Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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How do phonon modes and other collective atom processes fit in with the Clausius-Mossotti relation?

The Clausius-Mossotti Relation relates the molecular polarizability of a chemical (that is, how much an electric field polarizes the molecule) to its dielectric constant, which determines its optical ...
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17 views

Prismatic shaped rear view mirrors

To reduce the intensity of the incident light, prismatically shaped rear view mirrors are used in cars with a day-night switch which changes the angle such that instead of the polished surface ...
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38 views

Confusion with Fermat’s principle of least time [closed]

Here is an illustration used in my book to prove format’s principle of least time. My book says that ACB will be the shortest path. It is obvious that light reaches E first, and then X. If the ...
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Is the primary and secondary focal length of a lens always same distance away from pole of a lens? [duplicate]

Is the primary and secondary focus of a lens always same distance away from pole of a lens?Why? I looked up the net and could not find any satisfactory answer...
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30 views

What happens when there is object exactly in the focus of converging lens? [closed]

I was learning some optics and then I wondered what would happen if some object was exactly in the focus of converging lens, more accurately, what would I see if looking from the other side? EDIT: so ...
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What is the maximum concentration ratio achieved for CPV (concentrated photovoltaic)? [closed]

CPV uses ratios in the range of 100-1000. On what lens parameters does it depend.
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1answer
219 views

Rayleigh-Plateau instability and optic [closed]

Let a liquid jet fall onto a surface. If the contact point is illuminated by a lase beam, rings of light around the jet can be observed . (pic.1) and we know it that the reason of this phenomenon is ...
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20 views

a question of optical interference and it's energy propagation [duplicate]

When I am thinking about the interference of two laser beams, a curious question often comes to my head: Take a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as example and suppose the frequency of the leaser beams is ...
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64 views

The Optics of the Vortex (in Water): why there is a bright ring also in reversed flow?

This question is closely related to this one; The optics of vortex (in water): why there is a bright ring? In this case "physics girl" gives somehow an plausible explanation, and it's only debatable ...
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59 views

What happens to the Fringe Width when the velocity of electrons passing through the slit in Young's Double Slit Experiment increases?

A beam of electron is used in Young's Double Slit Experiment. The slit width is d. Then the velocity of electron is increased. What happens to the Fringe Width? My approach: $$\beta = ...
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40 views

Let's suppose I am to display the letter R on mirror as well water , will I get the same images?

As far as my practical experience goes both look quiet the same when an image of any object is formed on them, yet I wanted to be ascertained is there any actual visible differences between both the ...
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34 views

How the Jordan Schwinger components transform the mode operators in a Beam Splitter- component

Hello, I am unsure how to prove this equation. It is suggested to take the derivative with respect to theta on both sides and use commutation relations for the Jordan Schwinger operators. I can't ...
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103 views

what is the theoretical reason behind the new paper, Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators built using graphene?

A few days ago, a group of University of Exeter physicists published a paper titled: Highly tunable hybrid metamaterials employing split-ring resonators strongly coupled to graphene surface ...
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1answer
33 views

Help to find a simple setup for optical surface topography

I'm looking for some help from someone expert in optics to create an inteferometry based setup to map the surface of a small object. This is for a small lab project so I'm not looking for a really ...
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1answer
29 views

Bandwidth of laser pulses

I am working on a practice test for my optics class. The professor does not provide the solutions for the test. I was just wondering if someone could tell me if I am doing this correctly because it ...
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30 views

Right lens for my laser [closed]

I want to know if there is a way to find out size of lens(radius, it has to be sphere), when i know focal distance(120cm) and refractive index(1.7), for 2cm(diameter) laser ligting on it?
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52 views

How to estimate function from PDF and covariance? [closed]

I've added a picture of what I want to compute. In the nomenclature of the picture, I want to compute a realization of y(x) given the known distributions and constants. Let's say y(x), random ...
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19 views

ray tracing through a stack of flat plates

Say I want to trace rays in 3 dimensions through a stack of flat plates of various refractive indices. My rays have canonical coordinates {Q,P}. The plates are normal to the z axis, all the rays start ...
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27 views

The squeezed-displaced-thermal state [closed]

I wonder whether the following squeezed-displaced-thermal state has any applications in the related fields. I would be grateful if anyone could make some comments.
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39 views

Fraunhofer diffraction at circular aperture - integration of bessel function

I'm trying to understand the calculation here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraunhofer_diffraction_(mathematics)#Circular_aperture for the solution by integration, but I plain and simple fail to see ...
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16 views

Hollow metallic waveguides versus optical waveguides versus cables

In almost every physics program, you learn about electricity, electromagnetism, photonics, ... Within the electricity course, you learn about transporting electric energy as electrons through cables. ...
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1answer
72 views

Refractive index of prism

The formula for the refractive index of a prism is: $$\mu = \frac{\sin (\frac{A + D_m}{2})}{\sin (A/2)}$$ However, this requires me to find out the angle of minimum deviation ($D_m$). This would ...
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1answer
79 views

Single Slit Diffraction

I am trying to derive the intensity variation function for a single slit diffraction. Sorry for the poor diagram... So I decided to take the amplitudes of the waves originating from the slit on the ...
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27 views

Polarizing cavity dumped laser light

From what I have read, most lasers are polarized because of Brewster windows. However, cavity dumped laser light never interacts with Brewster windows. Now, I know that there have been many cases of ...
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1answer
39 views

Coherent Polarization Beam Combination

All the papers I have read regarding coherent polarization beam combination split laser beams and then coherently combine the components. But is it possible to coherently combine two different lasers ...
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25 views

Method of Transformed Impedances

So I am taking an advanced optics class at the moment, using the book Lasers and Electro-Optics by Chris Davis. At one point, while explaining the concept of impedance, he mentions something called ...
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23 views

LED characteristics to use in heating a material sample?

I am looking to be able to heat a sample of material, typically less than 500mg and sitting in a fused silica sample holder about 10mm diameter. Wondering about using (say) a 5W LED with narrow ...
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1answer
58 views

Can one make a propagating field along a waveguide only have longitudinal/transverse components?

We know that in free space, a propagating electromagnetic wave is always transverse. However, along a dielectric waveguide, the propagating wave can have longitudinal components. The exist of the ...
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51 views

Source of a parabolic wavefront

The Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral has been formulated for incident spherical waves. A source of a spherical wave is kind of intuitive, since the perpendicular rays of the sphere converge into a ...
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64 views

Numerical Calculation of the Second Harmonic Generation in the Nonlinear Media

Recently I am working on the Numerical Calculation of the Second Harmonic Generation in the Nonlinear Media. I refer to the Book ...
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20 views

Deduce dielectric function from appearance of material

It is often hard to find data on the optical absorption spectra of materials. However one can easily find a description of the appearence of a material (e.g. grey powder, white powder, metallic). What ...
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54 views

Characteristics of an Optical System in the Fourier Domain

An imaging system can be characterized by its point spread function (PSF), which in most cases is space-variant. The final image is the result of the convolution of the PSF with the object (2d ...
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78 views

Fresnel diffraction approximation (parabolic waves)

The Huygens-Fresnel principle (Introduction to Fourier Optics, Goodman), $$ U(x,y)=\frac{z}{i\lambda}\int_\Sigma U(\xi,\eta)\frac{e^{ikr}}{r}d\xi d\eta\,, $$ where $\cos \theta=\frac{z}{r}$, shows ...
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56 views

Why isn't the magnifying power in a compound microscope zero when image is formed at infinity?

I think, in a compound microscope, angular magnification and lateral(or linear) magnification is given by the same formula for both image at infinity and near point(D) And the formula is ...
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35 views

Optimization of transfer matrix method for quarter wave stack

Does anyone have any tips for Matlab optimization algorithms to use with a 2x2 Transfer Matrix Method Program? I have written a Matlab function that takes a series of refractive index values and ...
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87 views

Wave equation - Cases where separation of variables doesn't work

Separation of variables combined with the Fourier's theorem is the most common technique of solving D'Alembert's wave equation: $$ \Delta\Phi-\frac{1}{c_0^2}\frac{\partial^2 \Phi}{\partial t^2}=0 $$ ...
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62 views

What is the minimal size of the spec of dust I can see with naked eye?

When sun directly shines thru the window - I can see small specs of dusts in the air. All specs have different sizes. Assuming direct sun luminosity is 100kLux, spec is a perfect sphere, reflection ...
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1answer
62 views

Can one detect a single photon through measuring its impulse/momentum on a mirror?

Can one detect a single photon through measuring its impulse/momentum on a mirror? If the answer if YES or theoretically possible, photon path and interference fringes can be detected simultaneously ...
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58 views

How can I determine spatial resolution from an Airy disk diffraction pattern?

From introductory optics, the angular resolution of a lens (in radians) can be described by the Rayleigh criterion: \begin{align*} \theta = 1.220 \frac{\lambda}{d} \end{align*} This has its ...
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2answers
84 views

thin film interference of light

In a thin film interference (reflective system) I know that condition for maxima is $$2\mu t\cos(r)=(2n\pm 1)\frac{\lambda}{2}$$ and for minima is $$2\mu t\cos(r)=n\lambda$$ and for transitive ...
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1answer
445 views

Question about lens maker's formula

I am trying to follow the derivation of lens maker's formula from the textbook "University Physics", p.1133 ...
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1answer
84 views

Maxwell Stress Tensor at material boundaries

I am trying to grasp the meaning of the Maxwell Stress tensor $T_i^j$ at material boundaries. Concretely, I am trying to calculate the force between two waveguides. The results are given in an article ...
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23 views

Is there a limit to telescope resolution? [duplicate]

Could a strong enough telescope read a newspaper on a planet 1400 light years away, or is there a theoretical limit to the resolution of magnification?
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26 views

Imaging and the Electric Field

In this book (pg. 162), it mentioned that conventional lenses only focus propagating waves, thereby creating an imperfect image. In contrast, superlenses focus both propagating and evanescent waves, ...
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39 views

Using reflective optics concepts to focus gas pressure in a vacuum

At very low vacuum pressures the bulk behaviour of molecules can be approximated by non interacting particles bouncing off of the chamber walls: For an monotonic molecule such as He with perfect ...
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33 views

Recommended books that describe emission and absorption of light and light/matter interactions

Hello I am a Chemical Engineer that has ventured into the field of optics and I was wondering if there is any recommended book/books to understand the maths and also some answered exercises or ...
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28 views

Why does not the optical fiber break? [duplicate]

Glass is a very fragile object. So why does not the optical fiber break? Everytime I take them, I am worried about this problem.
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13 views

Coordinate Transformation across different media

I have an arrangement that is as follows : (1) inner cylinder(radius r1) filled with water (2) outer cylinder(concentric, radius r2>r1) made of glass I have a sensor S1 at radius r(r1) at angle beta. ...
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22 views

Interference on curved film

Let's say I have a curved film in the XY plane, delimited by $y=0$, $y=\sqrt{x}$, $x=L$. Now I light the thin film from the top and I try to see the interference pattern by transmision. I'm stuck ...
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Spherical Aberration Of Electron Lenses

I would like to know why electron lenses can't have negative spherical aberration. Every textbook I have found devotes one or two sentences to saying that Otto Scherzer prooved this 80 years ago, but ...