Nuclear physics is the study of the composition, behavior and interaction of atomic nuclei and their constituent parts.

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binding energy of a nucleus is positive?

I have found from this link http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/nucbin.html that: Nuclei are made up of protons and neutron, but the mass of a nucleus is always less than the sum of the ...
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What causes different decays?

Nuclei spontaneously decay according to a certain decay rate. There are however different kinds of decay, alpha, beta, gamma... What causes then the nuclei, when they decay, to do so in one way of ...
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99 views

What is the state of the art in particle detection and localization

I am researching methods to detect the position of radioactive materials (emitting gamma and beta particles), and would like to know what current methods are used to do this. What type of sensors are ...
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114 views

Is it possible to calculate the half-life of a nucleus?

Is it possible to calculate theoretically the half life of a nucleus (how?) or they are all known through measurements? As an example how do you calculate the half life of Carbon-14?
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87 views

Energy in nuclear reactions

I have two questions, been trying to get definite and intuitive answers to them for some time so hopefully you can help me: 1) I understand both the strong force and binding energy but what is the ...
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157 views

What is the minimum density required for nuclear fission?

This is a followup to a prior question I asked about gaseous nuclear fission. What is the lowest nuclear fuel density required to initiate fission? This is critical for a gas core reactor with a ...
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Nuclear Binding energy

The nuclear binding energy, is the energy that is needed to seperate the nucleons in a nucleus. And binding energy is also defined as the energy given out when a nucleus forms from nucleons. Also ...
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178 views

Theoretic Mass Energy Conversion?

say you had a large quantity of a heavy element such as uranium... AND you put a massive amount of energy into it, so that it began to undergo nuclear fission and transformed to a significantly ...
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639 views

Proton mass and Weizsäcker's formula

I'm so confused in the use of nuclear masses and atomic masses. I have two questions. From the book "Outline of Modern Physics" by Ronald, I understand that the semiempirical mass formula ...
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542 views

Electric potential energy after nuclear fission

We have a uranium-236 nucleus that fissions into two equal fragments, and I'm supposed to find the electrical potential energy just as the two fragments split apart. No other information is provided. ...
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139 views

Combining of iron nuclei

Iron is the most stable single element (I don't know about combinations of elements, but oh well, not applicable to question). Stars go through cycles where they change the materials of their cores, ...
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Explanation of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and their relationship

Why are the energy levels of molecules, the atoms that form them and the nuclei inside the atoms considered separately? Or phrased in a different way- what is it that makes their energy levels so ...
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Which pion is mediator in nucleon-nucleon interaction

In nucleon-nucleon interactions of n-n, p-p, n-p how do you determine which pion is the mediator?
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Estimation nuclear force between proton and neutron in deuteron

Is there an estimation of nuclear force between proton and neutron in deuteron to say What is the strong nuclear force between them? 1N? 10N? 100N? 1000N?
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314 views

$\alpha$ and $\beta$-decay, why don't they neutralize each other?

$\alpha$ radiation consist of positive charged helium nuclei, $\beta$ radiation of negative charged electrons. So why don't the $\alpha$ particles take those electrons to get neutral?
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32 views

D2O distribution in water [duplicate]

I just learned that about 1/1000 of hydrogen is deuterium. Does that mean 1/1000 of water is D2O, which is heavier and sinks to the bottom in a glass of water? And consequently is there a layer of D2O ...
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52 views

Why don't all the gluon's get converted into energy in an uranium atom undergoing fission?

I have following questions and arguments. why do only gluons get converted into energy in an uranium atom undergoing fission? why don't all the gluons get converted into energy? which conditions ...
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33 views

Mass-energy conversion mechanism in supernovas

Fusion of nuclei inside stars switches from exothermic to endothermic for Iron and elements heavier than Iron. Supernovas not only achieve fusion of transuranides (albeit in trace relative ...
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How does the discrete energies of alpha and gamma rays prove the existence of nuclear energy levels

I was reading up about Nuclear Energy Levels and came up with the aforementioned question. To me, there seems to be no direct connection between the two statements and therefore, I would like to know ...
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Can the probability of electron capture in a metal hydride be increased by extreme electric current?

An example of a metal that can hold a lot of hydrogen is palladium. The hydrogen atoms (protons) in the metal lattice are positive and the electrons are negative. When a large electric potential is ...
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33 views

Meaning of mean free path expressed as kg/m^2?

In the paper "The Question of Pure Fusion Explosions under the CTBT" at reference 12, the equation for the neutron dose from the fusion of a small amount of DT gas is given, with a term of $90 ...
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Notation in a neutron star superfluidity

In this article "Neutron Star and Superfluidity", by Ka Wai Lou: http://guava.physics.uiuc.edu/~nigel/courses/569/Essays_Fall2010/Files/lo.pdf symbols as $^1S_0$ and $^3 P_2$ are shown, but I not sure ...
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43 views

Predict decay chain of a radioactive element

I know there are tables of decay chain of radioactive elements. Is there a way to predict the whole chain from the first radioactive element?
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94 views

Why is this nuclear reaction $p\to n+e^++\nu$ forbidden for a free proton? [closed]

Why is this nuclear reaction forbiden for a free proton? $$p\to n+e^++\nu$$ Where $p$ is the proton, $n$ is a neutron, $e^+$ is a positron, and $\nu$ is a neutrino. What i´ve been thinking is because ...
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134 views

What happens to mass during beta decay?

Sorry for being ignorant, but I'm in high school and our chemistry teacher barely went over beta decay. I decided to do some research and learned that in β+ decay, positrons are emitted from protons ...
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minimum hyperbolic distance for Rutherford Scattering

I saw in a textbook that gave the minimum distance for a hyperbolic trajectory in Rutherford scattering is given by $$r_{min}= ...
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Reading ensdf files

I understand that this is more of a computing question, but I still think the appropriate place to ask it is here. The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files are on the internet, available for ...
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153 views

When i tear a paper, can i accidentally create nuclear fission?

I know it's a stupid question... but when I tear a paper i may coincidentally split it and create nuclear fission. When i tried experimenting, by tearing the paper for HELLKNOWS how many times, I ...
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How to choose which elements to use when synthesizing an ultra-heavy element?

I've been told that synthetic ultra-heavy elements are produced by bombarding a light nucleus into a heavy one, and that several combinations are (at least in theory) possible, as long as the sum of ...
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43 views

Why do I not observe single/double escape peaks for K-40

A question on gamma spectrometry here. If I'm looking at a background gamma spectrum with a big peak at 1460KeV (approximately 180 counts) and I attribute this peak to the presence of K-40, should I ...
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133 views

Form factor for Proton

To find the charge distribution of proton , we study electron proton scattering and compute the form factor to find the cross section. The form factor comes out to be Fourier transform of charge ...
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97 views

Lead - Lithium = Gold?

In reference to this question about transmuting lead into gold, I'm looking for a correct, though magical, way to turn lead into gold. I'm not worried if it's possible to split off a lithium nucleus ...
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73 views

Why should odd-ordered electric multipole moments vanish?

In the multipole expansion of the radiation field of a nuclear, it is considered that the odd-ordered poles (like electric octupole) must vanish in order to conserve parity. But there exist many ...
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139 views

The central density of a nucleus remains roughly constant?

Let A be the atomic number The density of a nucleus is computed using the ratio of the number of protons and neutrons, A, to the volume of the nucleus (which at my current level, is assumed to be a ...
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73 views

Proton-Uranium collision

I am looking for references or numbers regarding what happens when one bombards Uranium with Protons. In particular: How to calculate how often does a collision occurs? Can a collision lead to a ...
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253 views

Sommerfeld Parameter Confusion

In almost every reference site I can find, the Sommerfeld parameter $\eta$ is explicitly stated as $$\eta=\frac{Z_1Z_2e^2}{\hbar \nu}=\frac{Z_1Z_2e^2}{\hbar }\sqrt{\frac{\mu}{2E}}$$ Where $Z_1$ and ...
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68 views

Are nuclear processes the only processes that release more energy than is input?

Are the nuclear processes of fission and fusion the only known processes or events that release more energy than is input to create those processes? I know I am being a little vague; I do not know the ...
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562 views

Why are atoms of the same element exactly the same?

Based on what we know about atomic structure all atoms have an electron density function which describes the uncertainty in the position of an electron. Thus theoretically 2 atoms of the same element ...
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58 views

Why is 0 $\nu \beta\beta$ decay often written with electron emission and not positron?

According to http://www.cobra-experiment.org/double_beta_decay/ I can see that double $\beta$+ decay is possible, but I often find neutrinoless double beta sources with the double $\beta$- decay ...
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56 views

Explosive energy in a container [closed]

What happens when the explosive energy of a grenade or a bomb is contained in a container, if you will, and no energy can be released through the container in the form of heat or sound etc...? Just ...
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1answer
61 views

Protons (as opposed to neutrons) to mediate nuclear fission?

I am just wondering why are protons (as opposed to neutrons) not used to mediate nuclear fission? Is it because it is charged, so we will have to input more unnecessary energy to overcome the Coulomb ...
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38 views

Internuclear Binding Force: Experimental geometric detail

I am looking for the most precise currently available deuterium potential energy curve (generated purely by experimental data) on the nucleon-nucleon scale. This is crucial. I need a radial ...
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109 views

Use of fission products for electricity generation

Why can't we use fissions products for electricity production ? As far has I know fissions products from current nuclear power plants create enough 'waste' heat to boil water; and temperature ...
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200 views

Ground State Assignment for nuclear shell model

Why is the ground state assignment $0^{+}$ whenever the number of neutrons and protons are both even?
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813 views

Centrality and collision parameter b

Can someone tell me what does it 20-30% collision centrality mean in terms of impact parameter b?
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646 views

What is “Symmetric Fission”?

Dose anyone has a clue what Symmetric Fission is? I couldn't find any explanation on what is it on internet.
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Nuclear reactions and energy conservation

How are nuclear fission and fusion compatible with the law of conservation of energy? During fission $He$ splits into 2 hydrogen atoms along with enormous amount of heat energy and hydrogen also ...
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649 views

what is the magnetic quadrupole operator?

To find magnetic or electrical moments in quantum theory we must calculate the expectation value of an appropriate operator. the dipoles operator are similar and is easy to find but the magnetic ...
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505 views

How to superimpose Wood-Saxon and Coulomb potential?

I have just written a simple simulation that models the tunnel-effect of alpha-particles for $^{212}$Po and $^{238}$Ur. In this simulation, I approximate the potential of the nucleus by a simple ...
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2k views

What does the Atomic Form Factor means?

I was reading about Nuclear Physics and the autor mentioned something about the Atomic form factor, something relationated with the Fourier Transform of the espacial distribution of the electric ...