Nuclear physics is the study of the composition, behavior and interaction of atomic nuclei and their constituent parts.

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What is the difference between zero background radiation and field background radiation in Nuclear Physics measurements?

Can someone please explain the difference between these two terms (Zero Background Radiation and Field Background Radiation) used in radiometric prospecting measurements?
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mirror nuclei: accounting for the difference in mass between nuclei

I was wondering if anyone here could guide me in the right direction with respect to the following problem: two nuclei are considered mirror nuclei if interchanging the neutrons and protons turns one ...
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The Interior of A Nucleon

Just like, in a Bohr model, the atom has a particular structure, what is it like inside of a Nucleon? Like, are there particular ways the quarks are arranged, and what about the binding energy that ...
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What is the “penetrability factor”?

I have read/heard this term a few times in nuclear physics papers. I'm guessing it has something to do with the Coloumb barrier of a nucleus. Could you maybe explain what this "penetrability factor" ...
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How does the number of neutrons in an atom affect the strong force?

How does changing the number of neutrons (making a different isotope) affect the strong force and therefore the protons and the overall atom?
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Effective Coulomb barrier for deuteron

What is the effective Coulomb barrier for a Deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction? I am seeing temperatures of about $40 \times 10^7 K$ online, but have no idea how they are getting this. If we have ...
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Is there a difference in the energy output of a nuclear fission reaction as opposed to fusion?

For example, if I split a Helium atom will I get the same amount of energy as when I fuse Hydrogen into Helium? If there is a difference, what will be the difference (in general not according to ...
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Why does the 180°-pulse in mrt not sync all phases like the 90°-pulse does?

As far as i understand, in mrt with the constant field B0 pointing in the z-direction, the 90°-pulse "screws" some of the relaxed spins, so that the expectation value of their magnetic moment rotates ...
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What does it mean for a state to have a negative partial decay width?

I don't understand what it means when a particular decay mode has a negative partial decay width. I'm guessing the total decay width for a particular system must always be positive (now that wouldn't ...
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How nuclear fission works in power plants? [closed]

As per the laws we are not able to see atoms (atom is microscopic). Then how does the nuclear fission works? *. In nuclear fission, splitting atoms is a exact calculation or probability(like we 1 ...
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Orbital angular momentum of nucleus?

For nuclei, I know that it is the $J^{\pi}$ that is usually measured/calculated, which is the spin-parity. I don't see "orbital angular momentum" of a nucleus very often. Now my notion of spin vs. ...
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Nuclear orbitals for nucleons [duplicate]

I'm currently taking a nuclear physics class, and of course, earlier courses taught me how electrons "moves" in orbits around the nucleus. In that case, it is their wave function that is spread out in ...
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Nuclear physics

What is difference between proton radius and charge radius. I have seen a formula rp=sqrt(rc^2-0.8^2), where 0.8 is rms charge radius of an isolated proton, rc and rp are rms charge radius and proton ...
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Spin orientations

The concept of spin is purely a quantum mechanical effect, it is restricted to given values in given orientations. If hypothetically spin were a classical concept yet still of a fixed value, would its ...
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How long remains a boron control rod?

I was wondering today, how long boron control rods remains in a nuclear power plant? When a boron atom absorbs two neutrons, it becomes the unstable isotope boron-12 and and the boron nuclei starts ...
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Arrangement of neutrons and origins

I my physics textbook, it is given that atom consists of protons and neutrons. But my question is that how are they arranged in a nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium?
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Did Don Borghi's experiment show that neutrons can be synthesized purely from protons and electrons?

C. Borghi, C. Giori, and A. Dall'Olio published an article entitled "Experimental evidence of emission of neutrons from cold hydrogen plasma" appearing in Yad. Fiz. 56, 147-156 (July 1993) and Phys. ...
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Centrality analogue in proton-proton collision

If we look at ion-ion collisions one can represent most observables as a function of centrality (0-5% centrality class event etc.). Is there any possibility to introduce centrality analogue in ...
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Free energy for a nucleus

What is the physical significance of Free energy F? Why do sometime we calculate Free energy instead binding energy for a nucleus? If free energy is minimum at a certain temperature, then can we say, ...
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Complex structures bound by nuclear forces ( nuclear molecules ?)

This is very hypothetical question. Consider all chemistry (even bio-chemistry) is just physics of valence electrons. Because solutions of Schroedinger equation for system of electrons and nuclei are ...
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Underwater nuke - why does the shock wave first become visible at the top of the plume?

Seen at 0:30 seconds in, this video of Operation Crossroads Baker nuclear test the condensation behind the shock wave seem to become visible initially at the top of the plume - why?
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thresholds for Cherenkov radiation visible to the human eye

In pool-type fission reactors, the beautiful Cherenkov radiation from the beta decay of intermediate products seems to be a well-understood phenomenon. I am wondering what some ballpark figures are ...
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What is a threshold/subthreshold state and resonance?

I understand what a 'state' is for a quantum mechanical system, but upon reading a paper on reducing the error for a particular nuclear reaction rate I saw the following sentence. "The extrapolation ...
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Proper nuclear reaction notation for arbitrary species

I am wondering the common way to write a nuclear reaction for an arbitrary species. For instance, for neutron capture on a species $X$: $$^{A}_ZX + n \rightarrow ^{A+1}_{\ \ \ \ \ Z}X'.$$ Is this ...
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only one material (meta)stable at extreme pressures?

Is the pressure at the center of a neutron star so high that everything is crushed into neutronium, no matter what the original elements were? What is the highest pressure (at low/moderate ...
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Why does a spinning nucleon generate a magnetic field?

I am trying to understand how NMR works, but I am not sure why a spinning nucleon produces a magnetic field. Is this a consequence of the quark structure inside?
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Energy needed for exoergic nuclear reaction

To initiate endoergic nuclear reaction (negative Q Value)minimum energy is supplied which is slightly more than Q value. Then what will be the energy needed for intiating exoergic nuclear reaction ...
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Gain of entropy

Can we really interpretate third thermodynamic law as unconditional gain of entropy of closed system? For example, when they separate U 235, they drive the mix on the pressure barrier, so heavier U ...
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Relativistic non-linear Walecka model

What is meant by a relativistic non-linear Walecka model? What are some various sources to study it? [And why cannot Google show a satisfactory result to such a simple question?]
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Why is there not much research into nuclear physics with plasmas?

There is a lot of research and theory around fusion reactions with plasma, but is there a reason why plasmas cannot be used for researching other nuclear reactions, either in the lab or from ...
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Why spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ nuclei have zero electric quadrupole moment?

Why spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ nuclei have zero electric quadrupole moment? How to calculate in general?
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Why does U-235 split into barium and krypton in nuclear reactors? [duplicate]

For my chemistry project I have found the typical fission reaction which occurs in nuclear power plants is when nuclear fuel rods are bombarded with neutrons, splitting U-235 into isotopes barium and ...
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The Form Factor in Nuclear physics

We know $$F(\vec{q})=\int e^{i\vec{q}.\vec{r}} \rho(r^\prime) dv^\prime$$ where $\vec{q}$ is the momentum change of scattering electron. But what is the physical meaning of it ?!
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Alpha decay radioactivity [closed]

Do electrons actually escape from a radioactive element ? Or simply the helium nuclei that ? what actually is the structure of a fully decayed radioactive element ?
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Can the half-life of rubidium 87 be theoretically estimated?

Can the Fermi golden rule be applied to give an approximation of this half-life?
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Calculating $\alpha$-Particles Detected During Rutherford Scattering (Cross Sections)

I am currently studying nuclear cross sections and this question considers the classic Rutherford scattering experiment. Here is a diagram of the experiment: The detector is at right-angles to the ...
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Near field and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

Why does Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) physics not concern itself with near field physics? All resonance wavelengths in NMR are much larger than bough sample, pick-up coil and excitation coil. ...
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deuteron repulsive channel

I have read some articles mentioning that the n-p interaction showed some repulsive channel. But since there exists a bound n-p state (the deuteron), I think that this repulsion has to be counteract ...
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Quadrupole moment of a valence proton

The state of an unpaired nucleon in the nuclear shell model is given by the quantum numbers $l$, $s$, $j$ and $m_j$ resulting from coupling $l$ and $s$ when we add spin-orbit interaction. In chapter 5 ...
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Nuclear fission difference in energy calculation?

If you have a uranium atom of radius $10^{-14}m$ that undergoes fission into two fragments each with 46 protons and radius $8\times10^{-15}m$. There are two ways you can calculate the electrostatic ...
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What is the difference between Linear and Non-Linear Magneto-optical effects?

Principle difference between Linear and Non-Linear Magneto-optical effects and how they affect the property of light passing through a Vapor medium.
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Can we use water as fuel for nuclear thermal space propulsion?

As I know, the working fuel of choice is Hydrogen because of its low molecular mass. When it comes to escape velocity, the estimate vary too much, from $8$km/s to $50$km/s (gas core reactor). ...
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Nuclear Physics: Eigenvalues of nucleus angular moment

In the shell model of nuclei, when we talk about collective motions, we describe any nucleus deformation, expanding its radius on spherical harmonics base like this $R(\theta,\phi) = ...
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Why are quark up and down an isospin doublet?

I have some difficulties in understanding the isospin of quarks. As far as I am concerned, the isospin formalism is used to express the physical property of electric charge. I mean: what I know ...
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In what sense can an object in outer space be “on fire”?

The famous "Tears in rain" soliloquy in Blade Runner goes like this: I've... seen things you people wouldn't believe... [contemptuous laugh] Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I ...
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Polarizing virtual photons to make fusion easier?

So, this is probably incredibly foolish, outlandish, etc but I figure I'd post it anyways. Basically I was thinking about how the Deuterium nuclei repel each other and how they do this by exchanging ...
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Energy realized in fusion and electrons?

I was doing this question about the energy released in a fusion reaction: In the mark scheme it included the mass of the electrons (for part cii) on the left and just used the mass of protons for ...
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Conversion from Curies to current of alpha particles

Is the following conversion correct from microCuries to Amperes? $\mu Ci=(1$x$10^{-6}Ci)$ x $(\frac{3.7x 10^{10}Bq}{Ci})$ x $(\frac{2e}{\alpha})$ x $(\frac{C}{e})$ Becquerels are $\frac{decays}{s}$ ...
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Algorithm for distribution of radiation

Unstable atomic nuclei will spontaneously decompose to form nuclei with a higher stability. What is the algorithm for deciding what sort of it is? (alpha, beta, gamma, etc. Also, given that alpha and ...
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Difference between RPA and generalized RPA

The random phase approximation (RPA) is an approximation method in condensed matter physics and in nuclear physics. What is the difference between RPA and generalized RPA?