Nuclear physics is the study of the composition, behavior and interaction of atomic nuclei and their constituent parts.

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Free electron Gas shortcomings

I am studying surface states and the Rashba effect. A common model I keep coming across is to implement the free electron model. In this model we get the spin orbit interaction Hamiltonian by ...
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24 views

Binding energy per nucleon in radioisotopes of hydrogen

I understand that greater binding energy per nucleon implies a more stable atom and atoms undergo nuclear fusion and fission to attain higher binding energy per nucleon. The binding energy per nucleon ...
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60 views

Why positron emission is unlikely to occur for nuclei with an excess of neutrons?

Is it because a neutron decays into a proton and electron rather than a positron. Which type of nucleus emits positron and which emits electrons . Is it something to do with beta plus and beta minus ...
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855 views

Why only light nuclei are able to undergo nuclear fusion not heavy nuclei?

Is it because of the binding energy or the binding energy per nuclei . I am having trouble with this whole binding energy and nuclear fusion concept.
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47 views

Is there any material that can survive a nuke? [closed]

Is there a material known to man that I can tape to a Tsar-Bomba-yield nuclear warhead and find kilometers away after detonation? This question is quite similar but a nuclear explosion is quite ...
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1answer
47 views

Why do we use Bequerel to measure Radioactivity in food? [closed]

Wouldn't it be better to use the equivalent dose?
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1answer
27 views

Should I see evidence of neutron induced gammas on a background spectrum?

If I am looking at a background gamma spectrum taken from a neutron spallation source whilst the beam was off (IE in a shutdown period), should I expect to see emissions coming from neutron induced ...
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0answers
33 views

Does gamma radiation create radioactive people?

I've read that the materials become radioactive. I'm writing a story where an unfortunate person has been in the vicinity of a large amount of gamma radiation. They've absorbed 6-8 Gray. Would the ...
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1answer
52 views

Why is it necessary to enrich Uranium and Plutonium before they can be used in nuclear warheads?

The World Nuclear Association(WNA) states: Weapons-grade uranium is highly enriched, to over 90% U-235 (the fissile isotope).Weapons-grade plutonium has over 93% Pu-239 However, what WNA or ...
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34 views

Find the Energy release in this Nuclear Reaction (Fission)

Plutonium undergoes nuclear fission according to the equation below: The value of $x=3$. The question is to estimate the energy released in this reaction. I know the Binding Energy per nucleon ($B$)...
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1answer
48 views

what is the analog of electronics for quarks or protons?

Is there an equivalent field for quarks or for protons as there is electronics for electrons where you can build engineer and mess around with things? May be even hack ?
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1answer
53 views

Why don't all the gluon's get converted into energy in an uranium atom undergoing fission?

I have following questions and arguments. why do only gluons get converted into energy in an uranium atom undergoing fission? why don't all the gluons get converted into energy? which conditions ...
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1answer
36 views

Mass-energy conversion mechanism in supernovas

Fusion of nuclei inside stars switches from exothermic to endothermic for Iron and elements heavier than Iron. Supernovas not only achieve fusion of transuranides (albeit in trace relative quantities),...
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Energy Released in a Fission Reaction

I've been told the following is incorrect, but I can't really see how. Consider the fission event described by the equation $$ \rm ^{235}U+n\rightarrow{}^{93}Rb+{}^{140}Cs+3n $$ The energy released ...
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2answers
434 views

How does zinc affect fast neutrons?

How does metallic zinc interact with nuclear fission? Is it transparent for fast neutrons, or does it interact as a reflector (tamper), absorber, or moderator, or some other way yet? I'm asking it ...
3
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1answer
35 views

What would be the minimum fissile material needed to start fusion within a pulse unit? [closed]

I am trying to calculate the weight of the pulse unit and composition and the approximate fallout, for a ground launch in regards to Project Orion`s nuclear pulse propulsion for a 0.03 kiloton and 0....
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1answer
39 views

Thermionic emission

I have a pretty basic question regarding the beam of electrons as a result of thermionic emission. In an electron gun, the emitted electrons from the cathode become incident at a point on the other ...
0
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1answer
38 views

How to calculate kinetic energy of emitted particle using Q-value?

Suppose a nucleus of given mass number, initially at rest emits an $\alpha$-particle. How can I calculate kinetic energy of the $\alpha$-particle using no other data except the $Q$-value of the ...
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1answer
67 views

Can we use a particle accelerator to create elements?

i'm a student of 11th grade. i studied about working of particle accelerators, cyclotrons in particular in a chapter of electromagnetism. i also read that the whole periodic table after element number ...
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1answer
40 views

Do nuclear particles react to heat? [closed]

I would like to ask if the nuclear and sub nuclear particles react to heat energy supplied to them. For example the quark triads in protons and neutrons?
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40 views

Why do the masses of decay products affect the branching ratio?

Consider a particle $P$ of mass $100m$ (where $m$ is some unit). It can decay into either of two particle-antiparticle pairs: $P\to P_1\bar{P}_1$ with branching ratio $BR_1$, where $P_1$ has mass $...
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1answer
53 views

Neutron population growth in a reactor

In nuclear reactors physics, the effective constant $k_{eff}$ is defined as $$k_\text{eff} \equiv {\text{number of neutrons in one generation}\over \text{number of neutrons in the preceding ...
3
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1answer
926 views

Why don't X-rays penetrate the bone?

My brother asked the simplest question ever: why do X-rays not penetrate the bone? I know it is something to do with the compact molecular structure of bone. What I really need to know is, what is ...
26
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5answers
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Help! An 8 year old asked me how to build a nuclear power plant [closed]

I would really like to give an explanation similar to this one. Here's my current recipe: (i) Mine uranium, for example take a rock from here (picture of uranium mine in Kazakhstan). (ii) Put the ...
0
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1answer
22 views

How much power can nuclear power plants produce? [closed]

I looked at the power plants with the highest capacity and hydroelectric plants seem to dominate the list. Surely nuclear plants could be far more powerful? I assume they are limited because of ...
3
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2answers
50 views

Spherical ground state of nucleus

If a nucleus has spin-parity 0$^+$ in its ground state (even-even nucleus), does this necessarily mean that the ground state is a spherical one? Or does this apply only to closed shell nuclei? E.g. ...
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2answers
64 views

What is radiative width?

I am trying to understand gamma radiation and trying to figure out how to calculate radiative width. Is the radiative width how far the atom can be from another one and the probability of it then ...
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1answer
41 views

Quadrupole moment of 3- state in 208Pb?

$^{208}$Pb is a spherical nucleus, so its transition to the first 3$^-$ state is an octupole vibration. Why does this state then have an associated quadrupole moment, as mentioned by several authors? ...
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30 views

Why are Nuclei stable and what do neutrons change there?

I am currently thinking about nuclear fission and realized that I forgot some basic facts I've learned (and understood... at least I thought so) some years ago in school. I know that electrons are ...
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0answers
34 views

Timescale of nuclear interaction

Can the timescales of nuclear interaction processes, like inelastic scattering or transfer reactions be found out?
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2answers
142 views

Why don't neutrons cluster on their own?

"The answer lies in their one part in a thousand extra mass. Adding neutrons costs a little in mass, and in Einstein $E=mc^2$ implies that mass equates to energy. So it costs energy to add neutrons(...
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2answers
61 views

Radioactive decay-Why does it depend on numbers left

As textbooks describe the rate law for radioactive decay as a first order reaction dN/dt=kN,why is it so(mine does not give the reason)? How is the radioactive decay of one atom depeendent on the ...
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0answers
18 views

Why does the alpha particle not excite the isovector transitions in nuclei?

The $\alpha$ particle is a very commonly used projectile for studying inelastic scattering. It has T=0 ans S=0. But it only excites the isoscalar vibration modes in target nuclei, and not isovector ...
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1answer
117 views

How does the discrete energies of alpha and gamma rays prove the existence of nuclear energy levels

I was reading up about Nuclear Energy Levels and came up with the aforementioned question. To me, there seems to be no direct connection between the two statements and therefore, I would like to know ...
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2answers
64 views

Question on matter waves

So,I just started this topic on modern physics in school that contained the concept of"de broglie waves" or "matter waves" and there are a few concepts that are unclear to me. Firstly, does a single ...
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0answers
19 views

Using ion radiation to make electricity? [duplicate]

Is it possible to capture the ion radiation from a nuclear source and make electricity from it? I always thought it was possible, but never looked into it? Is this what a beta voltaic battery does?
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18 views

Protonic emissions

In a beta emission a neutron decays,into a proton and an electron, and an electron randomly gets ejected from the nucleus due to the phenomenon of barrier tunnelling(correct me if am wrong).But why is ...
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0answers
34 views

Nuclear resonance and Breit Wigner Single level formula

I have been trying to understand Briet Wigner Single level formula and its implication. However, what is nuclear resonance in terms of nuclear cross section ? Is it just the sharp increase in nuclear ...
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122 views

time-dependent Hartree-Fock for two-component bosons

How does the ansatz for the time-dependent Hartree-Fock wavefunction look like in the second quantization if we have two-component boson system and in one case the Hamiltonian commutes with number of ...
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16 views

CDCC method for break-up cross sections

Is anyone familiar with the Continuum Discretized coupled channels method commonly used to compute breakup cross section of weakly bound projectiles? Some authors talk about including target ...
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0answers
32 views

Is an “underwater” submarine affected by a nuclear bomb exploding above the water? [duplicate]

I've just read Would being underwater help survive a nuclear bomb?. Submarines are way more armored and far from the surface than a human body (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Submarine_depth_ratings), ...
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1answer
42 views

Does Rydberg's formula work for different orbitals?

Rydberg's formula is given as $\frac { 1 }{ \lambda } =R\left( \frac { 1 }{ { { n }_{ 1 }^{ 2 } } } -\frac { 1 }{ { { n }_{ 2 }^{ 2 } } } \right) $ where ${ n }_{ 2 }$ and ${ n }_{ 1 }$ are the ...
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2answers
101 views

How is an electron “recycled” in a neutron?

A proton is made up, they say, by 2 up and 1 down quark, drowned in a sea of virual paricles: when an electron is captured this process thereby changes a nuclear proton to a neutron and ...
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isoscalr or isovector modes of vibration in nuclei?

How can it be determined whether one incoming nucleus (say projectile) would excite the isoscalar modes of vibration in the target nucleus or the isovector ones?
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2answers
65 views

Question about calculating age of a uranium and lead containing object, based on the ratio of uranium-to-lead

I realize this is probably going to sound so stupid, but... here goes: Radioactive decay: We know that we can calculate the age of a uranium containing object by the uranium-to-lead ratio, due to ...
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1answer
25 views

Collectivity in nuclei

Why do inelastic scattering of nuclei as well as their electric multipole radiative transition (via say Coulomb excitation) show similar collective enhancement, even though electromagnetic field ...
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0answers
31 views

Cloud chamber and observations [closed]

What are the best ways to use a cloud chamber to study particles. What would you gain from observations done in a cloud chamber.
0
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1answer
68 views

Why is there only alpha and beta (and gamma) decay?

Why is it that we mostly speak of alpha and beta decay (when looking at emitted particles with rest mass)? Why don't we speak of decays that emit something like $2n3p$, $3n2p$ and so on? Do they occur ...
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0answers
39 views

Random Phase approximation (RPA) in nuclear physics [closed]

What does RPA mean? What makes it significant to be used to determine nuclear transition strengths and how?
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1answer
49 views

Nuclear fusion will consume all our hydrogen in some centuries?

First, sorry for bad English. If the fusion become a viable energy source, and used extensively, it will have impact on the amount of hydrogen in our environment? Unlike pollution by carbon dioxide, ...