To be used for linear algebra, and closely related disciplines such as tensor algebras and maybe clifford algebras.

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4answers
766 views

Vectors with more than 3 components

I have some confusion over Vectors, Its components and dimensions. Does the number of vector components mean that a vector is in that many dimensions? For e.g. $A$ vector with 4 components has 4 ...
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2answers
118 views

$\exp(i\alpha\hat {\bf n}\cdot{\bf \sigma} )=\cos\alpha I+i(\hat {\bf n}\cdot{\bf \sigma})\sin\alpha$

Could anyone tell me $\hat {\bf n}\cdot{\bf \sigma}$ is defined in such way? In the book they have not defined what is $n_z,n_x,n_y$. It is from Quantum Computing: From Linear Algebra to Physical ...
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1answer
420 views

Why consider only direction cosines?

Why are these called direction angles? Why do we consider only direction cosines and not direction sines or tans. What is its actual significance? And How to use them? Why are they called ...
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1answer
352 views

Proof of Pauli group preservation by Clifford group conjugation?

A well know result is that Clifford group preserve the Pauli group under conjugation or, in other words: $C(P_{1} \otimes P_{2})C^{\dagger} = P_{3} \otimes P_{4}$, with $C \in$ Clifford group and ...
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3answers
111 views

“Complete” confusion

The word "complete" seems to be used in several distinct ways. Perhaps my confusion is as much linguistic as mathematical? A basis, by definition, spans the space; some books call this "complete" -- ...
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2answers
83 views

The abstract space of metrics in GR

I know this is a general (har har) question, but has any work been done understanding the mathematical space the allowed metrics in GR form? (I guess it'd be called a tensor space???)
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3answers
350 views

Anybody have example of two-qubit non-Pauli and non-Clifford quantum gate?

A lot of known quantum gates are in the Pauli group (I,X,Z,Y) or in the Clifford group (H,P,Cnot). I need examples of the quantum gates that aren't in this groups. Also, are there are matlab functions ...
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3answers
338 views

Non-symmetric Lorentz Matrix

I was working out a relatively simple problem, where one has three inertial systems $S_1$, $S_2$ and $S_3$. $S_2$ moves with a velocity $v$ relative to $S_1$ along it's $x$-axis, while $S_3$ moves ...
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1answer
76 views

Couple Masses - Change in Basis

I'm having trouble with the linear algebra used to solved a coupled mass problem. $\ddot{x}_1 = -(2k/m)x_1 + (k/m)x_2$ and $\ddot{x}_2 = (k/m)x_1 - (2k/m)x_2$ Shankar then sets the equation up in ...
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2answers
2k views

Applying angular velocity to a rotation matrix

I have a very simple question. In our project we store an object's orientation as a 3x3 matrix which holds the orthonormal base of that object's local space. For instance if the object is aligned with ...
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2answers
299 views

Conservation of Linear Momentum with respect to a given direction

Is linear momentum conserved in any direction? More specifically, if you project all momentum vectors in a system onto another vector, will momentum be conserved? I know that momentum is conserved ...
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2answers
966 views

Metric tensor and its inverse

Is it always allowed to represent the metric tensor $g_{\mu \nu}$ in General Relativity as a $4\times 4$ matrix? If the last one is represented for example with a $4\times 4$ matrix ...
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2answers
68 views

Find the covariant metric tensor from a given contravariant metric tensor

If given $$g^{\mu\nu}=\pmatrix{\begin{matrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & -1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & -1 \\ ...
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1answer
43 views

What makes a system linear?

Lately I have been interested in Image Processing, and I started by following this course: https://class.coursera.org/digital-001, which is quite awesome in my opinion. But in weeks 2, Linear ...
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1answer
590 views

A question on partial trace and density matrix computation

Consider a Pure state of a two dimensional system $|\psi\rangle={1\over\sqrt{2}}(|e_1\rangle|e_1\rangle+|e_2\rangle|e_2\rangle)$ where $\{|e_i\rangle\}$ is an orthonormal basis. Could any one just ...
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2answers
370 views

Trace in non-orthogonal basis?

Physicists define the trace of an operator $\rho$ as the follows, $Tr(\rho)=\sum\limits_{|s\rangle \in B} \langle s| \rho |s\rangle$ where B is some orthonormal basis, and this quantity is ...
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2answers
260 views

Is the spin-singlet state also a Resonating-Valence-Bond(RVB) state?

The spin-singlet state of a lattice spin-1/2 system is defined as $S_x\Psi=S_y\Psi=S_z\Psi=0$, where $S_\alpha=\sum S_i^\alpha(\alpha=x,y,z)$ are the total spin operators, in other words, a ...
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2answers
325 views

The eigenspinors for the spin operator in the $x$-direction?

$$S_x= \frac{\hbar}{2}\quad\begin{pmatrix}0&1\\1&0\end{pmatrix}\quad$$ $$S_x{X_+}^{(x)}=\frac{\hbar}{2}{X_+}^{(x)}$$ How can I find the eigenvalue of $S_x$? My book says $$ \left| ...
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2answers
141 views

Relation between Vector space $V$ and its dual $V^{*}$ [closed]

I asked the same question in Math.SE, but I was suggested to ask it here as well. I am studying relativity, and as you know the theory extensively uses the notion of covariant and contravariant ...
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1answer
66 views

Finding all decompositions of mixed states

Some quantities, such as the entanglement of formation, are defined using a quantity that is minimized over all possible decompositions of a mixed state. A closed form can be found for this in some ...
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1answer
210 views

why non orthogonal states are indistinguishable?

I want to know what does it mean by distinguishable quantum state from Mathematics perspective I mean mathematically. As a non physics background student could any one explain me why non orthogonal ...
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2answers
226 views

Commuting operators and Direct product spaces

Under what conditions is the common eigenspace of two commuting hermitian operators isomorphic to the direct product of their individual eigenspaces? When can an eigenket $|\lambda$1$\lambda$2$>$ ...
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2answers
55 views

Terminologies for moment of inertia

Perhaps someone can suggest the right terms for the following mathematical objects related to moment of inertia? A inertia tensor $I$. $$I \equiv \begin{bmatrix} I_{1,1} & I_{1,2} & I_{1,3} ...
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1answer
287 views

What do matrices in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble look like?

I've been reading a fair amount about quantum chaos, and random matrix theory comes up a lot. I get that they're looking at the distribution of eigenvalues from an ensemble of random matrices, but I ...
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2answers
120 views

Unitary transformation between complete + orthonormal bases

Suppose the complete orthonormal bases $\{|\psi_n\rangle\}$ and $\{|\psi{'}_n\rangle\}$ are related by the transformation matrix $U$: $$ |\psi{'}_n\rangle = U|\psi_n\rangle \\ \langle\psi{'}_n| = ...
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1answer
356 views

Lorentz boost matrix in terms of four-velocity

As I understand it, the value of a 4-vector $x$ in another reference frame ($x'$) with the same orientation can be derived using the Lorentz boost matrix $\bf{\lambda}$ by $x'=\lambda x$. More ...
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3answers
337 views

Normalization of basis vectors with a continuous index?

I have an infinite basis which associates with each point, $x$, on the x-axis, a basis vector $|x\rangle$ such that the matrix of $|x\rangle$ is full of zeroes and a one by the $x^{\mathrm{th}}$ ...
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1answer
143 views

Geometrical Representation Grover algorithm

I am studying the Grover algorithm and in my and others lectures, I've come across this picture. If the dimension of the computational basis is greater than 2, why does the evolution algorithm ...
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1answer
257 views

Once I have the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors, how do I find the eigenfunctions?

I am using Mathematica to construct a matrix for the Hamiltonian of some system. I have built this matrix already, and I have found the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors, I am uncertain if what I did ...
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4answers
1k views

Hamiltonian in position basis

Let $ H = \frac{-h^2}{2m}\frac{\partial^2 }{\partial x^2}$. I want to find the matrix elements of $H$ in position basis. It is written like this: $\langle x \mid H \mid x' \rangle = ...
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5answers
887 views

Observable: possible outcome of measurement vs (linear) transformation

One of the postulates of quantum mechanics is that every physical observable corresponds to a Hermitian operator $H$, that the possible outcomes of the measurements are eigenvalues of the operator, ...
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1answer
751 views

Dimensional Analysis: Buckingham Pi Theorem Using a Matrix

I have the following problem - which is basically that $\omega = f(g,h,l)$ now the book claims that the two $\pi$ terms as follows $\pi_1 = \omega \sqrt{\frac{l}{g}}$ and $\pi_2 = \frac{h}{l}$. Now we ...
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3answers
170 views

Question about orthonormal decompositions over unitary operators

I'm teaching myself quantum information theory using Nielson and Chuang's "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" and I'm at a point in the book where the formalism is starting to make my eyes ...
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2answers
314 views

Forces exerted on legs of a table

This is actually for a computer science homework problem, but I haven't studied any physics in five years so I'm having a bit of trouble. I'm given a table of three legs with their coordinates and I ...
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2answers
116 views

Idempotent Operators

If $P$ is an idempotent operator, $P^2 = P$ and we have a vector $|\psi\rangle$, $P\neq1$, and the relation $$PL |\psi\rangle = L|\psi\rangle,$$ what conclusions can we draw about $L$, which is a ...
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1answer
110 views

Manipulation with braket notation

I am still getting used to the braket notation. Is this manipulation correct? $$ \frac{-\hbar^2}{2m}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{\partial^2\phi_n^*}{\partial z^2} \phi\,dz = ...
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1answer
66 views

Converting between (abstract) linear operators and their position representations

Just as we have an abstract state vector $|\psi\rangle$ and its position representation $\psi(\vec{x}) = \langle \vec{x} | \psi \rangle$, how do we transform between a linear operator, say $H$, that ...
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1answer
117 views

Rotation operator for a point in a coordinate system linearly derived from Cartesian coordinates

For some experimental and practical reason, I have created a new coordinate system in the form $$x^\prime_i=T_{ij}x_j$$ where $T_{ij}$ isn't a square matrix. $x_i$ is standard Cartesian coordinates, ...
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1answer
117 views

Linear Operators and their representations

I am currently learning Quantum mechanics on a slightly advanced level. I am curious in knowing if there are Linear Operators (Linear Maps) in the Hilbert Space (finite dimensional ones) that don't ...
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1answer
194 views

Properties of Lorentz transformation generator?

In chapter 2 of Srednicki, the author defines: $$ U(1+\delta \omega) = I +\frac{i}{2h}\delta \omega_{\mu \nu} M^{\mu \nu} $$ where the $M^{\mu\nu}$s are hermitian operators and are the generators of ...
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1answer
344 views

Tensors: relations between physics and linear algebra

In continuum mechanics we use finite deformation tensors to exprime deformations in a point. The 9 components of the tensor (in reality 6 because of its symmetry) are defined as $$ ...
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0answers
42 views

how to rotate scaled-vector (orientation) by scaled-vector (rotation)

Recently I seem to have gotten the physics-engine portion of my 3D simulation/game engine [apparently] working correctly. The most convenient way to store and compute position and orientation are in ...
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0answers
79 views

Solving a one-dimensional spring system using linear algebra [closed]

I'm trying to gain some intuition into how the following problem would be solved using linear algebra. The setup of the problem is a horizontal line of 4 springs and 3 masses: alternating spring, ...
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0answers
46 views

When trying to see what symmetries an operator generates, how do you “decide” what coordinate to apply it to?

Suppose I have $\hat{O}_{1}=-i\hbar\partial_{x}$ then \begin{eqnarray} e^{-i\gamma\hat{O}_{1}/\hbar}x\,e^{i\gamma\hat{O}_{1}/\hbar}=x+\gamma \end{eqnarray} and \begin{eqnarray} ...
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1answer
80 views

Energy levels in close-proximity of each other in time-independent degenerate perturbation theory

I've applied second order time-independent degenerate perturbation theory corrections to the energy with the method presented in Modern Quantum Mechanics by J.J. Sakurai. I shortly summaries this ...
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1answer
145 views

Dealing with tensor products in an exponent

I am looking at the following problem and I am struggling to follow the steps involved. Consider the non-interacting Hamiltonian $$H_{AB}=H_A\otimes I_B+I_A\otimes H_B$$ So I'm trying to prove that ...
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0answers
64 views

What is the relationship between the formal definition of a tensor and the frequently discussed notion of a “higher order matrix”?

I've been doing some self study on the principles of tensors & manifolds in preparation for a first course in general relativity. I tend to learn better when presented with the full mathematical ...
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0answers
85 views

Learning how to use Levi-Civita symbol

I've recently started my second course in Quantum Theory and am now often required to prove more complex commutation relations. I'm aware that the Levi-Civita symbol often makes this sort of thing a ...
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0answers
279 views

Change of Basis For Pauli Matrix From Z Diagonal to X Diagonal Basis

I want to find a matrix such that it takes a spin z ket in the z basis, $$ \lvert S_z + \rangle_z $$ and operates on it, giving me a spin z ket in the x basis, $$ U \lvert S_z + \rangle_z = ...
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0answers
47 views

When is the product of a hermitian unitary and another unitary hermitian?

I have a Hermitian unitary $\hat{H}$ and I want to know, if $\hat{U}$ is some other unitary, when is $\hat{H}\hat{U}$ a Hermitian unitary? Specifically, what are the conditions on $\hat{U}$? I know ...