Nuclear physics is the study of the composition, behavior and interaction of atomic nuclei and their constituent parts.

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Is there a maximum number of neutrons of an isotope?

I wondered whether there is a maximum number of neutrons in an isotope. Or is there no maximum number? So, can an H-75 atom exist?
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213 views

Radioactive decay law and the exponential model, is it always valid?

The law of radioactive decay reads $$ N(t)=N_0e^{-\lambda t}$$ Is it valid when there is less than 1 nucleus or particle to decay? Obviously, it is nonsense to consider that we have 1/2 of nucleus ...
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184 views

Would a Nuclear bomb have any effect on the sun that could damage the earth?

I was asked this recently and wasn't sure. The power of the sun is much more powerful than that of a Nuclear explosion but the question was what is the worst that could happen, we are assuming a ...
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81 views

Falling metal cylinders more devastating than a nuke?

I just saw G.I JOE - Retaliation. In the movie the bad guys (spoiler alert) Could this device cause more destruction than a nuclear weapon? If so, how?
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865 views

Is it possible to manufacture Helium?

Helium is a scarce resource, as it escapes the atmosphere over time. If we run out of Helium deposits, will it be possible to manufacture more helium through nuclear fusion or another nuclear process? ...
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2k views

Ba K Lines in a Cs-137 gamma ray spectrum

I'm looking at a spectrum for the gamma ray spectrum of a 137-Cs source and I'm not sure where the peak in the lower energies of ~32keV comes from. I understand that it's to do with some sort of ...
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2k views

Why does mass change in to energy during a nuclear change?

I have been doing some research on nuclear changes and I have found that the energy released during a nuclear change comes from a minuscule amount of mass that is converted in to energy. After making ...
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623 views

Electric potential energy after nuclear fission

We have a uranium-236 nucleus that fissions into two equal fragments, and I'm supposed to find the electrical potential energy just as the two fragments split apart. No other information is provided. ...
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851 views

Calculate/estimate power of a fission bomb

I have some questions about the released energy and power of a nuclear fission bomb. What are the key dependencies of the power of a fission bomb? Is it true that the power of a fission bomb depends ...
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130 views

Which pion is mediator in nucleon-nucleon interaction

In nucleon-nucleon interactions of n-n, p-p, n-p how do you determine which pion is the mediator?
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413 views

Why isn't heavy water much heavier, and what use is it for fission reactions?

With confusion I experienced recently, I'd like to clarify some stuff for myself about nuclear energy, that I find are usually not properly explained. What exactly is heavy water, just water where ...
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330 views

$\alpha$ and $\beta$-decay, why don't they neutralize each other?

$\alpha$ radiation consist of positive charged helium nuclei, $\beta$ radiation of negative charged electrons. So why don't the $\alpha$ particles take those electrons to get neutral?
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161 views

Are there notable cases of anomalies in the mass-decay rate relationship?

As a general rule of thumb, massive particles (both composite and fundamental) tend to decay rapidly through the weak force, while less massive particles tend to be more stable. Hence, taus are ...
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30 views

Which is larger, all known, bound nuclear energy levels, or known, bound atomic energy levels?

Both the atomic nucleus and the electrons are (complex) quantum systems and have large numbers of energy levels and transitions, and a basic shell model is usually part of introductory atomic physics ...
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59 views

Atomic bomb explosion [duplicate]

What are those vertical filaments that form in the air whenever an atomic bomb is detonated? They are clearly visible in this movie at 3:08.
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28 views

Should I see evidence of neutron induced gammas on a background spectrum?

If I am looking at a background gamma spectrum taken from a neutron spallation source whilst the beam was off (IE in a shutdown period), should I expect to see emissions coming from neutron induced ...
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99 views

Safety of Polonium Isotope source

I saw a YouTube video by a guy demonstrating Geiger Counter use and one of his radioactive test sources was a disk with Polonium. He casually mentioned that this was the poison used to kill that ...
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34 views

Notation on chart of the isotopes

I recently purchased a complete chart of the isotopes, (this one: https://shop.marktdienste.de/shoppages/produktuebersicht.aspx ) and have it on the wall next to me in work. The different coloured ...
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86 views

Length of time interval for an atom in excited state to drop to lower energy level [duplicate]

This is either a basic question or one that doesn't make any sense, but here goes. If I have an atom in an excited state (1st energy level or 2nd or more), how long does it take to drop to a lower ...
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63 views

Nucleon-meson interaction

Suppose interaction lagrangian between neutron-proton doublet and $\pi$-mesons: $$ \tag 1 L_{\pi pn} = \bar{\Psi}\pi_{a}\tau_{a}(A\gamma_{5} + B)\Psi , \quad \Psi = \begin{pmatrix} p \\ n\end{pmatrix} ...
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65 views

Nuclear decay of V-48

I have a question on the "decay" of Vanadium-48. The reason it's in inverted commas is because I'm not sure whether decay is the right word. Basically what I'm trying to work out is whether it's ...
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146 views

Why is isospin so useful?

I'm currently reading about isospin in nuclear physics, and I know how to calculate it, and all the math, but I'm actually not sure WHY it is so useful? Can anyone come with some examples where not ...
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62 views

Ground state of 113Sn from shell model

The shell model predicts that the ground state of 113Sn with 63 neutrons would have J=5/2+. But the ground state is taken to be 1/2+. What is the reason behind that? Has it got something to do with ...
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531 views

What's the idea behind Wu's experiment?

Madame Wu discovered the parity violation in beta-decays. To do so, she took some Co-60 nuclei, which decay via beta-decay in Ni-60 with emission of electron, antineutrino and 2 gamma rays. She ...
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136 views

Deformation parameters of a nucleus

How are the deformation parameters (quadrupole, hexadecapole etc) of a nucleus mathematically related to the reduced transition probabilities $B(El)$ values obtained experimentally?
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109 views

Why do nuclear multipole moments of charge density vary with isotopes?

Why do some isotopes have different quadrupole/octupole moments, when these moments of charge density should be independent of mass?
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1k views

Energy from 1 gram of fuel in a nuclear power plant?

It might go without saying, but I am asking about a fission reactor. I assume the fuel still has mass after it is used. If I am right about that, I can't use e=m*c^2 to answer my question. Hence my ...
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184 views

What is the energy threshhold to produce Cherenkov radiation?

I am in a nuclear course right now and am getting some misleading information from different sources. I am trying to figure out what the minimum total energy is that a proton must have in order to ...
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47 views

What process happens in an IT nuclear decay?

I've been researching medical isotopes and alot of them decay by an IT path. Does anyone know what IT stands for? And what physical process is happening? Example: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nudat2/...
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89 views

Is it correct that whenever energy change, mass also change?

Can I simply claim that, according to the mass-energy equation $E=mc^2$, whenever the energy of an physical object (not necessarily a microcosmic one) changes, its mass also change? Okay, I ...
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93 views

Would it be possible to “recycle” nuclear warheads into nuclear energy? [closed]

The number of nuclear warheads in the world is estimated (!) to be over 16,000. [0] Surely, this stockpile represents a massive threat to humanity. My question is simple. Can we repurpose these ...
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91 views

Identification of massless, chargeless $x$ in a nuclear reaction

On Friday, we had our Physics test. We (the tenth grade students) have the basic introduction to Radioactivity and a few nuclear reactions in our syllabus. In the test, the following question was ...
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153 views

Can we observe proton decay?

I know that the half life of a proton is more than $6.6\cdot 10^{33}$ years (antimuon decay). I have found this data on Wikipedia proton decay but I do not know the probability distribution that leads ...
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257 views

Cobalt 60 beta decay

In the beta decay of an atom of Co60, the radiation you would expect is one or two gamma rays, plus an electron plus an electron neutrino (and in the nucleus Ni60+, if I understand it well). However, ...
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768 views

Strength of strong nuclear force vs distance?

Is there at least an approximation of the decrease in strong nuclear attraction vs distance from the center of the nucleus?
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221 views

Nuclear shell model - finite square well

I am trying to make a simplified approximation and solve Schrodinger equation in the finite square well to model the nucleus of Ca (shell nuclear model). The potential is $ V(r) = -V_0$ for $0<r<...
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207 views

Starting a nuclear reaction

In Chemistry, an amount of energy has to be supplied for a reaction to occur. This energy, known as the "activation energy", breaks up the bonds between molecues in the substance. It is equivalent to ...
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96 views

How to calculate the energy freed in the reaction: $^{10}_5Be +\space ^2_1H \rightarrow \space^{11}_5B + \space ^1_1H$?

I have the following reaction: $^{10}_5\mathrm{Be} +\space ^2_1\mathrm{H} \rightarrow \space^{11}_5\mathrm{B} + \space ^1_1\mathrm{H}$ And I know that I have to use the formula: $E = \Delta m\cdot ...
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NMR Analysis of Ethylene glycol [closed]

I have the spectrum obtained by an NMR analysis of Ethylene glycol : I would like to explain the number of peaks in this spectrum, and assign them to the proton spins present in the molecule. I ...
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2k views

binding energy of a nucleus is positive?

I have found from this link http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/nucbin.html that: Nuclei are made up of protons and neutron, but the mass of a nucleus is always less than the sum of the ...
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What causes different decays?

Nuclei spontaneously decay according to a certain decay rate. There are however different kinds of decay, alpha, beta, gamma... What causes then the nuclei, when they decay, to do so in one way of ...
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100 views

What is the state of the art in particle detection and localization

I am researching methods to detect the position of radioactive materials (emitting gamma and beta particles), and would like to know what current methods are used to do this. What type of sensors are ...
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116 views

Is it possible to calculate the half-life of a nucleus?

Is it possible to calculate theoretically the half life of a nucleus (how?) or they are all known through measurements? As an example how do you calculate the half life of Carbon-14?
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87 views

Energy in nuclear reactions

I have two questions, been trying to get definite and intuitive answers to them for some time so hopefully you can help me: 1) I understand both the strong force and binding energy but what is the ...
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165 views

What is the minimum density required for nuclear fission?

This is a followup to a prior question I asked about gaseous nuclear fission. What is the lowest nuclear fuel density required to initiate fission? This is critical for a gas core reactor with a ...
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908 views

Nuclear Binding energy

The nuclear binding energy, is the energy that is needed to seperate the nucleons in a nucleus. And binding energy is also defined as the energy given out when a nucleus forms from nucleons. Also ...
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186 views

Theoretic Mass Energy Conversion?

say you had a large quantity of a heavy element such as uranium... AND you put a massive amount of energy into it, so that it began to undergo nuclear fission and transformed to a significantly ...
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1answer
651 views

Proton mass and Weizsäcker's formula

I'm so confused in the use of nuclear masses and atomic masses. I have two questions. From the book "Outline of Modern Physics" by Ronald, I understand that the semiempirical mass formula (Weizsäcker'...
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144 views

Combining of iron nuclei

Iron is the most stable single element (I don't know about combinations of elements, but oh well, not applicable to question). Stars go through cycles where they change the materials of their cores, ...