The study of how the properties of matter arise from its structure at all scales and of how processing can be used to modify those properties (often in pursuit of a specific application).

learn more… | top users | synonyms

2
votes
0answers
88 views

Bubbling metal vapor through liquid Helium?

When a metal cools from its liquid state, part of the nucleation happens from pre-existing clusters (a group of unit cells of the crystal lattice) already present in the liquid. In the case of a ...
2
votes
0answers
155 views

How can I determine the type of magnet used in a DC motor?

I repair electrical motors in a workshop and sometimes I must repair permanent magnet DC motors and other motors that use permanent magnets. I need to specify type of permanent magnet (Ferrite or ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

The resolution limit for lithography in practice?

For a given wavelength of light $\lambda$, and a given numerical aperture (NA), I always see the statement in papers/etc. that we can perform lithographic patterning at the Rayleigh limit given by ...
1
vote
5answers
23k views

Yield Strength versus Ultimate Strength

What is the qualitative difference between these two: As seen on the table Typical yield and ultimate strengths. I am trying to resolve the meaning of the phrase "contact yield stress" from C. ...
1
vote
1answer
125 views

Question about supercooling

During the cooling of a liquid, if no impurity of site of nuclearation, an appreciable solidification will begin only after the temperature has been lowered to below the equilibrium solidification (or ...
1
vote
1answer
93 views

Will a diamond helm be more protective against bullets?

Will a helm made entirely of diamond be more protective against bullets than standard steel or kevlar helmlets?
1
vote
3answers
272 views

Why does diamond have lower tensile strength than Iron?

Let me first give you the tensile strength of both substance: Diamond: 16000 MPa Steel : 2617 MPa As you guys should know, tensile strength is how much a ...
1
vote
1answer
240 views

What would be the basis vectors for this 2D crystal structure?

In the above image, I have a 2D crystal structure. The lattice vectors are described by: a = {-1/2, -Sqrt[3]/2}; b = {1, 0}; and the location of atoms A and B ...
1
vote
2answers
62 views

Optical refocusing efficiency

What is the material for optical focusing that produces the less diffraction losses? Suppose one have a sequence of serial optical elements $R$ that keep refocusing a beam of collimated light, each a ...
1
vote
4answers
400 views

Will tensile strength keep a cable from snapping indefinitely?

Trying to secure a wall hanging using magnets; me and a coworker came up with an interesting question: When the hanging is hung using 1 magnet, the weight of it causes it to quickly drag the ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Glass Hardness and Pressure

How is glass hardness defined? I understand that ordinary kitchen knives cannot scratch most toughened glass, such as the ones found on cell phones. However (I once tried) - with enough pressure, one ...
1
vote
1answer
204 views

Will density of a metal increases during forging?

This question is metallurgical engineering, but I had a similar doubt regarding density of liquids and what causing it. Forged parts refines defects, dislocations will be moved strengthening the ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Transparency of gypsum and concrete for RF waves

Is there a database (or any other source) of graphs of average transparency of various materials (cardboard, concrete, gypsum etc.) as a function of wavelength?
1
vote
1answer
159 views

In a game of tug of war, what concepts are involved in determining where the rope breaks?

Assume that in a game of tug-of-war the rope ends up breaking. What concepts/factors would contribute to the position of where the rope breaks?
1
vote
1answer
428 views

Where I can find a torsional stiffness table for different types of stainless steels?

I am trying to comparing the torsional stiffness of different types of stainless steels. I googled the keywords but I could not find any useful information. Would anyone please give me some links ...
1
vote
3answers
596 views

when we rub objects together, what determines which material will pick up electrons?

For example We know glass when rubbed by silk will become positively charged while the silk will be charged negative. What exactly makes glass appropriate for losing electrons in that experiment? (
1
vote
1answer
233 views

What is tricritical point´╝č

Critical point is the transition temperature of a second order phase transition. But what does tricritical point mean? WIki says that a tricritical point is a point in the phase diagram of a system at ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Getting a given wavelength radio signal given an antenna with real-world constraints

Supposing you are given a transmitting antenna of whatever type of metal is most commonly used these days, and supposing that you are applying an AC current with the intent of transmitting a 1 m ...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

Simulation of broken object

I was thinking and the following question came out: how an object that is falling is simulated once it hits the ground? Specifically, I would like to understand how one would be able to simulate the ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Does infrared rays pass through polarized glass?

Actually I had asked in another post that "Does infrared rays pass through active shutter glass" but someone just commented that infrared rays dont pass through polarized glass. If infrared rays ...
1
vote
1answer
116 views

What is a good reference for the mechanical properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures?

I want to research various the properties of various materials, namely tensile strength at cryogenic temperatures (~20K). I was wondering if a freely available database of material properties exists.
1
vote
1answer
133 views

what gives the vermiculite it's insultative properties

i know that vermiculite is used in insulation applications. i found this notion of the R-value of vermiculite, that i don't know if its true. basically i want to know if the attribute of the ...
1
vote
2answers
292 views

What material can a lens be made from?

I need to make a camera lens that can easily withstand temperatures of about 1000 Fahrenheit. What should I make the lens out of?
1
vote
1answer
215 views

Nonlinear absorption coefficient and the band gap

How does the nonlinear absorption coefficient depend on the band gap? How can that coefficient be calculated theoretically? (Preferably with an example)
1
vote
2answers
79 views

Where I can find information about how helium gas diffuses through different polymer materials

I need more experimental information about helium gas diffusion in solid materials such as different plastics, metals, ceramics etc. For example I am scientifically curious about what is the polymer ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

How does a fabric containing 10% stretch material make it stretchy?

Why should adding a small amount of a stretchy material make an otherwise non-stretchy fabric stretch? Shouldn't the non-stretch fibres still constrain the maximum stretch of the fabric?
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Why can't a dislocation terminate in the bulk?

We are told that they can only terminate on surfaces, grain boundaries or other dislocations but we are not told why they can't terminate inside the crystal.
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Calculating force absorbed by compression of a material (i.e. rubber)

Say I was trying to design padding to absorb impacts using polymers or similar materials, such as rubber. I have a good understanding of any relevant physics, most likely, but I wouldn't know where to ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Is it possible for a material to shift the frequency of all light reflected off of it by a specific and constant value

Without reducing the energy more than necessary due to the frequency decrease? And if this happens/works, is there an index of such materials and their optic properties?
1
vote
1answer
194 views

Do bifacial solar panels operate at lower temperature than normal solar panels?

Bifacial solar panels have a glass backplane instead of the usual aluminum and are designed to absorb and convert to electricity light incident on either face. Many manufacturers claim that their ...
1
vote
2answers
4k views

Why don't FCC metals have a brittle-to-ductile temperature transition?

I initially thought that it had something to do with the number of slip systems in FCC vs. BCC, but they're both the same.
1
vote
1answer
212 views

If my lattice has an atomic basis, do I also find the reciprocals of the basis vectors to get the reciprocal crystal structure?

That is what my crystal structure looks like. The blue atoms sit on every lattice point (basis vector of $\{0,0\}$) and the red atoms have basis vector of $\left\{{2\over3},{1\over3}\right\}$. The ...
1
vote
1answer
169 views

What limits the maximum sustainable surface charge density of a sphere in space?

Suppose I charge a sphere and leave it in vacuum for 10 years. After that time, I want its surface charge density to be in the order of 10^5C/m^2. Would that be possible? Would it depend on the ...
1
vote
3answers
82 views

Trapping EM radiation [duplicate]

Is there a material which can allow light (or any other EM radiation) to pass through from one side as if it is transparent but its other side reflects light like a mirror?
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Calculation of number density from material density

Material density is given by $ \rho =m/V$, where $m$ is mass and $V$ is volume. Again number density given by $n=N/V$, where $N$ is the total number of particle. How can I calculate number density $n$ ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Why can we analyse force balance on a dislocation?

Dislocation (like screw or edge dislocation) is not a 'real' thing, while Newton's laws only apply to a real object (no matter macroscopic, like stars, or microscopic, like atoms). In the derivation ...
1
vote
2answers
258 views

Where does Computer Science background students fit in Theoretical Physics [closed]

I am basically an Electronics student - background in computer science (that's where I want to work). I applied for an internship in USA in a research institute where the group is focused in ...
1
vote
1answer
207 views

Friction between atoms in spring

if i doing experiment on spring-mass system in vaccum,if i pull the to some extent (within elastic limit of spring) & let it go,will the system oscillate indefinitely? (neglect contact frictions ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Best Materials Science Introduction Book?

Why is this here? Sorry, I know that this isn't the best place to put this however there does not seem to be any other stack exchange specific to this so I thought this would be the best place ...
1
vote
1answer
106 views

Stretching a piece of foil with a hole

I have a 20x20cm piece of foil with a circular hole of diameter 1cm in the centre. If I slowly stretch the foil both horizontally and vertically, what happens to the size of the hole? Does the size ...
1
vote
1answer
331 views

How does compression of carbon atoms work?

From what I understand, it's extremely difficult/ impossible to compress atoms closer together. I'm wondering how this applies in the case of graphite and diamond, where the carbon atoms adopt a ...
1
vote
2answers
257 views

Is there a readily available (or at least not theoretical) material that reflects only infrared light?

By way of context, please picture those little motion capture lights that are put over an actors body. I am interested in finding out if there is some kind of material that can do the same thing but ...
1
vote
1answer
528 views

Paper stiffness

As piece of paper is folded and unfolded, the stiffness of the sheet may seem to be greatly increased. To those of you who don't recognise it: take a sheet of A4 paper, grasp one of the edges and ...
1
vote
1answer
372 views

Extracting water out of silica gel [closed]

From my preliminary research I've learned that desiccants are a good (best?) method to absorb water from air. Assuming I'm using silica gel (or kitchen salt, or rice) then what is the best way to ...
1
vote
1answer
132 views

Current Physical Applications of Elastic Fractals

Are there any known uses of modeling with elastic fractals in current physical applications? (Especially uses concerning with self-similarity)
1
vote
0answers
16 views

What is the yield strength of a bar of different cross sections?

Will the yield strength of the combination will be same as that of the rod of uniform cross section?
1
vote
2answers
36 views

Does induced current affect the permeability of a material?

For electromagnetic wave propagation, we can typically characterize a medium by conductivity $\sigma$, permeability $\mu$, and permittivity $\epsilon$. Consider if this material had current passing ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

How hard is ice? [closed]

I know that there are many different types of ice and many ways for ice to form but I want to know about ice that a human might typically encounter, i.e. from a freezer or a sub-zero environment ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Graphene conductor? [closed]

I was thinking if we had a a busbar that can carry massive amounts of current(since its resistance is $0.9\, \mathrm{\mu \Omega}$), and it's weight is $15\, \mathrm{kg}$, I assume if graphene would be ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What factors cause the velocity saturation to occur at different electric fields for different materials?

In semiconductors the velocity of carriers gets saturated after a certain value of electric field. In silicon it occurs at around $10^4 kV/cm$ and in GaAs at some other value. What factors are ...