupled waveguides,Would you please introduce me a useful book about wave propagation in these structures.
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454 views

Reflections in a double-glazed window

Recently I observed reflections in a double-glazed window. I wondered that the double reflections were not the same if I changed my point of view. For example the two images of a candle would overlap ...
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118 views

Infinite plane wave and ray vectors

I want to clear my mind on one basic optics thing: If I have a point source some distance away from a lens, the position of the image formed can be found using traditional geometrical optics ray ...
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68 views

Snells Law: Does the $k$ vector change on the boundary between mediums?

I was using Waves - Berkley Physics Volume III, and in explaining Snell's Law the author claims that as a wave is on the boundary between glass and air (going from glass to air) that the number of ...
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74 views

How should we put two lens?

How should we put two converging lens in order for parallel rays passing between both lens to remain parallel?
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126 views

Topological phase in Laguerre-Gaussian transverse mode

Why is the topological phase in a Laguerre-Gaussian transverse mode is the sum of orbital angular momenta per photon, and why is it quantized?
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114 views

Yet another Young Double Slit Experiment

If I have a laser light incident on the double slit at an angle O < 90 what kind of interference pattern will I see? Will i see the same with less intensity or different pattern?
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96 views

Viewing glass from an oblique angle

When I view most glass from the side it's green which I've found out is due to impurities in the glass specifically from iron oxide. Why is it when I view the larger face from an oblique angle, it ...
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683 views

Total internal reflection problem — could the textbook be wrong?

This regards the following problem: A ray of light is traveling in glass and strikes a glass/liquid interface. The angle of incidence is $58.0^\circ$ and the index of refraction of the glass is $n = ...
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127 views

Is the plane wave model always valid in reflection and transmission?

my question is related to another one I asked, but I foolishly made that question about several things (experiment, computation, theory) at once so it was confused. I was talking to my boss about ...
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5k views

Refractive Index formula for denser to rarer medium

I learnt that the formula for refractive index when light travels from rarer to denser medium is $$\frac{\sin i }{ \sin r}$$ where $i =$ angle of incidence, $r =$ angle of refraction. Is the same ...
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74 views

Photovoltaic IV data

I am looking for any available measured solar-cell datasets (Voltage/Current) especially for organic photovoltaic cells for the testing of a software unfortunately I am unable to get the measured ...
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162 views

What really is reflection? [duplicate]

What really is reflection? Is it just the reemission of EMR? I asked my teacher, he said in quantum sense, it is true. But when I read something about emissivity in Stefan Boltzmann's equation, it ...
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405 views

Can you replace the backlight of a thin film transistor (TFT) with a mirror?

I basically know how TFT' displays work. They have on both sides a polarizing foil, in 90 degrees with the crystals in the middle modifying which light particles should pass through or not. The light ...
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603 views

Optics Brewster's Angle Reflection Intensity

An incident unpolarised light beam of intensity $I_{0}$ strikes glass plate B at Brewster's Angle. The reflected light travels vertically and strikes a second glass plate A, again at Brewster's Angle. ...
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142 views

Characteristic quantities in Fiber optics

I'm having trouble finding typical quantities in fiber optic communication. In particular, what kind of powers are generally used (or what is the minimum that fiber optics receivers can detect ...
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47 views

What type of interferometry set up do I need to image a small structure at a distance?

Please forgive me, optics isn't my forte. I'm trying to work out how to image the surface structure of an object at a distance. Considerations are: Monochromatic light- it must be imaged in the ...
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305 views

Beam power and electric field after a beam splitter

Consider a beam with power $P_1$ and electric field amplitude $E_{01}$. It is sent through a 50/50 beam splitter that produces beams with power $P_2=P_3=P_1/2$. What are the electric field amplitudes ...
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84 views

Can alimentary packaging film be used to make a Fabry-Perot interferometer?

An alimentary packaging film consists on a thin plastic layer. If we put two of this films one on the other, could this acts as a Fabry-Perot interferometer? (I don't have the appropriate material at ...
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435 views

Reflection between two mirrors?

If I put my hand between two perfectly aligned mirrors and then remove it will the images continue to reflect for a few nanoseconds? If yes then will the images be of a combination of the front and ...