In physics, an operator is almost always either a square matrix or a linear mapping from one space of functions (often on $\mathbb{R}^N$ or $\mathbb{C}^N$) to the same or other like space of functions. Operators serve as *observables* and as *time evolution operators* in Quantum Mechanics. This tag ...

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222 views

What is $\langle \phi | H | \psi \rangle$ in QM?

I know that $\langle \phi | \psi \rangle$ is the probability of going from the $\psi$-state to the $\phi$-state, and that $\langle \phi | H | \phi \rangle$ is the expectation value of the energy for ...
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0answers
19 views

Linear viscoelastic differential operators

I am starting with differential operators: $P = \sum_{i=0}^{N}p_i \cfrac{d^i}{dt^i}$ $Q = \sum_{i=0}^{N}q_i \cfrac{d^i}{dt^i}$ $p_i$ and $q_i$ are functions of time only. $K$ is a constant that ...
2
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2answers
155 views

Complex conjugate of the Schrödinger equation?

This might be a very simple question but I don't understand how to compute the complex conjugate of the Schrödinger equation: $$ i\partial_t \psi = H\psi $$ where $H$ is an hermitian operator. How to ...
0
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1answer
82 views

Representing operators in the Glauber-Sudarshan P-representation

If $| \alpha >$ represents a coherent state (the normalized right eigenstate of the destruction operator $a$ in Quantum Mechanics; $\alpha$ is a complex number), then it is known that: \begin{...
2
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1answer
88 views

Fermionic ladder operators [closed]

After reading Dirac's method for finding the eigen energies of a harmonic oscillator by means of ladder operators and commutation relations, I tried making some exercises on them. First I did a ...
3
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1answer
51 views

Lower bound on energy is potential minimum

Suppose we have a particle of mass $m$ that is in an eigenstate $|\psi\rangle$ of the Hamiltonian $\hat{H}=\hat{T}+\hat{V}$, where $\hat{T}$ is the kinetic energy operator and $\hat{V}=V(\hat{r})$ is ...
1
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3answers
85 views

Show that a linear operator can be written in terms of its spectral decomposition [closed]

Let $\hat Q$ be an operator with a complete set of orthonomal eigenvectors: $$ \hat Q |e_n\rangle=q_n|e_n\rangle\ \ (n=1,2,3,...) $$ Show that $\hat Q$ can be written in terms of its spectral ...
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0answers
36 views

Statement of vector model of angular momentum in Eisberg and Resnick

While serving as a teaching assistant for a sophomore-level Quantum Physics course, I came across the following paragraph in Eisberg and Resnick regarding orbital angular momentum (section 7-8, page ...
1
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1answer
41 views

Correct way to write Pauli matrices

This is purely a question of notation for the Pauli matrices. What is the correct way to write them for use as operators? Would I just write the vector of the matrices as a vector i.e $$\vec{\sigma}\,,...
0
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0answers
30 views

Vaccuum expectations for a string of creation and annihilation operators

I want to determine the vaccum expectation value of a string of creation and annihilation operators. They have a very specific form: $$\langle \prod_{i=1}^n \hat{a}(k_i) \, \, \hat{N}_1 \prod_{j=1}^n ...
3
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2answers
118 views

Clarification from Griffiths Introduction to quantum mechanics

A question from Appendix Linear algebra A.3 Matrices on page 441 "If you know what a prticular linear transformation does to a set of basis vectors, you can easily figure out what it does on any ...
2
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1answer
88 views

Spectral functions in quantum mechanics

I'm a math student and a totally newcomer to quantum mechanics and I'm trying to teach myself this subject by studying Faddeev and Yakubovski's Lectures on Quantum Mechanics for Mathematics Students. ...
3
votes
1answer
103 views

BRST quantization (Green, Schwarz, Witten)

In Green, Schwarz, Witten Volume 1, section 3.2, BRST quantization is introduced in a general way. A Lie algebra $G$ is defined with elements $$ [K_i,K_j] = f_{ij}{}^k K_k \tag{3.2.1}$$ where $f_{ij}{}...
1
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1answer
44 views

Is it necessary to prove the existence of an operator representing symmetry on Hilbert space?

Is there any need to prove the existence of an operator $U$ which represents the action of symmetry transformation on rays in Hilbert space? Or is it enough just to prove that it is unitary and linear ...
1
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1answer
63 views

Lorentz force derivation in quantum mechanics [closed]

In Sakurai and Napolitano, chapter 2, there's a derivation of the QM Lorentz force. Given $$H=\frac{1}{2m}\left(\mathbf{p}-\frac{e\mathbf{A}}{c}\right)^2+e\phi = \frac{\mathbf{\Pi}^2}{2m}+e\phi$$ ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Trace of operator defined by two state vectors in Quantum Mechanics

I'm studying QM from the book 'Quantum Mechanics. Concepts and Applications' by Zettili. There's an example which gives us two state vectors $$ | \psi \rangle = 9i \ | \phi_1 \rangle + 2 | \phi_2 \...
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0answers
92 views

Physical significance of non-commutativity of ladder operators in Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

If we apply the raising (creation) operator to $Ψ_n(x)$ and the apply to it the lowering (annihilation) operator, we get $Ψ_n(x)$ times a constant. Does it physically say something? Can we get any ...
0
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1answer
92 views

Does Operator Product Expansion form an algebra?

The operator product algebra in CFT is defined as $$\mathcal{O}_i(z,\bar{z})\mathcal{O}_j(\omega,\bar{\omega}) = \sum_{k} C^k_{ij}(z-\omega,\bar{z}-\bar{\omega})\mathcal{O}_k(\omega,\bar{\omega}).$$ ...
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0answers
52 views

What are some resources for Algebraic quantum mechanics for Physicists

I am interested in the GNS construction and other stuff. I am aware of Valter Moretti's book but I want something that is more inclined towards physicists.
6
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1answer
270 views

Can I always find an unitary operator $B$ such that $\{A,B\}= 0$ for a given, unitary operator $A$?

Considering an arbitrary unitary operator $A$, what is the least criteria this operator must satisfy in order that it is possible to find at least another unitary operator $B$ that anti-commutes with ...
0
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1answer
43 views

Matrix for Ladder Operators?

I found this website which shows how to derive the matrices for $L_{+}, L_{-}$ and while I understand the derivation of the equation for $<lm|L_{+}|lm'>$ and $<lm|L_{-}|lm'>$ I do not ...
1
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1answer
51 views

What is the relation between Hilbert space constructed from the GNS construction and the standard Hilbert space-state?

I recently started reading Algebraic quantum mechanics. So I have no knowledge of the subject. In the GNS construction we construct the Hilbert space of states as follows, We endow the algebra of ...
3
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1answer
113 views

The state space is somehow defined by the observables?

In Quantum Mechanics states of a system are described by vectors in a Hilbert space called the state space while the physical quantities associated to the system are described by hermitian operators ...
2
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0answers
117 views

Commutation relations in quantum mechanics

As we know, simple harmonic oscillator can be solved only by commutation relations between creation and annihilation operators, and the Hamiltonian expression. The spin energy is either solved only ...
2
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0answers
76 views

Part of a Wigner theorem [closed]

I was trying to understand why there should exist operator in Hilbert space to correspond to any symmetry transformation and found about Wigner's theorem. In it, I can see that any transformed vector ...
0
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2answers
79 views

Commutator relationships and the exponential

I am currently trying to prove that the two following commutator relationships are equivalent (for an operator $\hat{A}(s)$ that depends on a continuous parameter $s$), so if one holds the other one ...
3
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1answer
61 views

Should state vectors be considered constant?

By the principle of superposition, a state vector can be defined as $$\begin{align} \psi(x) &= c_1 \psi_1(x) + c_2 \psi_2(x) + \cdots + c_n \psi_n(x) \\ \lvert\psi\rangle &= \begin{pmatrix}c_1 ...
0
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1answer
112 views

Relationship between Quantum superposition and Uncertainty principle

I'm an amateur in quantum mechanics. I am confused after reading the following in the wikipedia article about quantum superposition: If the operators corresponding to two observables do not ...
0
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0answers
51 views

Expansion operator for quantum mechanics

As a counterpart to the quantum mechanical translation operator (see for example this post) is there a unitary operator which describes the stretching of a line. That is consider I have a chain of ...
4
votes
3answers
109 views

Eigenstates of Ladder Operators

According ot Griffith's Intro to Quantum Mechanics (page 147), if some function $f$ is an eigenfunction of $L^{2}$, then $L_{-}f$ is also an eigenfunction of $L^{2}$. Is $f$ also an eigenfunction ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Sum and Different and angular momentum operators

Why is $\overrightarrow{L_{1}}+\overrightarrow{L_{2}}$ an angular momentum operator, but not $\overrightarrow{L_{1}}-\overrightarrow{L_{2}}$? What does this show about the applicability of the vector ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

General expectation value

I have a basic question related to finding expectation values of an operator $\hat{Q}$ We know that the expectation of $\hat{Q}$ (in the position space) is given by $$\langle Q \rangle=\int {\Psi^* ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Why do I get negative expectationvalues when I use ladder operators? [closed]

I'm trying to find the expectationvalue for $p^2$ where $p = i\sqrt{\frac{hmw}{2}}(a_{+} - a_{-})$ and i end up with the following result \begin{align*} \langle \psi_0|p^2|\psi_0\rangle &= -\frac{\...
0
votes
2answers
112 views

Derivation of Schrodinger's wave equation

To derive $$i \hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t} \psi = H \psi,$$ we start with $$i \hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t} |\alpha \rangle = H| \alpha \rangle$$ and then multiply by $\langle x|$ on the ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Dirac equation from a vierbein operator?

Klein-Gordon equation can be derived straightforwardly by getting the mass-energy relation from special relativity in tensorial form, $$\eta^{\mu\nu}p_{\mu}p_{\nu} = m^2c^2$$ and promoting the ...
1
vote
2answers
98 views

Individual terms in a Hamiltonian matrix

Reference to Problem 2, Chapter 2 in Modern Quantum Mechanics by JJ Sakurai, Consider the following Hamiltonian of a two state system $$ H=H_{11}|1\rangle\langle1|+H_{22}|2\rangle\langle2|+H_{12}|1\...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Spherical Polar Proof for Non-Commutativity of Indivdual Quantum Angular Momentum Operators

How can the following commutation relation be solved through spherical polar coordinates $[\hat{L}_{z}$,$\hat{L}_{x}]$ = $\imath\hbar\hat{L}_{y}$ I understand the derivation through partial ...
1
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1answer
133 views

Ladder operators - commutation relations and their properties

At the beginning of Fetter, Walecka "Many body quantum mechanics" there is a statement, that every property of creation and annihilation operators comes from their commutation relation (I'm ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Explicit form of the translation operator generators in the Poincare group?

Let $P_0$ be the generator for temporal translation and $P_1, P_2, P_3$ be for spatial translations. Let $p_μ$ be the momentum operator in the $x_μ=x^μ$ direction. I watched a lecture where the guy ...
9
votes
4answers
458 views

Where does the $i$ come from in the Schrödinger equation?

I am currently trying to follow Leonard Susskind's "Theoretical Minimum" lecture series on quantum mechanics. (I know a bit of linear algebra and calculus, so far it seems definitely enough to follow ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

How does this quantisation relation come about?

I'm currently doing a course in string theory and in the lecture notes it is stated: $$ [x^-, p^+]~=~-i \tag{1}$$ I am fine with this. However, after trying (and failing) a question, I looked at ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

how can act fractional operator on kets?

Knowing $\hat{A}\left|ψ\right\rangle$ and $\hat{B}\left|ψ\right\rangle$ , how to find answer of ($\hat{A}+\hat{B} )^ {1/2} \left|ψ\right\rangle $ Note : may $\hat{A}$ and $\hat{B}$ are not in the ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Advection Operator shift in scalar product

Can someone help me with advection operator shifts? I can't figure out the rule for the shift inside of a scalar product. The terms $(u,(v\cdot \nabla)\delta v)_\Omega$ and $(u,(\delta v\cdot \nabla)...
1
vote
1answer
119 views

Sakurai Exercise 2.17 (Harmonic Oscillator, Ladder operators) [closed]

I the field of the harmonic oscillator and ladder operators I am trying to solve exercise 2.17 from Sakurai and want to proof the following relation $$ \langle x^{2n} \rangle = (2n - 1)!! \langle x^...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

What is the Quantum Mechanical Operator for Electric Potential?

I understand that charge and electric potential are conjugate observables in QM. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjugate_variables The quantum mechanical operator for charge, q, is simply equal ...
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votes
1answer
74 views

why we dont have “direct” velocity operator just as $p$? ( as use $p$ space not $v$? ) in quantum?

why there is no direct velocity operator on quantum mechanic while there is for mumentum ( $p_{x}=d/dx$ ) Also why use mumentum space not velocity ?
0
votes
1answer
105 views

What is the origin of the quantum operators for $p$ and $E$? [closed]

It is always stated the quantum operators for p and E are the ones we´re familiar with (the operator for energy, $H=i\hbar\frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ and the momentum operator, $\mathbf{p}=-i\hbar\...
-1
votes
1answer
51 views

Orbital angular momentum eigenstates in the $|\mathbf{r}\rangle$ representation

Consider the orbital angular momentum operators $L^2$ and $L_z$. In the $|\mathbf{r}\rangle$ representation using spherical coordinates those operators actions are given by $$L^2\varphi(\mathbf{r})=-\...
6
votes
1answer
91 views

Can I *always* decompose a normalizable function into the discrete Hydrogen spectrum?

This question has been bothering me for a while now: can one reconstruct an arbitrary (normalizable) function $\phi(\mathbf r)$ in $\mathbb R^3$, with only the discrete set of Hydrogen wavefunctions (...
1
vote
3answers
179 views

Momentum operator representation

If $\hat{p}$ acts on position eigenstate, it is $$\tag{1}\hat{p}\left|x\right\rangle=+i\hbar\frac{\partial }{\partial x}\left|x\right\rangle .$$ But in general $$\tag{2}\hat{p} = -i\hbar \frac{\...