The result of sampling the property of a system

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73 views

What methods exist for us to measure the position and momentum of atoms that make up molecules?

In this paper, Localization of an atom by homodyne measurement. A. M. Herkommer et al. Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8 no. 1, p. 189 (1996) (paywalled). the authors are able to localize atoms using ...
1
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1answer
64 views

When are leap seconds added in various time zones?

I understand that technically when a leap second is added, it is added after midnight UTC, but I'm unclear how the addition is handled in other timezones. For precise reckoning of course (e.g. ...
5
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3answers
308 views

experimental technique for measuring temperature of an ant

I am taking a course on thermodynamics. I have a question from my text(halliday & resnick,physics-1). They asked me to measure temperature of an ant or an insect or a small body,like a small ...
2
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1answer
124 views

Basic question about probability and measurements

Say I have a Galton box, i.e. a ball dropping on a row of solid bodies. Now I want to calculate the probability distribution of the movement of the ball based on the properties of the body (case A). ...
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1answer
175 views

What will happen when measuring unmeasurable object?

There is a set called Vitali Set which is not Lebesgue measurable. Analogously, there also exists a Vitali set $Y$ in $\mathbb R^3$ which is a subset of $[0,1]^3$ and $|Y\cap q|=1$ for all $q\in ...
6
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3answers
6k views

Rough, easy DIY method of measuring magnetic field strength

How to easily, using standard DIY equipment measure the strength of magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet? Narrowing down the "loose language" of the above: strength of magnetic field: ...
5
votes
2answers
503 views

Averaging decibels

Wikipedia: The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity (usually power or intensity) relative to a specified or implied reference level. If I ...
6
votes
2answers
167 views

Mean of a measurement on periodic data: what is the use of the inverse of correlation length?

Correlation and autocorrelation is something that in my Bachelor's programme in physics has been somewhat overlooked, so I'm in trouble understanding their use in this paper (The prisoner’s dilemma on ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Uncertainty writing

This will sound like a silly question, but I don't recall that my professors ever though me what this means. For example: X=1.2345(6) units This is uncertainty, that much I do know, but does it ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

If the observable universe keeps expanding would we eventualy see light 24/7… clouds permiting? [duplicate]

If we can see more observable universe could there be a time when day and night looked the same?
1
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1answer
67 views

How to compare differences in waves?

I have a series of waves that I would like to compare to one another. The measurements are two-dimensional with time on the x-axis and an intensity measurement on the y-axis. I'd like some way of ...
7
votes
1answer
405 views

Weinberg angle measurement methods

I was reading up on the history of $W/Z$ bosons today and I got a little puzzled. I always assumed that people measured $M_Z$ and $M_W$ and then derived the Weinberg angle. But it appears that they ...
4
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1answer
1k views

Why does an infrared thermometer display very low temperature when being directed to the outer air?

I'm toying with an infrared thermometer - one which you point onto an object, press the button and it instantly measures the temperature by estimating the infrared radiation from the object. It shows ...
4
votes
4answers
351 views

Does entropy decrease through measurement?

For an electron in its rest frame, we have an entropy $$ S = \log 2, $$ which comes from the 2 possible spin directions along z-axis. If the measurement $S_z$ changes its state to $\left| + ...
1
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1answer
265 views

Controlling the outcome of a quantum measurement through translational entanglement

According to the paper: A. S. Parkins and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 61, 52104 (2000). http://pra.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v61/i5/e052104 You can entangle position and momenta of two atoms by using ...
2
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4answers
458 views

Does measuring destroy entanglement

Before measuring a quantum particle(photon) it exists in a superposition state, once we observe(measure) it, it settles in one of the possible states(destroying superposition). For entangled ...
2
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0answers
221 views

How do I do error calculus right using gnuplot as an example?

Given is a set of measurements with their respective errors for example an energy spectrum. In gnuplot one is to fit a function $ f(x;\{p_i\})$ depending on a variable $x$ and on fit parameters $p_i$. ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

How do astronomers measure the distance of the planets from its star?

I know they have accurate means of measuring the distance of the planets in the Solar System from the Sun. I'm skeptical how can they use the same tools or techniques for other systems so far away as ...
3
votes
2answers
485 views

Atomic clocks and how to synchronize them

During teaching measurement section in the class, Our teacher told us about atomic clocks. I have two questions: What is exactly an atomic clock? and how do we synchronize two atomic clocks far ...
0
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2answers
419 views

How to correctly solve density tolerance

I want to know if my solution to a textbook problem has any major problems with it. Here is the problem: Ethanol has a given density of 0.789 g/mL at 20 degrees Celsius and isopropanol has a given ...
1
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2answers
165 views

What is the fundamental reason for noise?

I have read that noise is a result of there being "no such thing as a perfect one-way valve". That energy transfer is never perfectly one-way; there will always (at some level) a finite flow of energy ...
5
votes
1answer
253 views

How do I measure the temperature of a tiny water droplet?

How do I accurately (+/- 0.1 degrees Celsius or better) measure the temperature of a small (5 to 50 microliter) water droplet without noticeably affecting its temperature? The mass of a thermistor or ...
1
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0answers
67 views

Efficiently distinguishing mixed quantum states?

Assume we know two different mixed states, p and q, and an efficient (quantum) algorithm for creating such two. Does it follow that there exists a computationally efficient method/measurement for ...
1
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1answer
196 views

How precisely can we date the recombination?

The early universe was hot and opaque. Once it cooled enough, protons and electrons were able to form hydrogen atoms. This made the universe transparent, and was known as recombination. We can see the ...
2
votes
2answers
223 views

Very basic question on spin

Can anyone give a simple explanation for what the fractions and integers mean in particle physics when describing spin? I've seen on another forum (the naked scientist) that it should not be thought ...
1
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2answers
660 views

Magnitude refers to number or number with units?

This question is about terminology for physical quantities. When we talk about magnitude (while talking about scalars and vectors) do we refer to just number or Number along with units? example: If ...
4
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1answer
348 views

Quantum Zeno effect and unstable particles

Is it possible to increase indefinitely the lifetime of unstable particles by applying the quantum Zeno effect? Is there a bound from theoretical principles about the maximum extension one can get in ...
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3answers
338 views

Significant Figures [closed]

Subtract 0.2 J from 7.26 J. Express your answer to the correct number of significant figures for the given data. I think its 7, but the answer is 7.1. HOW?
2
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1answer
167 views

Is there a way to measure atmosperic pressure without an instrument?

Just that . I am not too much concerned about the accuracy of measurements .
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4answers
224 views

Non linear QM and wave function collapse

I heard that there have been some propositions about describing the collapse of the wave-function by adding non-linear terms, but I couldn't anything in any any textbooks or even articles (probably ...
1
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1answer
135 views

Maximum precision of deterministic measurements

Okay, I tend to have some weird thoughts, so bear with my odd question here. Suppose you have a collection of particles that obey Newtonian mechanics. For simplification, all particles are identical ...
2
votes
1answer
847 views

How much water must flow trough canal to maintain a constant water deep?

In order to maintain a constant water deep in canal, how much water must flow trought the pipe ? As shown on picture, canal have a rectangular shape. I don't know if canal length have an influence. ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Calculating the Uncertainty for an Average Value [closed]

How would I calculate the uncertainty for the average of this set? $32.5 \pm 0.1$ $32.0 \pm 0.1$ $32.3 \pm 0.1$
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0answers
137 views

Galaxies and projected radius vs arcmins

I have two sets of data (globular clusters), one for the Andromeda Galaxy and one for the Milky Way. I want to compare the distribution of globular clusters between the two galaxies according to ...
0
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1answer
158 views

How was Dorsey able to measure speed of light with 3 significant digits?

How was Dorsey able to measure speed of light with 3 significant digits in the year of 1907?
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1answer
353 views

How does a star wobble due to orbiting bodies

What equations determine how a star wobbles in response to an orbiting planet, and can it be used to determine the mass of distant objects based on the wobble? If there are other more reliable ...
0
votes
1answer
106 views

$\mu$T in to $\frac{W}{m^2}$ (for interpreting EMF readings)

I am considering purchasing an EMF reader, to collect data about what is being thrown off of power lines and various other sources in the house to reach some conclusions. An issue is, the meter can ...
1
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1answer
79 views

Spectrum measurement

How can be spectrum of hydrogen measured (Lyman series, Balmer series, Paschen series and so on)? I mean schema of measurement circuit and the measuring technique (including all the steps needed). Is ...
5
votes
1answer
236 views

Maximum probability of success for distinguishing between two pure states with one measurement

Suppose you have the states such that $\langle \phi | \theta \rangle = cos(x)$ and you have one measurement to distinguish between the two. It is claimed that the probability of success at guessing ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

How to combine the error of two independent measurements of the same quantity?

I have measured $k_1$ and $k_2$ in two measurements and then I calculated $\Delta k_1$ and $\Delta k_2$. Now I want to calculate $k$ and $\Delta k$. $k$ is just the mean of $k_1$ and $k_2$. I thought ...
5
votes
1answer
314 views

How do we measure $i[\hat\phi(x),\hat\phi(y)]$ in QFT?

What operational procedure is required to measure $i[\hat\phi(x),\hat\phi(y)]$ in an interacting (or non-interacting) QFT? [assume smearing by test-functions, or give an answer in Fourier space, for ...
2
votes
1answer
575 views

Is $\sigma$ or $\sigma / \sqrt{N}$ is error of a measurement?

I wonder whether $\sigma$ or $\sigma / \sqrt{N}$ is error of a measurement. When I measure, say $0, 1, -1, 1, -1$, I have a $\sigma = 1$. I just measure $0, 1, -1$, I also have $\sigma = 1$. But in ...
10
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3answers
3k views

How to combine measurement error with statistic error

We have to measure a period of an oscillation. We are to take the time it takes for 50 oscillations multiple times. I know that I will have a $\Delta t = 0.1 \, \mathrm s$ because of my reaction ...
3
votes
2answers
197 views

Question about uncertainty

Are $3.43\pm 0.04$ $\frac{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{s}}$ and $3.48$ $\frac{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{s}}$ within expected range of values? The answer is yes, but I do not clearly see why this is so. I appreciate ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

Good algorithm for in-experiment 1-D optimization?

I'm running an experiment -- for the question, it doesn't matter which one, but I'm measuring an optical intensity $I$ as a function of two parameters: reflection angle $\theta$ and wavelength ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

Are a measured object always part of the theory?

Is there a notion of measurement, which doesn't correspond to a yes/no question or with the idea of the comparison of two real world objects, which produces a real number? And does at least one of ...
3
votes
1answer
625 views

About binary stars and calculating velocity, period and radius of their orbit

I saw somewhere about being able to measure the velocity, period and radius of a binary star orbit by looking at red shift and blue shift. I understand it but can someone give me an example of ...
1
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0answers
126 views

Can a the volume flow through a positive displacement pump be reliably measured by tracking revolutions of the drive shaft? [closed]

The question refers to non-compressible fluids. I'm mostly thinking about monopumps (excentric screw pumps), but this also should apply to any type of gear pumps as well, possibly also to piston ...
5
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3answers
3k views

Lowest gravity on Earth's surface?

I am trying to determine which on Earth's surface has the lowest gravity. Googling is not finding anything concrete. My natural inclination would be to think of Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador, being on ...
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4answers
1k views

How does a train, airplane measure its speed?

I always get the doubt about this. I know that a bike measures its speed based on the motion of its front wheel. So what is the case with train? Is it same principle? Then what about an airplane? Is ...