The result of sampling the property of a system

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83 views

How many measurements should be done? [closed]

I am measuring time of a computer operation. The operation should run roughly same time each time I measure it. How many times should I measure it to get good average and standard deviation?
4
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3answers
242 views

Precision of Coulomb's law

Up to which precision has the coulomb law proven to be true? I.e. if you have two electrons in a vacuum chamber, 5 meters appart, have the third order terms been ruled out? Are there any theoretical ...
6
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2answers
312 views

What is known about the Magnetic North Pole's location before 1800?

I was recently startled to find that the Earth's North Magnetic Pole is moving at upwards of 40 km per year, with an additional ~80 km daily elliptical drift about its mean position due to variations ...
1
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1answer
138 views

Measurement uncertainty of the quantity, that is function of two others quantities

I'm trying to compute uncertainty for the density of the ball. I measured its radius 6 times, so I was able to compute the stastistical uncertainty (we call it uncertainty type A, I don't know, if ...
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2answers
249 views

Is there any phenomenon in physics which is sensitive to irrational numbers?

We can measure only rational numbers by our scale. Here is an example where irrational numbers does makes sense. If so then this question may have some theoretical importance. Is irrational numbers ...
0
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2answers
221 views

How can we detect a black hole? [duplicate]

If black holes are phenomena of very high density (gravitational singularities) which don't emit radiation how can we detect them so far away from us where so much other radiation can hide the black ...
3
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0answers
373 views

projective measurement & POVM

Let us consider the following completely positive map $\mathcal{B}(\mathbb{C}^n)\ni\rho\mapsto L\rho L^\dagger$, where $L\in\mathcal{B}(\mathbb{C}^n)$ is any arbitrary operator (and can have rank ...
4
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1answer
112 views

Is there a naturally occuring sound pressure level reference?

There are lots of devices that purport to measure the absolute value of sound pressure levels. Here is an example, here's another, there's also this iPhone App. Putting such devices side-by-side in ...
13
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4answers
764 views

Can we measure an electromagnetic field?

As far as I can check, the Aharonov-Bohm effect is not -- contrary to what is claimed in the historical paper -- a demonstration that the vector potential $A$ has an intrinsic existence in quantum ...
8
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0answers
145 views

Why is the Planck length the shortest measurable length? [duplicate]

I quote from the Wikipedia article on Planck length: According to the generalized uncertainty principle, the Planck length is in principle, within a factor of order unity, the shortest ...
2
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2answers
166 views

Asymmetric uncertainties

Inspired by these two question on tex.SX Asymmetrical tolerancing Asymmetric uncertainties with siunitx package I'd like to ask for a nice explanation for these kind of uncertainties, like ...
2
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3answers
300 views

What truly is mass, and is there a direct way to measure it?

We know a mass of an object of one kilogram as an object that weighs W = mg = 9.8 N and we reference it to that, (when it should as a fundamental parameter describe weight not the opposite). But if we ...
9
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3answers
744 views

How hot is the water in the pot?

Question: How hot is the water in the pot? More precisely speaking, how can I get a temperature of the water as a function of time a priori? Background & My attempt: Recently I started spend ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Velocity of measurement

As per to Heisenberg uncertainty we will not be able to calculate the position and momentum at same instant because by the time we calculate the next of the one, it changes (i.e.) the changes are very ...
1
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1answer
1k views

Uncertainty in Acceleration given the uncertainty in position

I had a motion detector record the position of a dynamics cart and automatically plot Position vs Time and Velocity vs Time plots in Logger Pro on the computer. If the instrument uncertainty in ...
1
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1answer
148 views

Experimental perspective in understanding the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

I need to confirm whether or not I understand Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. So the crucial thing is that you need an "ensemble" of measurements: $$\delta x \delta p \ge \frac{\hbar}{2}.$$ If I ...
7
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1answer
3k views

Why is carbon dating limit only 40,000 years?

For an example, when they tried to get the carbon dating for presence of Aboriginal people in Australia they get to the number 40,000. But it could be much earlier. Why is that 40,000 years limit for ...
1
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0answers
38 views

where to find sample fluid stirring data?

I want to find some force data for fluid stirring. Originally I intended to record the data using my force sensor, but it doesn't have the resolution to read stirring force for Newtonian fluid. ...
3
votes
2answers
137 views

Decomposing light into frequency spectrum

Light hits a charge coupled element. The wavelength of the light somehow is translated into a color picture. Where can I learn about methods (algorithms) to decompose light hitting a CCD into ...
3
votes
1answer
124 views

Is this the correct way to I combine multiple interdependant pressure readings?

I want to measure the density in different layers of a suspension. To do this I want to place pressure sensors at different heights. Let's assume that the sensors are not by orders of magnitude more ...
0
votes
1answer
891 views

What's the difference between 'least count' and 'smallest division'?

I'm wondering the difference between the 'least count' and the 'smallest division' of an instrument. Can you explain that for me, plz?
7
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1answer
1k views

How to measure a solid-solid surface energy?

Many techniques exist to measure the surface energy between a liquid and a liquid or a liquid and a gas (see e.g. the wiki page). Methods to measure the surface energy between a solid and a fluid are ...
5
votes
1answer
335 views

Practical method to weigh human limbs with common household items?

What methods could be used to determine (or estimate within a reasonable margin of error) the mass of a living human's limbs, short of cutting them off? And more interestingly, how can this be done ...
3
votes
1answer
344 views

Quantum computing problem [closed]

Suppose that a qubit is in the state $|\varphi\rangle=a|0\rangle+\sqrt{1-a^2}|1\rangle$, where $a\in[-1,1]$. If we first perform a standard basis measurement on this qubit and then perform a ...
5
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1answer
224 views

Measuring acceleration of a bus using water between two sheets of glass

I was riding a bus one day and noticed that the double windows had some water between them. As the bus accelerated, the water collected to the sides, first forming a trapezoid and then a right ...
2
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1answer
103 views

Multimeter has a resistance

If a multimeter has a resistance (1M ohm, say) when measuring voltages how do I take that into account in my error?
3
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1answer
927 views

Does photon have size measurement because of its particle nature

Does photon have size measurement because of its particle nature like electron's 3.86*10^-13m etc..
5
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3answers
313 views

Setting up a local-coordinate system in space-time using only a single clock and light beams

I have a question to ask about the operationalist view of space-time. I am a mathematician who happens to be interested in physics, so if anyone thinks that my question is a silly or vague one, please ...
1
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1answer
521 views

Photometer: measured Irradiance L converted to photon rate

I am conducting an experiment in which the power meter reading of $410\,nm$ narrow bandpass stimulus is noted to be 30 $\frac{\mu W}{cm^2}$ at a distance of 1 inch away from the light source. I wish ...
4
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10answers
1k views

Is it possible for a physical object to have a irrational length?

Suppose I have a caliper that is infinitely precise. Also suppose that this caliper returns not a number, but rather whether the precise length is rational or irrational. If I were to use this ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Finding radius of Earth through observation of Sun's motion

The question I'm about to pose is from a physics book I had recently bought. Since I am very interested in physics I am quite keen in understanding how this question can be solved. Before I present ...
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0answers
70 views

Experimental data for gas flow through pipelines

Maybe some of you could point a good source of experimental data of gas flow through pipelines? What I need is a very simple flow of some gases through some diameter simple linear pipeline. A graph of ...
2
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0answers
2k views

How to calculate uncertainties of a natural exponential function?

(I apologize if this should be posted in mathematics, however I chose to post it here as it's technically about physics) I conducted an experiment in which position of items were shifted on an ...
1
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1answer
113 views

Measuring the quantum state of light

A clarification please The following scheme to measure linear polarization states (a single polarizing beam splitter and two photo counters) orientation (as $arctan \sqrt{\frac{v}{h}}$) of coherent ...
1
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0answers
114 views

Measurement in Quantum mechanics

I have got a quantum conservative system whose Hamiltonian is $H$. I consider an selfandjoint operator $O$ whose eigenvalues and eigenvectors are: $$O|\psi _{n}\rangle = \lambda _{n}|\psi ...
3
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1answer
84 views

What methods exist for us to measure the position and momentum of atoms that make up molecules?

In this paper, Localization of an atom by homodyne measurement. A. M. Herkommer et al. Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8 no. 1, p. 189 (1996) (paywalled). the authors are able to localize atoms using ...
1
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1answer
65 views

When are leap seconds added in various time zones?

I understand that technically when a leap second is added, it is added after midnight UTC, but I'm unclear how the addition is handled in other timezones. For precise reckoning of course (e.g. ...
5
votes
3answers
333 views

experimental technique for measuring temperature of an ant

I am taking a course on thermodynamics. I have a question from my text(halliday & resnick,physics-1). They asked me to measure temperature of an ant or an insect or a small body,like a small ...
2
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1answer
128 views

Basic question about probability and measurements

Say I have a Galton box, i.e. a ball dropping on a row of solid bodies. Now I want to calculate the probability distribution of the movement of the ball based on the properties of the body (case A). ...
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1answer
183 views

What will happen when measuring unmeasurable object?

There is a set called Vitali Set which is not Lebesgue measurable. Analogously, there also exists a Vitali set $Y$ in $\mathbb R^3$ which is a subset of $[0,1]^3$ and $|Y\cap q|=1$ for all $q\in ...
6
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4answers
7k views

Rough, easy DIY method of measuring magnetic field strength

How to easily, using standard DIY equipment measure the strength of magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet? Narrowing down the "loose language" of the above: strength of magnetic field: ...
5
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2answers
729 views

Averaging decibels

Wikipedia: The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity (usually power or intensity) relative to a specified or implied reference level. If I ...
6
votes
2answers
186 views

Mean of a measurement on periodic data: what is the use of the inverse of correlation length?

Correlation and autocorrelation is something that in my Bachelor's programme in physics has been somewhat overlooked, so I'm in trouble understanding their use in this paper (The prisoner’s dilemma on ...
2
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1answer
68 views

Uncertainty writing

This will sound like a silly question, but I don't recall that my professors ever though me what this means. For example: X=1.2345(6) units This is uncertainty, that much I do know, but does it ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

If the observable universe keeps expanding would we eventualy see light 24/7… clouds permiting? [duplicate]

If we can see more observable universe could there be a time when day and night looked the same?
1
vote
1answer
77 views

How to compare differences in waves?

I have a series of waves that I would like to compare to one another. The measurements are two-dimensional with time on the x-axis and an intensity measurement on the y-axis. I'd like some way of ...
7
votes
1answer
535 views

Weinberg angle measurement methods

I was reading up on the history of $W/Z$ bosons today and I got a little puzzled. I always assumed that people measured $M_Z$ and $M_W$ and then derived the Weinberg angle. But it appears that they ...
4
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1answer
1k views

Why does an infrared thermometer display very low temperature when being directed to the outer air?

I'm toying with an infrared thermometer - one which you point onto an object, press the button and it instantly measures the temperature by estimating the infrared radiation from the object. It shows ...
4
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4answers
386 views

Does entropy decrease through measurement?

For an electron in its rest frame, we have an entropy $$ S = \log 2, $$ which comes from the 2 possible spin directions along z-axis. If the measurement $S_z$ changes its state to $\left| + ...
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1answer
273 views

Controlling the outcome of a quantum measurement through translational entanglement

According to the paper: A. S. Parkins and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 61, 52104 (2000). http://pra.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v61/i5/e052104 You can entangle position and momenta of two atoms by using ...