The study of how the properties of matter arise from its structure at all scales and of how processing can be used to modify those properties (often in pursuit of a specific application).

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3answers
169 views

Materials with directional friction property?

At the macroscopic level a simple metal file or rasp creates a large amount of friction in one direction and a much smaller amount in the opposit direction. Shark skin displays the same properties due ...
3
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2answers
135 views

Can Aluminium be softened

I have an aluminium baking plate that I did put in a very hot oven and now it is soft, so I can bend it or almost roll it up. Why?
1
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1answer
193 views

Reducing Friction between 2 abs plastic bodies [closed]

Here at the company we've been working on a new product, and it will more than a few times a day and with a considerable force, slide on a plastic surface, being itself, another plastic body, roughly ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Why do pores make ceramic opaque?

I want to know how a ceramic transparency is mostly affected by the pores, grain boundary, second phases etc. present inside of it, but the major contribution is due to the pores. Let's consider the ...
7
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3answers
162 views

Are there materials that get softer with temperature decrease?

Could be there material that begins melting/softening when it's temperature is lowered? I would say no, but I've seen enough physics to know that not always life is so easy. Moreover I think I've ...
2
votes
1answer
159 views

How does tempered glass work?

I've read that tempered glass work by heating and then rapidly cooling the glass so that the outer layer 'freezes' (stops expanding/contracting) but the core contracts further as it cools. I'm told ...
5
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3answers
401 views

What makes materials hard and strong?

This is something I have wondered for a long time. Why are some materials like steel, diamond, and even light materials like graphene stronger than others? Is it due to the strength of the ...
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0answers
83 views

Is there quantitative theory of cutting with edge or blade

I wonder if there is some simple theory of what determine efficiency ( speed, energy end force required ) of cutting by edge ( blade , knife, sword ) At least something phenomenological like in ...
10
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1answer
287 views

Why does finely cut paper curl?

When paper is cut to a small width, it curls up like this. Why does this happen?
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2answers
120 views

What makes a material a good lens for CO2 lasers?

I read on Wikipedia that zinc selenide and germanium make good lenses for $\mathrm{CO}_2$ lasers. My question is, Why?
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1answer
283 views

What are the relative permeability and electrical conductivity of GaAs?

I am doing some simulations in COMSOL with the material GaAs. The COMSOL built-in models require me to input the relative permeability and electrical conductivity of GaAs. I have tried hard to search ...
0
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2answers
153 views

When a wire is stretched by a load, is there any change in its volume? [closed]

When a wire, or a rod(whose diameter is not negligible) is subjected to a tensile stress, is there any change in its volume? If yes, does the volume increase or decrease? Take into consideration both ...
4
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1answer
72 views

How can one reasonably theoretically model polycrystalline materials?

Many techniques are taught in advanced solid state courses but they are almost all derived for perfectly crystalline materials. For example, band structure really only appears theoretically when you ...
3
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2answers
1k views

Tensile strength of a braided steel wire vs. a solid steel bar?

I am wondering which one is the strongest between a steel rope and a steel bar with same diameter and made of the same steel? EDIT : The test could be: attach rope/bar to ceiling and suspend a mass ...
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1answer
97 views

Why can't a dislocation terminate in the bulk?

We are told that they can only terminate on surfaces, grain boundaries or other dislocations but we are not told why they can't terminate inside the crystal.
2
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1answer
253 views

What does (001) Silicon mean?

If someone gives me a thin film of Si, and they tell me it's (001) Si, does that mean that the (001) planes of Si are the ones making up the surface of the film?
8
votes
1answer
1k views

physics of wet hair

I'm curious about the physics behind the clumping of wet hair. More specifically, how the amount of water in hair and distance between hairs affect the clumping process. I know intuitively that when ...
0
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0answers
67 views

What physical properties of silver would contribute to the sound of a musical instrument?

Sorry if this is off-topic. A question was recently asked on Musical Practice & Performance, asking what physical properties of silver would contribute to the sound of percussion instruments. It ...
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0answers
611 views

How does a Photocell/Photoresistor work? [closed]

I'm just curious highschooler beginning an interest in electronics and this concept of light detecting resistance component is really intriguing to me. I assume it's an application of the ...
0
votes
1answer
216 views

Ashcroft Mermin Solid State Eq. 22.15

I recently read a paper on Specific heat of a Classical Crystal: Dulong-Petit law. In Eq. 22.15, I don't understand why the ionic displacement $\mathbf{u}$ and ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

What metals much harder than steel can be met in real life? Like pins in clothes security tags [closed]

Once I bought a piece of clothes and forgot to remove magnetic tag in the store. I found, that it consists of two disks, connected with thin pin (of some metal). I was sure it is possible to break ...
4
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0answers
79 views

Wall stress of a hexagonal pressure vessel

Problem: I want to calculate the stress in the walls of a hexagonal pressure vessel but I can't manage to get coherent results. For long vessels, cylinders are supposed to have the lowest hoop stress ...
5
votes
1answer
198 views

Why is it easier to glide on sharp ice skates than on dull skates?

There have been previous questions (e.g. here and here) on Physics.SE about the mechanism that makes ice skating possible. Reviewing these, as well external references, it seems pretty clear that the ...
1
vote
3answers
989 views

Why does diamond have lower tensile strength than Iron?

Let me first give you the tensile strength of both substance: Diamond: 16000 MPa Steel : 2617 MPa As you guys should know, tensile strength is how much a ...
2
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0answers
97 views

Reasons to consider the coefficient of restitution velocity independent - conditions when this does apply

In high-school mathematics textbooks a bouncing ball is often considered as an example of an exponential decay. One can easily derive this if one assumes that the coefficient of restitution is ...
3
votes
1answer
127 views

Is it possible that a battery goes flat faster in a cold environment?

I own an old iPod Classic with original lithium-ion polymer battery and I use it primarily while running. Recently I discovered that when a temperature outside is low, usually below 5 C degrees, the ...
3
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0answers
32 views

Aerosol size distribution

When the size distribution of particles in an aerosol is obtained, there is always a bimodal distribution. The small peak accounts for the particles that are in sub-nanometer size range and the larger ...
0
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4answers
226 views

What is Conductance?

What is conductance? I am being said that conductance is inverse of resistance?I do know that resistance is the opposition to the flow of current but do not get conductance? I do know that:it is ...
17
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3answers
4k views

Is it possible to avoid the radiation that caused the American flag turned into white on the Moon? [closed]

While lunar images have proven that the American flags planted during the Apollo missions are still standing on the moon, lunar scientists have now said that they probably no longer hold the iconic ...
7
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2answers
341 views

Why does foam dull knives?

I have recently taken up prop making and just started my first foam-built costume from a video game. These kinds of costume armour builds are often built out of the various foam floor mats you can buy ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

in Science materials, what is difference b/w E and G?

I'm studying Science Materials on Callister's Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction. I've never studied Mechanics (except for basic Physics courses), so I was wandering: when talking ...
3
votes
2answers
85 views

Can zinc nitride be used as light emitting material?

I cannot manage to find any journal papers about the applicability of zinc nitride as active layer of an light emitting diode (LED). But certain papers got mention that zinc nitride with a direct ...
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vote
1answer
698 views

Limits of Poisson's ratio in isotropic solid

For an isotropic solid, Poisson's ratio can be expressed in terms of stiffness constants as: $$\sigma = \frac{c_{11} - 2c_{44}}{2c_{11} - 2c_{44}}$$ Alternatively we may express Poisson's ratio in ...
0
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1answer
28 views

Microscopic origin of optical transmission

When light interacts with matter, it is abosrbed, reflected and transmitted. With repect to the UV-Vis range, electronic abosrptions occur, where if the incident photon mode matches the energy ...
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0answers
36 views

Heat Sink considerations for thermionic generators

I recently read an article describing thermionic generation. I am considering building a TG for a science fair experiment. I was thinking about surrounding my heat source with a spherical emitter and ...
0
votes
1answer
77 views

Determining of Fracture Toughness without fatigue pre cracking, is it possible? [closed]

Determining of Fracture Toughness without fatigue pre cracking, is it possible? I want to find the consistent method for determining fracture toughness values without fatigue test for creating ...
1
vote
1answer
469 views

Will density of a metal increases during forging?

This question is metallurgical engineering, but I had a similar doubt regarding density of liquids and what causing it. Forged parts refines defects, dislocations will be moved strengthening the ...
0
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2answers
196 views

Material breaking underneath its breaking point (due to repeated load)

I'm trying to recall some fact that I learned in my college materials science class, where we learned concepts like stress vs. strain. I remember that materials like metal have a breaking point, and ...
0
votes
2answers
195 views

Debye temperature for the steel?

I'm looking for data on Debye temperature of steel (ideally with a known carbon concentration, structure, and set of phases), but find only data on elements. Do You happen to meet the data in papers, ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

The resolution limit for lithography in practice?

For a given wavelength of light $\lambda$, and a given numerical aperture (NA), I always see the statement in papers/etc. that we can perform lithographic patterning at the Rayleigh limit given by ...
2
votes
0answers
103 views

Bubbling metal vapor through liquid Helium?

When a metal cools from its liquid state, part of the nucleation happens from pre-existing clusters (a group of unit cells of the crystal lattice) already present in the liquid. In the case of a ...
3
votes
2answers
455 views

How to determine what an object is composed of?

Heads up: This question has never been asked (here) before the way I will ask it here, so let's shed some light on it a bit. Prelude and anecdote(can be skipped): The other day I was walking home, ...
0
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2answers
193 views

Stretching a rod? [closed]

The stress applied on a rod is linearly proportional to its strain. But shouldn't the opposite be true? I mean if you pull particles further apart doesn't the force they apply on each other decrease ...
5
votes
1answer
162 views

What is the theoretical upper limit on the rigidity of a material?

Take a perfectly rigid metal rod of length $2\ell$ and some uniform linear density. Place one end (‘south’) at $(0,-\ell)$ and the other (‘north’) at $(0, \ell)$. Over some reasonably short time ...
11
votes
2answers
609 views

Are synthetically-produced diamonds as hard as natural diamonds?

I was having a discussion with my friend about the intrinsic worthlessness of diamonds (DeBeers and whatnot) and how synthetic diamonds haven't caught on, again because of the marketing/propoganda ...
2
votes
1answer
162 views

Pressure applied to flat plate

I have a question about the pressure placed on a plate of material X, how the force is distributed and what would be the material property that would determine its failure. To simplify things ...
0
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0answers
122 views

What's the typical material used as a low-k ILD in semiconductors?

Semiconductor companies (namely IBM, Intel, TSMC and etc.) may use different low-k materials as inter-layer dielectric (ILD) in their fabrication process. I'm wondering what is the most typical one. ...
0
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2answers
893 views

What causes liquids to have different densities?

We know that different liquids have different densities and it is mass over volume. When the mass is more, then its gravitational attraction will be higher (Compared to other lighter atomic mass ...
8
votes
3answers
481 views

Is an atom-thick sheet of a material visible and tangible?

If one could make a sheet of a material (thickness of an atom), Aluminum for example, would it be visible to naked eyes? What about tangibility? would it be tactile by human finger skin?
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vote
1answer
102 views

Transparency of gypsum and concrete for RF waves

Is there a database (or any other source) of graphs of average transparency of various materials (cardboard, concrete, gypsum etc.) as a function of wavelength?