Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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Are there any CO2-Laser notch filters? [closed]

I'm searching for a notch (band-stop) filter (like [1]) for a 10.6 $\mu$m CO$_2$-Laser and I have yet to find one. Is there some physical reason such filters don't exist or is there just no demand? ...
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59 views

Are there Non-conformal maps encountered in Physics?

We always encounter Conformal maps in Physics, may be they are easier to study, but are there Non-Conformal transformations encountered in Physics anywhere? if they are encountered, where are they ...
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190 views

How to interpret the complex index of refraction?

The index of refraction which represents how much light gets refracted when entering a medium is defined as $$n = \frac{c}{v}$$ I have seen it stated in several places, such as here, that we can ...
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37 views

What sizes are detectable from 1m using a fairly good cmos camera?

I haven't ordered a CMOS camera module yet, but I am planning to use it to detect a small object from ~1-1.5 meters. Just too be specific, say I am using the following CMOS camera (although if you ...
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31 views

Interpretation of different values of antibunching

When the frequency resolved second order correlation function at zero time delay, $$g^{(2)}(\omega_1, \omega_2) = \frac{\langle a_1^\dagger a_1(t) a_2^\dagger a_2(t)\rangle}{\langle a_1^\dagger a_1(t)\...
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60 views

Can we trap living cells in optical tweezers?

I read that optical tweezers work on the principle of radiation pressure caused due to momentum change of incident light due to refraction from a spherical object. For refraction to happen the object ...
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117 views

Collimated light directly into a multi-mode fiber

This is my question - Will a collimated, incoherent light, consists of a limited angle, that "hits" a multi-mode fiber facet exit the fiber as collimated? (just to be clear, no lens is involved. I ...
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122 views

Smallest object resolvable by optical microscopy

I am wondering what is the smallest object you can resolve with an optical microscope. I am aware of the equation $\delta=\frac{\lambda}{2\textrm{NA}}$ that basically gives you the resolution. $\...
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83 views

How can the active area of a photodiode increased?

I use photo-diode VTB8440BH. To increase its active area I was thinking to put a lens in front the diode would enlarge its active area. What kind of lens would be beneficial one? I was thinking of a ...
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117 views

Doppler shift from a transversely moving plane mirror

Below is the diagram of the question I have on the Doppler shift of a light emitted from a stationary light source $S$ at an angle $\theta_1$ toward a transversely moving plane mirror $O$ having ...
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139 views

x-ray diffraction of crystals

In explaining x-ray diffraction of crystals, usually the approach is to consider the atoms absorb radiation and scatter it, at some angles constructive interference occur and bright spots can be ...
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99 views

The Thomson scattering optical depth for a photon ar radius r

I am looking to understand some more about the physics of gamma ray bursts. In particular I am looking at the origin of the "prompt emission". Some of the energy associated with this prompt emission ...
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66 views

Transmission of light, sub-wavelength apertures, and cut-off frequencies

I was hoping someone could please explain how the transmission of light through a sub-wavelength aperture in a metal film, at a particular wavelength, changes when the aperture is: i) above cut-off ...
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203 views

is copper a non-magnetic?

I'm working on an optics project that I'm using Fresnel Equation for Intensity. but I've got a question, is copper a non-magnetic ? You know because in Fresnel Equation, for non-magnetic materials ...
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38 views

Recreating an image from a photometer or similar light-detecting device?

I'm thinking if it is possible to recreate an image from data from this kind of device. It is known analog signals theoretically have infinite resolution, but since we use them in discrete systems (...
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63 views

Image formation or Diffraction?

I was watching this video on the YouTube channel Veritasium. In this episode, the host shows people paper containing holes of different shapes in the middle. So there is a paper which has a hole in ...
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321 views

How can we see objects that are so far away? [duplicate]

The HUDF used to be the deepest image of the universe ever taken by the Hubble telescope, the furthest star in this image is 59000 light years away. The star in question: Now Imagine a light ...
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65 views

Power of several focused laser beams on a small surface

After viewing this: My Homemade 40W Laser Shotgun Will the initial 40W power of the diodes beams be roughly transferred to the targeted surface where the 8 beams are focused, or will there be a power ...
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62 views

Patterns in a spinning wheel [duplicate]

Why do we see patterns on a rotating wheel with spokes which seem to rotate counterclockwise or clockwise as and when the wheel accelerates or deaccelarates. What I mean is the patterns like this
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161 views

Reflectivity of Metals - real and imaginary part of k-vector and complex dielectric function

De electric field component of an electromagnetic wave that is traveling in the $x$-direction is given as $$E(x,t) = E_0 e^{i(kx - \omega t)} $$ with $E_0$ the amplitude and $k$ the wave vector. From ...
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26 views

difference between plasmonic wave plates and usual wave plates

plasmonic waveplates are constructed using the generation of surface plasmons. Is there any difference between these plasmonic wave plates and the usual wave plates used in optics, besides the ...
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51 views

Polarization and Reflection [duplicate]

The polarization is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation. Given this, when the light is reflected from a surface, does the reflection change the property/orientation ...
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51 views

Plane Mirror as the Screen in Young's experient

If I place a plane mirror instead of the screen in the Young's double slit experiment, what will I see? Will the bands appear on the mirror face?
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78 views

Position dependent refractive index [duplicate]

How to determine the angle of refraction when the medium has position dependent refraction index? Lets say that the angle of incidence on the glassy slab is $\theta_1$ and the ray goes through the ...
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70 views

Single particle passing through the double slit at a time [duplicate]

In modern experiments, With the classical setup of photons or electrons passing through double slit, the intensity is kept extremely low, such that one can detect a single particle passing through ...
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44 views

Could satellites achieve orbit using current laser technology

My question is, could we, using current laser technology sufficiently scaled up, launch a lightweight, say a GPS navigation satellite, into earth orbit? The main objection to me is maintaining the ...
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38 views

Florescents and radio waves

Okay so if you put a florescent light bulb in front of a certain radio, the radio waves excite the mercury inside a causes them to emit UV light which makes the outer coating of the light bulb light ...
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97 views

Could laser speckle patterns be used in diagnosing vision defects?

At the London Science Museum some years back, I saw a device which projected a laser speckle pattern and had a sign explaining that it would appear stationary for people whose eyes were correctly ...
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86 views

Significance of colours in photoelasticity

I already checked similar question at Physics SE, but none gives me a clear answer, also it is a bit difficult for me to understand it from wikipedia as I couldn't find relating material to my ...
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129 views

How to calculate reflection profile of a beam shining onto a moving mirror?

I want to build a projector, where a beam of light is shining on to mirrors, placed at different angles, which are spinning fast enough to draw lines. The question is, how to calculate the needed ...
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67 views

What exactly is an image?

When we say several rays meet to form an image, what is that which is formed? Is it an arrangement of unknown entities? What exactly am I looking at when I see my image in a plane mirror?
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446 views

Apparent depth and virtual image position

Why does the virtual image appear right on top of the object and not a little to the right, for example? Is it explained by some formula or just symmetry of the geometry?
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220 views

Snell's law demonstration

I'm a bit confused about a Snell's law demonstration. I'm reading Communication Systems from W. Tomasi. In the chapter 11, the author applies the Snell's law to θent, and -here comes my problem- he ...
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244 views

How we can calculate the elements of the Mueller matrix?

Disregarding coherent wave superposition, any fully polarized, partially polarized, or unpolarized state of light can be represented by a Stokes vector; and any optical element can be represented by a ...
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213 views

how to trace light after refraction by a camera lens?

I am a programmer and I am doing a camera simulation, I am stuck in a matter of how to know where arrives every ray of light after traveling through the lens and being refracted. Every point of the ...
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39 views

No restoring force in atoms of gas of free electrons (as we have in the upper atmosphere)

While reading about the dependence of wavelength on refractive index, we assume an atom model where atoms stick to their mean position and they are disturbed by the applied electric field causing a ...
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189 views

How does airborne laser system deflect the laser beam?

In the Airborne Laser system, the laser beam is directed from the nose of a Boeing airplane towards the target. In this system, the angle of laser beam with respect to airplane body can be changed at ...
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204 views

Lens surrounded by two different materials?

If have a material refractive index $n_1$ then a lens refractive index $n_2$ then another material on the other side of the lens (but in contract with the lens) refractive index $n_3$. How do I find ...
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56 views

Construct classical computer using classical light

Quantum light (i.e. photons), linear optics, adaptive measurements and feed forward can be used to build an efficient universal quantum computer. ref: Knill et. al. 2001. Clearly the above resources ...
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84 views

Can one calculate the distance from Earth to the camera, given a single picture?

Given an image of (part of) a sphere of known size, can one calculate the distance to the camera based on the relative size of the sphere in the image? My instinct is "no" unless you have some fixed ...
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168 views

Diffraction to be explained without Huygens principle

Can we explain diffraction without using Huygens principle?
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69 views

Ideas for improvised UV filter

I am doing a project where I would like to do some UV exposure to some concrete and stone samples. Therefore I have bought a couple of 400 watt UV bulbs, the product specification says it has an ...
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48 views

Why does an external laser drive only couples certain levels?

I was always wondering how is it that all the quantum optics levels schemes are depicted as if the laser couples only two certain levels with some frequency. For exmaple the standard lambda system ...
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95 views

why an immersion lens is called so in Ion Optics?

In Ion Optics, an immersion lens is composed of two planar apertured electrodes. My question is why it is called an 'Immersion" lens? I know that an Einzel lense has three or more electrodes. But ...
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72 views

What will happen if two photons collide perpendicularly? [closed]

Suppose there is an object placed at (-1,0) on x-axis. A light ray coming from it is observed by an observer somewhere on positive x-axis. In addition, a second object is placed somewhere on y-axis. ...
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643 views

Magnification of an astronomical telescope not in normal adjustment?

I am stuck on this question: A telescope consists of two thin converging lenses of focal lengths 100cm and 10cm respectively. It is used to view an object 2000cm from the objective. What is the ...
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94 views

Calculate transparency from Beer-Lambert Law

I want to calculate a transparency parameter for a superposition of several volumes containing media using the Beer-Lambert Law, which states that $$I/I_0=exp(-\tau)$$ where $I$ is the transmitted ...
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6k views

How to calculate magnification

I have various magnifying glasses and I'm using them when I take macro photos with a phone or a camera. I want to group/label my magnifying glasses by their magnification power. And by magnification ...
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97 views

Frequency difference of absorbed and emitted photons?

In a transparent medium, how does the frequency of incoming light compare to the exiting light? I thought it was the same, but doesn't there have to be an energy difference in two electron states in ...
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95 views

Trouble understanding phase matching equation

consider a 2nd order non linear optical material, i.e. a material in which it holds that $ P = \epsilon_0 E + 2dE^2$. In the Born approximation, the non linear contribution to the polarization density ...