Nuclear physics is the study of the composition, behavior and interaction of atomic nuclei and their constituent parts.

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Positive/negative octupole moment of nuclei?

Does octupole moment of nuclear charge distribution show any positive/negative character, like the quadrupole moment does? Quadrupole moment has prolate and oblate types, but what about ...
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Why do heavy nuclei have half lives

Why do heavy nuclei have half-lives if they are unstable why do they take millions of years to break down in some cases why don't they simple do it instantly? What makes them stay together?
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152 views

Could I turn into a nuclear bomb?

Just out of curiousity, could the nuclei of our atoms split via quantum tunnelling, thereby leading to nuclear reactions and ultimately turning us into atomic bombs? I know that this is near-...
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Modelling populations of GE isotopes

I asked a question similar to this here: What combination of stable GE isotopes make up the germanium in a Ge(Li) spectrometer And got some very good answers. This question is instead based on the ...
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What combination of stable GE isotopes make up the germanium in a Ge(Li) spectrometer

I work with a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer. I'm trying to work out the different populations of stable Germanium isotopes in it. I'm trying to model the unrealistic scenario where none of these isotopes ...
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1answer
688 views

Why can't electrons be found inside the nucleus if there are infinite number of orbitals?

If there are an infinite number of orbitals, we can assume, that they can be present in any point in space. If that is correct, why do we not find electrons in the nucleus? I study in high school. ...
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23 views

Models for populations of decay products

I'm looking to create a population model for the specific nuclides in a neutron spallation source. The source is a target (Tantalum clad Tungsten) which is being bombarded with protons, and in turn is ...
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36 views

Nomenclature of nuclear excited states

I read in an online portal about $^{112}$Sn nucleus making a transition from $0_{g.s}^{+} \rightarrow 2_{1}^{+}$ state. Also, some higher excited states were named as $0_{2}^{+}$, $3_{1}^{-}$, etc. ...
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34 views

Notation on chart of the isotopes

I recently purchased a complete chart of the isotopes, (this one: https://shop.marktdienste.de/shoppages/produktuebersicht.aspx ) and have it on the wall next to me in work. The different coloured ...
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111 views

How does neutron reflection work?

What I mean here isn't what is it used for, but what's actually going on with the reflector. There are a lot of sub questions to this. how much energy is lost in the act of reflection. not ...
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Meaning of 'nuclear surface vibrations'?

Would like to know the meaning of nuclear surface vibrations as mentioned by Bohr in his paper titled 'The coupling of nuclear surface vibrations to the motion of individual nucleons'. The paper talks ...
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51 views

Oscillation of nucleons mediated by polarizing electron charge on opposite ends of the nucleus?

Assuming I have a nucleus and its known that there are nucleons inside its shell. Lets say I have an electron that alternates its position from the top of the nucleus to the opposite bottom, back and ...
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129 views

What would happen if you split an antimatter nucleus? [duplicate]

If we had the huge money required to make it, could it be used as a weapon more destructive than a regular nuclear bomb? Here it would undergo fission AND annihilate regular particles, so...?
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52 views

minimum hyperbolic distance for Rutherford Scattering

I saw in a textbook that gave the minimum distance for a hyperbolic trajectory in Rutherford scattering is given by $$r_{min}= \frac{1}{4\pi\epsilon_0}\frac{Z_1Z_2e^2}{2E}\left(1+\frac{1}{sin\frac{\...
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How to detect a secret nuclear detonation here on the earth?

How can we know that North Korea and Iran (to name a few) are exploding nuclear weapons if no inspectors have ever been granted access to suspected nuclear sites in these countries? How can we ...
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124 views

How massive can an atom get?

After reading this thread, it appears to me that creating a new element is a game of chance some sort of an art. It also appeared to me that the higher you go, the harder it is to make an element. ...
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46 views

Doubly magic isotopes

I understand the definition of a magic number in nuclear physics to mean a number of either protons or neutrons to completely fill a nuclear shell. I see here the term "doubly magic" used for 78Ni: ...
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122 views

Gamma spectroscopy - Do annihilation photons produce a backscatter peak?

Below is a diagram of part of a structure which I find in a gamma spectrum taken from a hall in which a neutron source is undergoing spallation. The structure which I'm interested in can be seen ...
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1answer
45 views

Reading ensdf files

I understand that this is more of a computing question, but I still think the appropriate place to ask it is here. The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files are on the internet, available for ...
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103 views

Color Force & Nuclear Force [closed]

I was wondering if the color force and nuclear force are both sub-forces of the Strong Interaction? If so is the Strong Interaction responsible for any other forces?
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44 views

Does core of a proton exist? [duplicate]

I understand a proton is made up of quarks/gluons. I want to know if a proton has an actual core? Also whether protons have a core/surface temperature.
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1answer
579 views

Gamma spectroscopy - Table of radioactive isotopes with gamma energy search

For anyone doing gamma spectroscopy by hand, the task is considerably eased by tables like this: http://nucleardata.nuclear.lu.se/toi/ Where not only can you search for particular nuclides, but you ...
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125 views

Why do you need debroglie wavelength less than nucleus diameter to probe a nucleus via deflection? [duplicate]

e.g. you need to give enough energy to electrons to probe a nuclear structure via deflection.
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55 views

Gamma spectroscopy – What is this structure?

What is this strange structure in the gamma spectrum between 450 and 550 keV (below) around the peak at 477 keV? The spectrum seems to rise to a plateau (almost like a small Compton plateau) around ...
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84 views

Length of time interval for an atom in excited state to drop to lower energy level [duplicate]

This is either a basic question or one that doesn't make any sense, but here goes. If I have an atom in an excited state (1st energy level or 2nd or more), how long does it take to drop to a lower ...
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2answers
113 views

How do protons and neutrons interchange?

I recently read in a book that a nucleon with +1/2 isospin is a proton and if the isospin is changed to -1/2, it is a neutron, so it is the same particle in different states. If a proton has a ...
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Coincidence summing in gamma spectrum

Question on coincidence summing here. I've been reading about the coincidence summing effect when a radionuclide has two energy levels that decay to another state in rapid succession. There is also ...
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92 views

Relationship between time, separation and neutron transfer probability?

As an ansatz, suppose we know that when a smaller nucleus is incident upon a larger one with 1 MeV of kinetic energy, there is a nontrivial probability that a neutron will tunnel from the smaller to ...
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1answer
159 views

When i tear a paper, can i accidentally create nuclear fission?

I know it's a stupid question... but when I tear a paper i may coincidentally split it and create nuclear fission. When i tried experimenting, by tearing the paper for HELLKNOWS how many times, I ...
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213 views

What is this jump in U235 fission yields?

Is it an artifact? (I have drawn the black line). Or can anybody explain it theoretically? The plot is the "235U Chain 14MeV" provided in the website https://www-nds.iaea.org/ Some sources call it ...
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Have the BaF2 scintillators a strong correlation with the alimentation current that cause the shifting of the centroids in the distribution?

In gamma gamma correlation I suspect the presence of systematic error maybe caused by a non optimal alimentation voltage according to someone there is a quadratic correlation between centroids ...
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73 views

How can a black hole be a cause of a Big Bang? [closed]

Is it possible that Big Bang occurred as a result of the black hole formation - that is the matter compressed so densely that it "exploded" within the boundaries of its horizon and became a what we ...
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37 views

Why asymmetric fission product is so enhanced?

The thermal fission yield of usual Pu, U mix https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fission#/media/File:ThermalFissionYield.svg is tuned in a way that practically ignores symmetric yield. But if we ...
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Can an excited nucleus capture a second neutron? [duplicate]

I am wondering if is it possible to have the following scenario: Nucleus captures neutron. Nucleus is excited but does not relax through decay but captures another neutron. Maybe it is possible if ...
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63 views

Nucleon-meson interaction

Suppose interaction lagrangian between neutron-proton doublet and $\pi$-mesons: $$ \tag 1 L_{\pi pn} = \bar{\Psi}\pi_{a}\tau_{a}(A\gamma_{5} + B)\Psi , \quad \Psi = \begin{pmatrix} p \\ n\end{pmatrix} ...
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103 views

What produces this 477 keV spectral line?

Question about a specific line on a gamma spectrum, here. Below is a background gamma spectrum observed by a Ge[li] detector. I've been able to identify all the lines with mostly certainty, apart ...
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1answer
48 views

What does the g mean after the isotope given?

I'm familiar with notation such as Sc-44m standing for the meta stable state of Sc-44. What does Sc-44g mean? There are a few examples of this notation; here's one: http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-...
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186 views

Do neutrons in an atomic nucleus exert strong force on each other?

If they do, then why do we never see clumps of neutrons assembled into "atoms" without protons? Or are neurtons mutually repelled by the strong force?
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Estimation of the age of Earth

By calculating the ratio of U-238 to Pb - 209 the age of the earth can be estimated. Is it not a possibility that non radioactive lead already there formed during the birth of earth it self alter the ...
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1answer
44 views

Gamma spectrum: Question about cross sections

If I have a gamma spectrum and I suspect that I should have an isotope, Fe-59 for example, present in the environment, I will then look here: http://nucleardata.nuclear.lu.se/toi/nuclide.asp?iZA=...
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Fission of U-235 produces Cs-137 along with…?

Question about Nuclear fission in general, here. If I have the fission of U-235 and I know that one of the products is Cs-137, is there a way of figuring out the other product? Should there be ...
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How much energy is released from the splitting of a single hydrogen atom?

My question is a fairly simple one that I cant seem to find on Google: How much energy, in both technical and laymans' terms, is released from the splitting of a single hydrogen atom?
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Matter to energy conversion

Okay so I have a question, during a nuclear explosion or particle/antiparticle annihilation, matter is converted into energy. How do I determine if a from a explosion will come lets say a small ...
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What is meant by mass defect of a single neutron or a single proton?

As per my understanding The mass defect of a nucleus represents the mass of the energy binding the nucleus, and is the difference between the mass of a nucleus and the sum of the masses of the ...
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65 views

Fission producing Cs-137

This is I suppose quite a precise question about Nuclear fission. What produces, aside from U-235, via a fission process, Cs-137? Does any isotope of Actinium, for example, undergo a fission process ...
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1answer
520 views

Should I observe single/double escape peaks for all energies above 1022 keV

I have already asked a question similar to this, but that question was specifically relating to the case of K-40. I'm going to generalize it to any case My question is to do with the field of gamma ...
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1answer
24 views

How to choose which elements to use when synthesizing an ultra-heavy element?

I've been told that synthetic ultra-heavy elements are produced by bombarding a light nucleus into a heavy one, and that several combinations are (at least in theory) possible, as long as the sum of ...
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46 views

Why do I not observe single/double escape peaks for K-40

A question on gamma spectrometry here. If I'm looking at a background gamma spectrum with a big peak at 1460KeV (approximately 180 counts) and I attribute this peak to the presence of K-40, should I ...
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59 views

Nuclear decay of V-48

I have a question on the "decay" of Vanadium-48. The reason it's in inverted commas is because I'm not sure whether decay is the right word. Basically what I'm trying to work out is whether it's ...
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Why isn't spent nuclear fuel used as a heat source? [closed]

We all know spent fuel rods taken out from a reactor core keeps generating tremendous amount of heat and needs to be kept cool by running cool water. It is also known that if cooling system fails ...