To be used for linear algebra, and closely related disciplines such as tensor algebras and maybe clifford algebras.

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2
votes
2answers
137 views

These two operators commute…but their eigenvectors aren't all the same. Why?

The Hamiltonian $$H = \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} a & 0 & 0 & -b \\ 0 & 0 & -b & 0\\ 0 & -b & 0 & 0\\ -b & 0 & 0 & -a \end{array} \right] $$ commutes ...
7
votes
4answers
2k views

Difficulties with bra-ket notation

I have started to study quantum mechanics. I know linear algebra,functional analysis, calculus, and so on, but at this moment I have a problem in Dirac bra-ket formalism. Namely, I have problem with ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Forces exerted on legs of a table

This is actually for a computer science homework problem, but I haven't studied any physics in five years so I'm having a bit of trouble. I'm given a table of three legs with their coordinates and I ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

why and how these two maps are equal, and how they find the norm? [migrated]

Let $\{u_1,\cdots, u_k\}$ and $\{w_1, \cdots w_k\}$ be finite sets in $\Bbb M_n$. We can then define a linear map $\varphi:\Bbb M_n\to\Bbb M_n$ by $$\varphi(x)=\sum_ju_j\cdot x\cdot w_j.$$ What is ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Change of Basis For Pauli Matrix From Z Diagonal to X Diagonal Basis

I want to find a matrix such that it takes a spin z ket in the z basis, $$ \lvert S_z + \rangle_z $$ and operates on it, giving me a spin z ket in the x basis, $$ U \lvert S_z + \rangle_z = ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

What is the physical meaning of complex eigenvalues?

I understand the mathematical origin of complex eigenvalues, and that complex eigenvalues come in pairs. But what is the meaning of the imaginary part? In particular I refer to an acoustic problem ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Kraus operator rank

All quantum operations $\mathcal{E}$ on a system of Hilbert space dimension $\mathcal{d}$ can be generated by an operator-sum representation containing at most $\mathcal{d^2}$ elements. Extending ...
2
votes
0answers
107 views

Help with the inverse of a matrix [closed]

In some paper I have been reading there is a matrix $M_{ij} = g_{ij} + \epsilon_{ijk}y_k$. In the RHS $g$ is the metric of some manifold and $y_i = b_i + v_i$ where $b_{ij} = \epsilon_{ijk} b_k$ and ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

What does “projection of a vector” really mean?

Let $\vec{a}$ & $\vec{b}$ be two non-collinear, non-zero co-initial vectors having angle $\theta$ between them. The projection of $\vec{b}$ on $\vec{a}$ is given by the dot product of $\vec{b}$ ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

The Properties of Matrices [migrated]

If $A$ and $B$ are a square matrix and $AB=I$ where $I$ is the identity matrix, show that $AB=BA$. My Solution: $$AB=I$$ multiplying by $B$ $$BAB=BI$$ multiplying by $A$ $$BABA=BIA$$ by using ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

why non orthogonal states are indistinguishable?

I want to know what does it mean by distinguishable quantum state from Mathematics perspective I mean mathematically. As a non physics background student could any one explain me why non orthogonal ...
4
votes
2answers
164 views

Dimension of separable state

Please can you help me to understand how the dimension of the set of separable states is $\dim \cal H_1 + \dim \cal H_2$? This is the relevant passage: So far, we have assumed implicitly that the ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

How long does it take for $25~\text{mC}$ to pass a point if the current is $12.5~\text{mA}$? [closed]

How long does it take for $25~\text{mC}$ to pass a point if the current is $12.5~\text{mA}$? I = 12.5mA Q = 25mC t = ? The formula for this question was: I = Q/t, where I is amps, Q is Coulombs and ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

When is the product of a hermitian unitary and another unitary hermitian?

I have a Hermitian unitary $\hat{H}$ and I want to know, if $\hat{U}$ is some other unitary, when is $\hat{H}\hat{U}$ a Hermitian unitary? Specifically, what are the conditions on $\hat{U}$? I know ...
2
votes
2answers
121 views

Differences between wave function and set of orthonormal wave functions?

I'm reading a QM book. It first says for wave function: "The state of a physical system (or particle) is completely specified by an entity associated with it called a wave function, Ψ , that in ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

Deriving photon propagator

In Peskin & Schroeder's book on page 297 in deriving the photon propagator the authors say that $$\left(-k^2g_{\mu\nu}+(1-\frac{1}{\xi})k_\mu k_\nu\right)D^{\nu\rho}_F(k)=i\delta^\rho_\mu ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Examples of application of detour matrices in physics?

Are there any good examples of application of detour matrices in physics?
4
votes
1answer
62 views

What information does the trace of a matrix give?

I was recently thinking what information do we get from a matrix. So if we say the columns (or rows) of a matrix define the basis of a system, say vectors of 3 dimensional space. Then the determinant ...
1
vote
2answers
99 views

Commuting operators and Direct product spaces

Under what conditions is the common eigenspace of two commuting hermitian operators isomorphic to the direct product of their individual eigenspaces? When can an eigenket $|\lambda$1$\lambda$2$>$ ...
26
votes
4answers
6k views

Are matrices and second rank tensors the same thing?

Tensors are mathematical objects that are needed in physics to define certain quantities. I have a couple of questions regarding them that need to be clarified: Are matrices and second rank tensors ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

How to define tensor contraction without referring to summation?

The textbook defines a tensor to be an element in $(T^*)^k×T^l→R$. It then expresses tensors as arrays of components with respect to a certain basis, and defines tensor contraction using summation ...
6
votes
1answer
334 views

How can (in Dirac's terminology) the product of two “real” linear operators be “not real”?

I'm puzzled about a statement from Dirac's book, The principles of quantum mechanics, (§8, p.28): As a simple examples of this result, it should be noted that, if $\xi$ and $\eta$ are real, in ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Why eigenvector points to principal stress plane?

I can represent a tensor by a matrix. Suppose we are talking about a 2nd order tensor, and the matrix is therefore 3x3. If I find one eigenvector of that matrix; that vector represents normal vector ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

How is it shown that the composition of two real operators is generally not real? [duplicate]

Dirac on page 28 of his QM book writes: Thus the conjugate complex of the product of two linear operators equals the product of the conjugate complexes of the factors in the reverse order. As ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Calculate static magnetic field in a volume of air with known sample points

So I know some calculus and I know some linear algebra, but do not really master electromagnetism (did a course ten years ago). There is a problem someone else has solved in a matlab script for me ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

A question on partial trace and density matrix computation

Consider a Pure state of a two dimensional system $|\psi\rangle={1\over\sqrt{2}}(|e_1\rangle|e_1\rangle+|e_2\rangle|e_2\rangle)$ where $\{|e_i\rangle\}$ is an orthonormal basis. Could any one just ...
1
vote
2answers
86 views

$\exp(i\alpha\hat {\bf n}\cdot{\bf \sigma} )=\cos\alpha I+i(\hat {\bf n}\cdot{\bf \sigma})\sin\alpha$

Could anyone tell me $\hat {\bf n}\cdot{\bf \sigma}$ is defined in such way? In the book they have not defined what is $n_z,n_x,n_y$. It is from Quantum Computing: From Linear Algebra to Physical ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

Geometry topics in physics [closed]

I'd like to learn modern physics at an advanced level, but since I've no access to university, I'm self-teaching, and appeal to the Internet for information about what to study and how. Currently, ...
1
vote
5answers
342 views

Physical applications of matrices and determinants

Other than notation devices, I don't see any direct application of matrices/determinants in physics. For example, they are just a different way to write a partial derivative and determinants find if ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Complex semi-definite programming

I'm doing some calculations and I want to simulate them in python or matlab (or whatever). However I use hermitian matrices and I don't really manage to find a library which enables me to calculate ...
3
votes
3answers
244 views

Why are the energy eigenstates realized in atomic transitions?

I have a question like "Why is it often assumed that particles are found in energy eigenstates?", it is a little different, though. When one solves the hydrogen atom, one can use a polynomial Ansatz ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

What do matrices in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble look like?

I've been reading a fair amount about quantum chaos, and random matrix theory comes up a lot. I get that they're looking at the distribution of eigenvalues from an ensemble of random matrices, but I ...
1
vote
0answers
103 views

Link between Quantum and Classical Mechanics [duplicate]

In classical mechanics we have momentum as generator of translation by following definition: $$f(x+\delta x)=f(x)+[f(x),p]\delta x+....$$ I was wondering whether using this relation and commutation ...
0
votes
2answers
45 views

Straight line on 8-axis [closed]

How would a straight line appear in a 8-axis co-ordinate system. Will it continue to look like a straight line or will it appear like zig-zag line. We can see that straight line appears like a dot in ...
0
votes
1answer
77 views

Showing Dirac equation's Lorentz invariance and use of unitary matrix $U$

Dirac equation is $i \hbar \gamma^\mu \partial_\mu \psi - m c \psi = 0 $ To show its Lorentz invariance, we convert spacetime into $x'$ and $t'$ from $x$ and $t$ and then $( iU^\dagger \gamma^\mu ...
2
votes
2answers
89 views

Expanding a ket in the position basis?

My textbook says that to find the ket $|ψ\rangle$ in the same position basis as the ket $|ø\rangle$ we do the following: $$|ψ\rangle=\int dø|ø\rangle \langle ø|ψ\rangle$$ Firstly can $|ø\rangle$ be ...
4
votes
1answer
172 views

Saturation of the Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

Going to as little details as possible, here is a statement from Wald's text on QFT in curved spacetimes(I am not quoting the book) He considers two vector spaces ${\cal S}$ and ${\cal H}$. Note ...
3
votes
1answer
417 views

Representation of operators in quantum mechanics

For which systems we represent the Hamiltonian as a differential operator and for which system we represent it by a matrix? Can the momentum be represented by a matrix operator?
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Formular for interior product, example

In Nakahara's Geometry,Topology and Physics, the interior product is defined like this : $$i_X: \Omega^{r}(M) \rightarrow \Omega^{r-1}(M).$$ Where $ X \in X(M)$ and $\omega \in \Omega^{r}(M)$ ...
3
votes
2answers
188 views

Eigenenergies and eigenkets given the Hamiltonian

For a two level system the Hamiltonian is: $$ H=a(|1\rangle \langle1|-|2\rangle\langle2|+|1\rangle\langle2|+|2\rangle\langle1|) $$ where $a$ is a number with the dimension of an energy. I need to ...
3
votes
0answers
45 views

How coordinate system shifting is related to similarity transformations?

I know that coordinate system shifting can be represented using matrices. But how exactly are similarity transformations related to coordinate shifts ?
1
vote
2answers
85 views

Idempotent Operators

If $P$ is an idempotent operator, $P^2 = P$ and we have a vector $|\psi\rangle$, $P\neq1$, and the relation $$PL |\psi\rangle = L|\psi\rangle,$$ what conclusions can we draw about $L$, which is a ...
2
votes
1answer
119 views

Infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces in physical systems

Can anyone give an example of when infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are required to describe a physical system? The standard answer to this question is yes, and I'm sure some of you will be quick ...
1
vote
2answers
40 views

Terminologies for moment of inertia

Perhaps someone can suggest the right terms for the following mathematical objects related to moment of inertia? A inertia tensor $I$. $$I \equiv \begin{bmatrix} I_{1,1} & I_{1,2} & I_{1,3} ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Local fermionic symmetry and GS action

I have a trouble understanding an argument which I think has a simple answer but I am not getting it. The question is that if you don't impose local fermionic symmetry the GS action has only one term ...
5
votes
1answer
230 views

Advanced atomic physics: From Liouville Equations to the Bloch equations

I'm trying to derive the Bloch equations from the Liouville equation. This should be possible according to this paper, where it discusses higher order Bloch equations (second order spherical tensors). ...
4
votes
2answers
132 views

Dimension of the space of solutions in an electric circuit

Consider an electric circuit with dc sources ( voltage and current) and resistors. Write down the equations. In the most general case, the solution of the system is not unique. The set of solutions ...
2
votes
3answers
85 views

Shankar's Active/Passive Change of Basis

I'm working my way through Shankar's Quantum Mechanics (7th printing, and I'm doing it alone, so I apologize if I have core concepts completely wrong). He has a section on Active and Passive ...
1
vote
2answers
83 views

Unitary transformation between complete + orthonormal bases

Suppose the complete orthonormal bases $\{|\psi_n\rangle\}$ and $\{|\psi{'}_n\rangle\}$ are related by the transformation matrix $U$: $$ |\psi{'}_n\rangle = U|\psi_n\rangle \\ \langle\psi{'}_n| = ...
4
votes
1answer
97 views

Some question about symplectic transformation

I read Arnold's book Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics and come across with three problems in page 229. 1.Let $\lambda$ and $\bar{\lambda}$ be simple (multiplicity 1) eigenvalues of a ...