Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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How to use the Coddington shape factor?

We are given $\sigma=\frac{r2+r1}{r2-r1}$, with $\sigma$ being the Coddington shape factor. What I am having problems with is solving for $r1$ and $r2$ when I am just given a focal length and a ...
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163 views

FOV reduction with Fresnel

I have a simple optical system that works based on energy collection. (i.e. I have a photo diode that counts photons). I don't do any imaging. For my application, I need to have a specific FOV and I ...
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77 views

Scaling an electron microscope to fit within 1 cubic cm when running multiple parallel scans [closed]

Yes, I'm serious. What components correspond to an individual scan vrs what components can be cascaded across all objects? Ex: The vacuum chamber can be cascaded ( colocate the sample chambers ...
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1answer
144 views

Does a slide in a projector act as a diffuser?

I was wondering whether or not a slide in a slide projector acts as light diffuser? So when I have a light source that does not have a parallel beam on the slide can I expect that the other side of ...
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78 views

Quadrature Separation in Homodyne Detector

I am wondering in Homodyne detector structure with a beamsplitter, why phase of input beam to beamsplitter can be conjugated? I mean for example for an input beam operator b onto the beamsplitter at ...
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341 views

What defines the thickness of a Nomarski prism?

Lets say I want to design a Nomarski prism that would split the ordinary and extraordinary beam by an angle of 0.32 mrad. I used a raytracer to find the internal angle between the quartz wedges. ...
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1k views

What properties of certain plastics make them x-ray transparent? [closed]

I was blown away by the abundance of good info here, and I thought maybe you could help me out with this query. I am in the process of developing a product, and I need to find a clear plastic resin ...
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584 views

Double Slit Problem, Waves and Optics [closed]

Given d(slit separation)= $0.158\:\rm{mm}$, $\lambda _{red}= 665\:\rm{nm}$, $\lambda _{g/y}= 565nm$, L(distance from screen)= $2.24\:\rm{m}$ What is the distance between the third order red and ...
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1answer
380 views

Triboluminescence, how does it work? [duplicate]

I was browsing Reddit and I stumbled upon this. It is a video on making duct tape glow a blue light by pulling two pieces of duct tape apart. Appearntly the glowing is caused by something called ...
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1answer
392 views

Speed of approach between image and object

A plane mirror image approaches the object at the same rate the object approaches the mirror. So the speed of approach is twice the speed at which the object approaches the mirror. If the object ...
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2answers
46 views

Why railroad tracks seem to converge?

I stand up and i look at two parallel railroad tracks.I find that converge away from me.Why? Can someone explain me why parallel lines seem to converge,please?
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1answer
77 views

Can QED explain this or do I have revert to the classical model of light?

I want to know can QED can explain this image,like why there are someplaces with low light (shadows) like behind the chair, and why there are some places that are bright(rest of the floor). I know ...
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2answers
83 views

Safety glasses for a CO₂ laser

I am working on a CO$_2$ laser project and I know glass blocks the wavelength of the laser, 10,600 nm, well. So, should normal glasses work good as safety glasses or do I need to buy a specific one? ...
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2answers
462 views

What is the difference between Sapphire and BK7?

What is the difference between Sapphire and BK7 in optics (lenses), is it only about quality?
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3answers
123 views

Duality behavior of light and effect of system scale on its behavior [closed]

Does an electromagnetic wave that makes by antenna behaves purely as wave for all the times? or it can change its behavior as photon? and does the scale of system effect on behaving as EM wave or ...
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5answers
218 views

Single mode fibers

Is it possible to focus white light into a single mode optical fiber? I thought no because in order to focus it should be a solution to the Helmholtz equation but I am not too sure about it. Also ...
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2answers
74 views

Shimmering from heated air and the speed of light

A few months back, I was using binoculars to check if my friend was on his boat, which was around 2 to 3 km out to sea from the shoreline where I was standing. The images from, say the sail of the ...
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1answer
84 views

Determining the path of a light ray

Let's consider a ray in the plane $xy$. Let the refractive index be defined in any point of the plane with the function $n(x,y)$. In time $t=0$ the ray is located in coordinates $(x_0, y_0)$ and its ...
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1answer
139 views

Resolving power of ultra-telescopes [duplicate]

Assuming we could create and orbit optical telescopes of arbitrary size, perhaps starting with (say) inflatables or active membrane of 100m diameter what kind of resolution in imaging extra-solar ...
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1answer
93 views

Is glass considered as a linear optical medium?

My research, which is mainly related to communication, involves the use of optical sources (mainly lasers). However, my background in photonics and optics is not yet solid, so my question might be a ...
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3answers
3k views

Does light loses its energy when it passes through denser medium

I know it does not because it emerges out of denser medium at 300,000 KM per second, but according to E=MC square and given that speed of light decreases inside denser medium with refractive index ...
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4answers
2k views

How to get Intensity over a range of wavelengths from a Total Intensity

This is a theory vs experiment problem for me I think in that - as usual - I think I know the theory, but when it comes time to run an experiment, I can't actually extract squat. So, here is my light ...
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3answers
49 views

Green light on red article

When white light falls on an object the body absorbs all colors of light and reflects some colors of light which we see the object to be.For eg.A red ball reflects red color and absorbs the rest ...
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2answers
133 views

How to chose right lens for concentrating IR signal? [closed]

I am looking for the right acrylic lens. Since will be buying at least 1000 pieces I don't want to make any mistake. I want to concentrate the signal from IR LED in a 1cm diameter tube at one point ...
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3answers
327 views

Image formation (lenses) [closed]

I have a question regarding image formation by lenses. It is the following: A lense with a focal length of $-48.0cm$ forms an image $17.0cm$ to the right of the lense. Where is the object positioned? ...
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2answers
84 views

Correlation between color of light visible to us and the intensity of transmitted light by the material

I wanted to know if there is any relation between the color of light observed by the eye and the intensity of light transmitted by a material. Let us assume that I have a table of intensities of light ...
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2answers
4k views

Why does the light travel slower in denser medium? [duplicate]

Wikipedia says that "in general, the refractive index of a glass increases with its density." And the refraction index of water vapor is less than ice, and even less than liquid water. Is there any ...
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2answers
79 views

Brewster angle with diffraction propagation?

Diffraction theory is scalar. How you deal with beam propagation in fourier optics that is sensitive to the to the polarization? If I have linearly polarized gaussian beam incident on glass surface, ...
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2answers
339 views

How do you calculate heat flux (Kw/m2) at the focal point of a mirror? [duplicate]

can anyone help me to determine the heat flux (Kw/m2) on a focal point of a parabolic dish having a diameter of 1.5 meter and a focal length 60 cm ??? please awaiting your soonest reply for my senior ...
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1answer
468 views

Correcting for bad eyesight on display monitors [duplicate]

I think it would be neat if one could configure one's eyesight parameters (astigmatism and myopia in my case), viewing distance, and perhaps age into a special display driver, such that a computer ...
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2answers
490 views

Huygens-Fresnel principle

Huygens principle states that 1) Every point on a given wavefront may be considered as a source of secondary wavelets which spread out with the speed of light in that medium. 2) The new wavefront is ...
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4answers
729 views

Why does a photograph of a face look like it is always watching you?

Imagine a photo that is taken of someone looking straight at the camera. Why when we look at the photo now from any direction it looks as if the person is looking straight at us?
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2answers
387 views

Do and can phone signals come inside AC car which is glass-packed

Can phone signals penetrate glass, so can I expect phone signals to come if I am sitting inside a closed AC car. Thanks,
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32 views

Slit width in single-slit diffraction

In Born's Atomic physics, he makes the comment on the single slit diffraction that For diffraction patterns to show themselves, it is necessary that the width of the slit employed should be of ...
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2answers
85 views

Thought experiment on light accumulation

Consider an object which is a spherical one-way mirror, and let's call it the "Sphere". For the needs of the thought experiment, suppose that: the Sphere is perfectly spherical the mirror is ...
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3answers
57 views

What is the total internal reflection?

From what I read, it sounds like when a light ray passes from one medium to the other, if the critical angle is reached so that the refractive ray is at 90 degree with the normal, the light ray does ...
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1answer
50 views

Is a non reflective display possible?

Can you think of a surface, that emits light, but doesn't reflect any light coming from outside (absorbs it)? Under what circumstances would this work?
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25 views

For a light of given frequency, what does the amount of refraction in a variable medium depends upon?

I want to know whether the amount of refraction of a given monochromatic light depends solely upon the density of the of the medium ( increase the density to increase the angle of refraction), or ...
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1answer
140 views

How many foci does a converging or diverging lens have?

I thought this was a simple question but can't seem to find a direct answer. In ray diagrams with a converging or diverging lens, we always draw F (the focal length) on both sides of the lens. But ...
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2answers
68 views

When does a monochromatic beam of light on a reflective surface get completely transmitted?

My book says when when a monochromatic beam of light is normally incident on reflective surface it gets completely transmitted. I am bit confused could you explain me?
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1answer
338 views

Ways to measure the focal length of a convex lens with only natural sun light [closed]

What are the common ways to measure the focal length of a convex lens with only natural sun light?
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3answers
95 views

Mirrors and the human eye

Not sure if this is a suitable question for this exchange. Me and a friend are debating what can be seen through a periscope consisting only of two 45 degree mirrors. My friend tells me that the ...
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2answers
131 views

Gaussian beam modelling, location of the beam waist?

In reference to the specifications of a laser diode below: http://www.thorlabs.de/thorcat/11900/L780P010-SpecSheet.pdf I wish to be able to model it as a gaussian laser beam. I understand there is a ...
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1answer
74 views

Is the glass made up of holes that let the light to go through it?

The following passage has been extracted from the book "The Magic of Science-A.Frederick Collins" (1917): Substances of all kinds have pores or holes in them. A sponge has pores that can be ...
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2answers
72 views

Thin Lens Methods and Object Perceived vs Literal Size

When using the ray trace methodology to solve a given thin lens question, does the arrow (commonly used as the example object when tracing) represent the literal height of the object or the perceived ...
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2answers
345 views

Image formation at surface of water

Consider a lake full of water which has an object immersed in it. Now, if an observer was at the surface at a sufficient distance so that the light ray from the object is internally reflected, should ...
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2answers
126 views

Layer thickness measurement

I am interested to measure the thickness of the coating on a mirror (e.g. in the picture below). What are the available and best way of measuring it? What will be the solution in case of multiple ...
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1answer
7k views

What is the near point for the eye

So I am a teaching assistant for an introductory physics class. One of the problems on this weeks workshops is: Where is the near point (far point) of an eye for which a contact lens with power of ...
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1answer
132 views

Graded Index fiber

In the following picture of a graded index fiber two different modes are depicted. One is a higher mode which is propagating towards the core-cladding interface and one is through the higher ...
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1answer
70 views

Optics & Law of Cosines

I'm supposed to use law of cosines on $S_1S_2P$ in the following diagram that relates to a lens: To arrive at the following equation: $$ \frac{r_2}{r_1} = [1 - 2(\frac{a}{r_1})sin(\theta) + ...