Nuclear physics is the study of the composition, behavior and interaction of atomic nuclei and their constituent parts.

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Gamma decay multipolar transition rate?

I have been trying to derive the equation for the transition probability per unit time/transition rate for gamma decay of a nucleus, as given by equation (21) of this article. I have also gone through ...
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37 views

Determining thickness of Aluminium foil with alpha particles

So I'm trying to derive an equation to determine the thickness of a thin aluminium foil using Bragg Kleeman rule. I've so far got that the range of the alpha particles in aluminium is $R(Al)=R(air)\...
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32 views

Predicting a decay chain? [duplicate]

Is there a way to predict a decay chain? Let's say I have U-238 and want to find out its decay chain, is there a way to do that without looking it up? Thanks in advance.
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40 views

What is the interrelationship among PD, T1 and T2 in relation to MRI

Proton Density (PD), Spin - Lattice Relaxation Time (T1), Spin - Spin Relaxation Time (T2) are three major characteristics by which we can distinguish different types of tissues and all three are ...
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61 views

What happens when fast moving electrons hit hydrogen molecules?

Just like the creation of X-rays. Where fast moving electrons are bombarded on some Heavy element. What happens if the we keep compressed Hydrogen instead of the heavy metals? Surely it will form ...
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125 views

Physics needed for a quite well understanding of nuclear bomb [closed]

I am an undergraduate student in physics and mathematics and one of my early dreams in physics was to understand the way nuclear weapons work. Is there a book which deals with the physics and the ...
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14 views

Simple deduction of differential cross section from total cross section

In Povh's book "Particles and Nuclei" we read the following: I simply cannot wrap my head around what happened from eq. 5.20 to 5.22. How did he deduce that the cross section for the scattering into ...
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1answer
59 views

Atomic bomb explosion [duplicate]

What are those vertical filaments that form in the air whenever an atomic bomb is detonated? They are clearly visible in this movie at 3:08.
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23 views

Project Orion pusher plate computer modeling

Linked from the space.stackexchange forum: http://space.stackexchange.com/questions/15051/orion-project-npp-pusher-plate-computer-models-and-survivability Project Orion is discussed as if it is a ...
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41 views

Why build so big sarcophagus in Chernobyl instead another alternative? [closed]

As title, why build so big sarcophagus in Chernobyl? The new sarcophagus is really tall, large and expensive and it should cover the old one. But there is already a sarcophagus build over another ...
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1answer
42 views

Cause of radioactivity

If Uranium-238 is hit by a neutron, it splits into different parts. My question is (a) Why throwing a neutron will destroy the equilibrium? Rather, should it not help maintain it? (As neutron is ...
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2answers
55 views

Arrangement of Nucleons due to Strong Force

I was reading up on the fundamental forces of nature and I was wondering about the arrangements of nucleons due to the strong force. Considering electromagnetic repulsion, having 2 protons "bonding" ...
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28 views

Can there be a two-neutron bound state? [duplicate]

Is is possible for two neutrons to be in a bound state, assuming that they only interact gravitationally?
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36 views

Solve question with $E=mc^{2}$ [closed]

In the sun, energy is derived from the fusion of hydrogen into helium via the proton-proton chain. The reaction proceeds as follows: ${}^{1}$H$+{}^{1}$H$\to {}^{2}$H$+e^{+}$ ${}^{2}$H$+{}^{1}$H$\to ...
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1answer
43 views

Does nuclear fusion of light nuclei occur in fire or boiling water?

At the temperature range of ordinary fire or maybe even ordinary boiling water, is the Coulomb potential between light atomic nuclei occasionally overcome to give way to fusion? Basically, how are ...
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5answers
114 views

Could we use nuclear bombs to generate electricity? [closed]

it seems the biggest problem with fusion power is confinement. on the other hand, we developed a fusion bomb in just a few years. i was wondering if it could be economically viable to use nuclear ...
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1answer
82 views

Collision with a stationary Hydrogen atom [closed]

Can some explain me what happens when an electron or neutron collides with stationary Hydrogen atom? What are conditions for elastic and inelastic condition? For example, how to tackle following ...
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1answer
40 views

D2O distribution in water [duplicate]

I just learned that about 1/1000 of hydrogen is deuterium. Does that mean 1/1000 of water is D2O, which is heavier and sinks to the bottom in a glass of water? And consequently is there a layer of D2O ...
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29 views

Is there any experimental evidence to distinguish the total gravitational force exerted by the two proton and a helium nucleus?

I know that the sum of the mass of the two proton is greater than the mass of a helium nucleus (two proton). As the mass different is transformed into energy by the Einstein mass energy-equivalence. ...
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58 views

Free electron Gas shortcomings

I am studying surface states and the Rashba effect. A common model I keep coming across is to implement the free electron model. In this model we get the spin orbit interaction Hamiltonian by ...
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1answer
26 views

Binding energy per nucleon in radioisotopes of hydrogen

I understand that greater binding energy per nucleon implies a more stable atom and atoms undergo nuclear fusion and fission to attain higher binding energy per nucleon. The binding energy per nucleon ...
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1answer
66 views

Why positron emission is unlikely to occur for nuclei with an excess of neutrons?

Is it because a neutron decays into a proton and electron rather than a positron. Which type of nucleus emits positron and which emits electrons . Is it something to do with beta plus and beta minus ...
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891 views

Why only light nuclei are able to undergo nuclear fusion not heavy nuclei?

Is it because of the binding energy or the binding energy per nuclei . I am having trouble with this whole binding energy and nuclear fusion concept.
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Is there any material that can survive a nuke? [closed]

Is there a material known to man that I can tape to a Tsar-Bomba-yield nuclear warhead and find kilometers away after detonation? This question is quite similar but a nuclear explosion is quite ...
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1answer
48 views

Why do we use Bequerel to measure Radioactivity in food? [closed]

Wouldn't it be better to use the equivalent dose?
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1answer
28 views

Should I see evidence of neutron induced gammas on a background spectrum?

If I am looking at a background gamma spectrum taken from a neutron spallation source whilst the beam was off (IE in a shutdown period), should I expect to see emissions coming from neutron induced ...
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33 views

Does gamma radiation create radioactive people?

I've read that the materials become radioactive. I'm writing a story where an unfortunate person has been in the vicinity of a large amount of gamma radiation. They've absorbed 6-8 Gray. Would the ...
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1answer
55 views

Why is it necessary to enrich Uranium and Plutonium before they can be used in nuclear warheads?

The World Nuclear Association(WNA) states: Weapons-grade uranium is highly enriched, to over 90% U-235 (the fissile isotope).Weapons-grade plutonium has over 93% Pu-239 However, what WNA or ...
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38 views

Find the Energy release in this Nuclear Reaction (Fission)

Plutonium undergoes nuclear fission according to the equation below: The value of $x=3$. The question is to estimate the energy released in this reaction. I know the Binding Energy per nucleon ($B$)...
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48 views

what is the analog of electronics for quarks or protons?

Is there an equivalent field for quarks or for protons as there is electronics for electrons where you can build engineer and mess around with things? May be even hack ?
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1answer
55 views

Why don't all the gluon's get converted into energy in an uranium atom undergoing fission?

I have following questions and arguments. why do only gluons get converted into energy in an uranium atom undergoing fission? why don't all the gluons get converted into energy? which conditions ...
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39 views

Mass-energy conversion mechanism in supernovas

Fusion of nuclei inside stars switches from exothermic to endothermic for Iron and elements heavier than Iron. Supernovas not only achieve fusion of transuranides (albeit in trace relative quantities),...
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Energy Released in a Fission Reaction

I've been told the following is incorrect, but I can't really see how. Consider the fission event described by the equation $$ \rm ^{235}U+n\rightarrow{}^{93}Rb+{}^{140}Cs+3n $$ The energy released ...
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435 views

How does zinc affect fast neutrons?

How does metallic zinc interact with nuclear fission? Is it transparent for fast neutrons, or does it interact as a reflector (tamper), absorber, or moderator, or some other way yet? I'm asking it ...
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35 views

What would be the minimum fissile material needed to start fusion within a pulse unit? [closed]

I am trying to calculate the weight of the pulse unit and composition and the approximate fallout, for a ground launch in regards to Project Orion`s nuclear pulse propulsion for a 0.03 kiloton and 0....
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46 views

Thermionic emission

I have a pretty basic question regarding the beam of electrons as a result of thermionic emission. In an electron gun, the emitted electrons from the cathode become incident at a point on the other ...
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48 views

How to calculate kinetic energy of emitted particle using Q-value?

Suppose a nucleus of given mass number, initially at rest emits an $\alpha$-particle. How can I calculate kinetic energy of the $\alpha$-particle using no other data except the $Q$-value of the ...
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1answer
67 views

Can we use a particle accelerator to create elements?

i'm a student of 11th grade. i studied about working of particle accelerators, cyclotrons in particular in a chapter of electromagnetism. i also read that the whole periodic table after element number ...
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40 views

Do nuclear particles react to heat? [closed]

I would like to ask if the nuclear and sub nuclear particles react to heat energy supplied to them. For example the quark triads in protons and neutrons?
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Why do the masses of decay products affect the branching ratio?

Consider a particle $P$ of mass $100m$ (where $m$ is some unit). It can decay into either of two particle-antiparticle pairs: $P\to P_1\bar{P}_1$ with branching ratio $BR_1$, where $P_1$ has mass $...
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1answer
54 views

Neutron population growth in a reactor

In nuclear reactors physics, the effective constant $k_{eff}$ is defined as $$k_\text{eff} \equiv {\text{number of neutrons in one generation}\over \text{number of neutrons in the preceding ...
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1answer
950 views

Why don't X-rays penetrate the bone?

My brother asked the simplest question ever: why do X-rays not penetrate the bone? I know it is something to do with the compact molecular structure of bone. What I really need to know is, what is ...
26
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5answers
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Help! An 8 year old asked me how to build a nuclear power plant [closed]

I would really like to give an explanation similar to this one. Here's my current recipe: (i) Mine uranium, for example take a rock from here (picture of uranium mine in Kazakhstan). (ii) Put the ...
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1answer
22 views

How much power can nuclear power plants produce? [closed]

I looked at the power plants with the highest capacity and hydroelectric plants seem to dominate the list. Surely nuclear plants could be far more powerful? I assume they are limited because of ...
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2answers
51 views

Spherical ground state of nucleus

If a nucleus has spin-parity 0$^+$ in its ground state (even-even nucleus), does this necessarily mean that the ground state is a spherical one? Or does this apply only to closed shell nuclei? E.g. ...
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2answers
67 views

What is radiative width?

I am trying to understand gamma radiation and trying to figure out how to calculate radiative width. Is the radiative width how far the atom can be from another one and the probability of it then ...
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1answer
43 views

Quadrupole moment of 3- state in 208Pb?

$^{208}$Pb is a spherical nucleus, so its transition to the first 3$^-$ state is an octupole vibration. Why does this state then have an associated quadrupole moment, as mentioned by several authors? ...
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30 views

Why are Nuclei stable and what do neutrons change there?

I am currently thinking about nuclear fission and realized that I forgot some basic facts I've learned (and understood... at least I thought so) some years ago in school. I know that electrons are ...
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34 views

Timescale of nuclear interaction

Can the timescales of nuclear interaction processes, like inelastic scattering or transfer reactions be found out?
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146 views

Why don't neutrons cluster on their own?

"The answer lies in their one part in a thousand extra mass. Adding neutrons costs a little in mass, and in Einstein $E=mc^2$ implies that mass equates to energy. So it costs energy to add neutrons(...