The study of how the properties of matter arise from its structure at all scales and of how processing can be used to modify those properties (often in pursuit of a specific application).

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7k views

Calculation of number density from material density

Material density is given by $ \rho =m/V$, where $m$ is mass and $V$ is volume. Again number density given by $n=N/V$, where $N$ is the total number of particle. How can I calculate number density $n$ ...
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1answer
721 views

Why do non-stick frying pans work?

Modern non-stick frying pans use a mixture of titanium and ceramic that is sandblasted onto the pan surface, and then fired to 2,000 °C (according to Wikipedia). Can anyone explain (at the molecular ...
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4answers
3k views

Are there limits for the speed of sound? A maximum or a minimum only?

The speed of sound in materials of various states of matter differs a lot. But does it have fundamental limits? Is there a maximal possible speed of sound? Is there a minimal possible speed of ...
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1answer
1k views

Relationship between electrical resistivity and density

I just read this answer on EE.SE and that triggered a doubt in me. If I were asked whether there is any relationship between the electrical resistivity and the density of a substance I'd answer ...
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0answers
101 views

What physical properties of silver would contribute to the sound of a musical instrument? [closed]

A question was recently asked on Musical Practice & Performance, asking what physical properties of silver would contribute to the sound of percussion instruments. It is likely to be off-topic ...
3
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3answers
151 views

How does radiation degrade mechanical parts and electronic devices?

I'm running out of places to look (lots of Googling, SE, [articles and books are too specific and never give a good overview]), and yet I am still unsure about how exactly radiation can degrade ...
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1answer
163 views

Gough-Joule effect in rubber band

When a stretched rubber band is heated, surprisingly, its tension will increase. What is the physics behind this?! Another thing. The Entropic spring model says, for a good specimen, that the ...
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0answers
28 views

Why does not the optical fiber break? [duplicate]

Glass is a very fragile object. So why does not the optical fiber break? Everytime I take them, I am worried about this problem.
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1answer
100 views

Forces of suction in WIllie Wonka's Chocolate Factory (filmed 2005 starring Johnny Depp) [closed]

Before I begin the question: I am in no way judging this movie, just happened to be casually watching it and saw the scene (referred to below) and thought to post this question. The scene: Boy falls ...
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0answers
23 views

Mechanism of failure for sudden application of force with no supports?

Just as an example to my question here, suppose one goes clay pigeon shooting. The bullets fracture the clay pigeons and I'm curious as to how this (or any other fracture where there is sudden loading ...
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0answers
29 views

How to achieve transmission only at normal incidence?

Is there any material that only transmits normally incident radiation and reflects it when it's incident at any other angle? Or any way to achieve such an effect? For example, a mirror that if you ...
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0answers
40 views

How to simulate “inside-out” geometries of a structure?

How can I simulate the structural deformation of a physical material to find all possible "stable" inside out forms? For example, some dome shaped rubber caps can be pushed inside out, like the ...
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0answers
48 views

How “steady” are screw threads?

I have a setup whereby two stainless steel end caps screw into a similar tube about 100mm in length and 25mm internal diameter. Thread is fairly standard, and is finger tight. The question is: ...
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0answers
67 views

Why Pt is used as counter electrodes in Dye sensitized solar cells

Why Pt is used as counter electrodes in Dye sensitized solar cells.What are the properties of Pt to be a electrode material. ...
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2answers
121 views

Why does glue stretch straighter than string?

So I have some bottles of lemonade and I peeled the labels off both of them, revealing the glue underneath. When these bottles were next to each other the glue stuck. I pulled them apart and it forms ...
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1answer
209 views

How is spring steel so hard?

The mechanical properties of a steel object are influenced by the metal composition, the manufacturing process, and the final heat treatment of the object. Spring steel is a steel that was heat ...
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0answers
30 views

What are the physical optical limitations photonic metamaterials can offer?

Modern technology has introduced new photonic metamaterials that can extend optical properties beyond what standard materials can offer. For example a negative index of refraction is now possible ...
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0answers
32 views

Internal heating effects of a circuit element?

The heat-up of a solid circuit component in an electric circuit (for which no chemical reactions, phase changes reactions or other stuctural changes take place) may include: Joule heating $\dot ...
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1answer
74 views

Overloading stresses wooden planks beyond their elastic range, causing them to fail? [closed]

info: In a video on youtube in an unsafe way a car is boarding a ship going over two wooden planks. It looks to me that there two 2x10" wooden boards support a 5,000 lbs car/truck (a not so light ...
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0answers
23 views

What physical parameters are really being described when a rope manufacturer cites “elongation %”?

I have a precision pulley system sensitive to micron displacements. I am having issues because I need a cord with low tensioning force, but also low stretch. I am getting some weird hysteresis in the ...
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2answers
286 views

When doping a material, why is As called impurity?

Doping is the act of adding impurities to Group-IV elements to e.g. improve their conductivity. Though it is improving the conductivity, why is it called impurities?
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5answers
424 views

The requirements for superconductivity

Which properties are sufficient evidence for a material to be not superconducting? I am looking for a set of statements like If the material is semiconducting, it is not superconducting Edit: I ...
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0answers
10 views

Transformation Diagrams for Ceramics

So, in the field of metallurgy, there are a few varieties of phase diagram that are used to predict the post-processing characteristics of alloys. These include Time-Temperature Transformation ...
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0answers
20 views

How can I tell apart the composition of my soft ferrites

I have an assorted bunch of soft ferrites. I need to know which ones are MnZn and which ones are NiZn, so I can sort them for usage at different frequencies.
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32 views

Magneto Optical Kerr Effects

I have a few questions on MOKE setup. Firstly, why is calibration of the coils necessary? Is it to get a relationship between the voltage and the Magnetic field? Secondly, why do we have to normalise ...
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1answer
30 views

To describe crystallity structures of this ferromagnetic material

MOKE microscope picture of the ferromagnetic Material $Co_{40} Fe_{40} B_{20}$ of 20 nm thin film All other pictures look the same, also from different angles: [0,360] by 15 degree separation. I ...
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1answer
74 views

How can one reasonably theoretically model polycrystalline materials?

Many techniques are taught in advanced solid state courses but they are almost all derived for perfectly crystalline materials. For example, band structure really only appears theoretically when you ...
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0answers
60 views

Effects of cutting carbon nanotube buckypaper

Carbon nanotube buckypaper is a film/paper made from a mesh of carbon nanotube fibers, where each fiber is a bundle of a couple hundred nanotubes. This paper is flexible and tough like normal paper, ...
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1answer
1k views

physics of wet hair

I'm curious about the physics behind the clumping of wet hair. More specifically, how the amount of water in hair and distance between hairs affect the clumping process. I know intuitively that when ...
2
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1answer
155 views

Cold welding of a metallic surface

I have heard of cold welding, it's said that it's only possible if the surface is very clean. Can cold welding be accomplished by shearing a metal object and then immediately touching the newly ...
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2answers
933 views

How to calculate the coefficient of restitution for 2 bodies?

I have 2 rigid bodies (from different materials) in a collision. As you know I should have the coefficient of restitution value to get the velocities after collision. What is the information/values ...
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2answers
478 views

How does a fabric containing 10% stretch material make it stretchy?

Why should adding a small amount of a stretchy material make an otherwise non-stretchy fabric stretch? Shouldn't the non-stretch fibres still constrain the maximum stretch of the fabric?
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0answers
45 views

What is the volume magnetization of Fe3O4 (magnetite) monodomains at room temperature?

Magnetite is great stuff for making ferrofluids and has a huge amount of literature. Yet I can't seem to find an answer to the simple question in the title. The magnetization of various bulk ...
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0answers
358 views

Why do some materials have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion in all directions?

Those materials are especially ceramic-glasses. I've found some studies about how does it happens in one dimension (for example a nanocrystalline has a silica helix that works like twisting spring, ...
5
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1answer
139 views

Why does aluminium-on-glass mirror work without distortion?

I have read an article about glass (zerodur) with low thermal expansion coefficient. It is mentioned that large casts of such glass are covered with reflective layer of Aluminium and used as mirrors ...
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2answers
98 views

Air bubbles in Ice and cause for their shape?

I was looking at the ice formed in my refrigerator and found out there were a lot of air bubbles inside it. The shape of the air pockets seemed strange to me. There were many small spherical ones ...
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0answers
43 views

Spring limitation

Is there any limitation in acceleration and frequency of a spring. Please, imagine a horizontal spring with an object of mass $m$ attached in the free side and the friction is neglected. ...
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2answers
22 views

How can you see the difference between a melamine plate and a plate with a melamine coating?

How can you see the difference between a melamine plate and a plate with a melamine coating?
2
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1answer
60 views

Why does sunlight cause colors to fade?

If you leave something outside, its colors seem to inevitably fade or bleach due to exposure. Is this due to UV absorption? What sort of mechanism causes this - is it that man-made dyes deform on a ...
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2answers
370 views

Does metal sublimate?

I know that solid water (ice) sublimes ("evaporates" straight from solid to dissolved gas) in air. On the other hand, some metal objects seem to last forever (e.g. gold, stainless steel and other ...
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0answers
62 views

Reflectance spectrum and Real Refractive Index Relation

I have taken in the laboratory mesurment of the Reflectance spectrum of a material and via mathematica calculated the phase for Kramers-Kronig Relations,and finnaly i calculated from it the real part ...
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1answer
32 views

Mechanical properties and nanocoatings

How do you model the changes in the mechanical properties of materials coated in with nano-materials? If I coat abs plastic with amorphous diamond how does that change the sheer, tensile and other ...
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2answers
178 views

How absorption coefficient determines which material is used to make solar cells?

Does the knowledge of the material absorption coefficients aids engineers in determining which material to use in their solar cell designs? If yes, how?
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1answer
88 views

Why does adding thorium to a TIG welding electrode improve the arc?

Why does adding thorium to a TIG welding electrode improve the arc? What are the physics behind this and other tungsten alloys used for improving TIG electrodes?
12
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3answers
634 views

What are the rules for breaking a glass with your voice?

So, this morning I woke up and remembered something I discussed about with one of my friends: Can human voice really break a wine glass? So I looked it up and after checking many websites and ...
17
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4answers
3k views

Does extreme cold make **everything** extremely brittle?

First of all, I'm genuinely sorry if this question isn't "serious" enough for this forum! A common cliche in movies and tv is that a very tough object (eg the villain) is frozen, and then hit with ...
4
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2answers
140 views

First-principles derivation of cutting force

I know that the amount of force required to separate a material from itself is linked to the surface energy of that material. However, looking at just the surface energy laughably underestimates the ...
2
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1answer
127 views

How much weight would I need to put on the end of a tube to break it?

Say I have a tube with a circular cross-section made from some material (for an example, I'd like to use acrylic). I support it horizontally from one end and hang a weight from the other end. How ...
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1answer
39 views

What is the physical process behind wool shrinking when dried?

Wool is a fibrous material, but other fibrous materials do not suffer the same problem. Let us set the scene; a woollen jumper shrinking when put in the washing machine, then the dryer. This involves ...
4
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1answer
86 views

Why does the refractive index not mirror the Lorentzian peak shape of the absorption index?

In the characterization of materials, there are many methods used: One of them is infrared spectroscopy. In a lab we saw the indices of refraction and absorption of a certain (semiconductor) solid ...