Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A means of creating coherent light by either driving an atomic or molecular transition in an optical cavity or firing a beam of electrons through an undulator.

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117 views

Does the gain medium in a laser need to be replenished?

Just what the title states. The gain medium in a gas/fluid laser works by shedding stimulant energy. My elementary knowledge of physics tells me a photon is mass-less. Ergo, photon emission would ...
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1answer
225 views

about laser wavelength and wave form

I watched a short introduction video online. There are few concepts which are a bit confusing. 1) The video said the laser is single mode (monochromatic), the wavelength is 780nm, so what is that ...
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1answer
125 views

Why does the laser change colour? [duplicate]

In the first image, the laser colour is green. When it is shined on the plastic cap of the pink highlighter, the colour changes, why has this happened? Tech Details about the Laser Source are; Max ...
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2answers
163 views

Plasma wakefield acceleration for Protons

Laser plasma acceleration is a promising technology that could replace the current method of accelerating particles (which is via electric fields). It is somewhat cheaper also as it makes the ...
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3answers
138 views

How to shift a laser wavelength?

Recently I have read something about the laser surface velocimeter, and after I have to rebuild from scratch (university project), I got a question: In the description they wrote that one of the laser ...
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2answers
654 views

Modeling the free space propagation of laser beams using Fourier transforms

I am trying to model the propagation of a laser beam in free space. I have an initial field $E_{in}(x,z=0)$ (a Gaussian beam) and need to find the fields at other points on the optical axis $E(x,z=d)$ ...
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1answer
69 views

Having nano-scale holes in metal, possible today?

I am considering to design a gas filtering system that is based on the size of gas molecules. Basic idea is to flow mixed gas in a long pipe, and to allow CO2 to get of pipe through nano-size holes ...
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1answer
151 views

Increasing the maximum angle of laser scanners with optics?

With laser scanning devices, very roughly speaking, the maximum deflection angle seems to be inversly proportional to speed. So for example, while acousto-optic deflectors can steer the beam very ...
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2answers
43 views

What will happen if there is no spontaneous emission in laser? Will the working of the laser be possible?

We can use the Einstein's coefficients and omit the spontaneous term. How do I proceed after that?
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1answer
99 views

Non resonant modes in cavity

I have a simple question. Suppose we have a laser with a cavity such that the frequency of the light that the laser emits does not match with any longitudinal modes allowed by the cavity. In ...
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1answer
197 views

How does a laser emit light in a coherent state?

Lasers work by stimulated emission of atomic transitions. Stimulated emission produces two photons which, because the particle number is well-defined, projects the field into a Fock state. However, it ...
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2answers
1k views

Does a laser beam have to hit the eyes in order to damage them?

Does a laser beam have to hit the eyes in order to damage them? Or can a persons eyes get damaged by looking at a beam that goes past their eyes (e.g. looking at a laser beam moving inside an ...
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1answer
67 views

Is it possible for two holograms to be on the same holographic film?

I was thinking if you could use a laser of a specific frequency to write a hologram on a film, and then to try to record over the same film but with a laser of another frequency the the first. Is it ...
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2answers
36 views

Is Initial Coherence a Problem in Experiments?

In experiments, or optical setups, is the initial coherence of lasers something to be concerned about? You can calculate interference patterns, but those generally rely on the phase shift between the ...
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1answer
164 views

What is the amplifying medium in a laser diode?

I know it seems like a trivial question, but I can't seem to find the answer anywhere. So - what is the amplifying medium in a laser diode? Meaning: In a classical laser resonator, there a substance ...
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1answer
122 views

Atomic transitions and density: clarification

A laser passes though a cell containing vapor of an alkaline element which causes atomic transitions. I was told that the formula for the atomic density in a Rubidium cell, for example, is given by: ...
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1answer
75 views

Rotation speed measurment

Could anyone please explain with simply how we can measure the rotation speed of an object using the Sagnac Interferometer ?
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2answers
81 views

Silicon Laser and Laser mirrors

If I will place Silicon as the active medium to create a Silicon Laser. Why I cannot achieve Lasing ? secondly, why do we always consider Laser mirrors in an standing position along the optical axis ...
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3answers
727 views

Lasers and Collimation

If lasers are collimated, what causes them to decollimate? Their production system seems to suggest a completely linear, collimated light source, but they do spread out over large distances. The same ...
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2answers
76 views

Optical trapping problem

Can we make light slower by applying optical trapping (I mean applying laser beam to lower the speed of light)?
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1answer
260 views

Why does a coulomb explosion induce fusion?

If you strip the valence electrons apart with a very short intense electromagnetic field the remaining core explodes in a so called coulomb explosion. But experiments have shown that under certain ...
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1answer
354 views

What is 'tilt locking' of a laser cavity?

In another question, jasonh mentions a scheme for locking a laser to a resonant cavity called 'tilt locking': The signal is used for locking the frequency of a laser to a high finesse cavity. The ...
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1answer
65 views

Is there any issue/concern for a slight wavelength shift of the laser light in the LIGO experiments? [duplicate]

A friend and I were having a discussion about the LIGO experiments and were wondering if there is any issue with the laser light undergoing a wavelength shift as a result of the gravitational wave? ...
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1answer
55 views

Dispersion in ultrafast lasers

In mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers, positive dispersion is caused mainly by the crystal. A prism pair placed in the laser resonator can compensate for some of the dispersion by introducing negative ...
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1answer
176 views

Intersecting Lasers

What happens at the point of intersection of 2 lasers. If 2 lasers of different colour intersect, what will be happening at the point of intersection? Won't colour mixing happen?? Won't that point ...
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1answer
162 views

does photon travels in a helical path in an optical vortex?

The wave front of the optical vortex beam is helical. Does it mean that the photon travels in a helical path? When the optical vortex beam is focused on a screen, an annular ring with dark center is ...
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2answers
177 views

Coherence length interference pattern

I recently watched this video that illustrates a laser's coherence length: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LixwAXsN8vg I've learned in class that coherence length of a laser with several wavelengths ...
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2answers
719 views

Why does a circle of light appear when I shine a laser pointer at a wire? [duplicate]

When I point a laser at a wire , a circle of light appears on a wall behind it . why this happens. What is the circle of light and why does it appear? Could anyone give some tips on what I should ...
2
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1answer
160 views

Propulsion force on a laser pointer?

How to calculate propulsion force on a laser pointer in reaction to the emitted light power in watts? Should I just divide power by speed of light? Since power is energy per unit of time, hence ...
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2answers
58 views

Practical Uses of Laser Attenuation

In my college physics lab, I am studying the attenuation of a laser through different concentrations of copper sulfate. I am curious about the practical uses of laser attenuation. Why do we study it? ...
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1answer
117 views

Stimulated emission in Nd:silica glass, energy levels broadening and lasers

It is known that due to absence of uniform crystalline structure in Nd-doped glasses (comparing to Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals) energy levels of Nd+ are significantly broadened. This means that we ...
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1answer
381 views

Laser beam divergence

How can I calculate the divergence of a laser beam by diffraction? I want to find the following relation, $$ \Delta\Omega = \frac{\lambda^2}{A}, $$ where $\lambda$ is the wavelength and $A$ is the ...
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1answer
85 views

Optical fibre modes and intensity pattern

I shine laser line in front of one side of multimode optical fibre.Light coming out of other side is projected into wall.Whether the intensity pattern seen on wall is same as the mode of propagation ...
2
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1answer
398 views

Are Verdet Constants Temperature Dependent?

The Verdet constant of a magneto-optical material shows up in the calculation of the rotation of polarized light in a medium submerged in a magnetic field. The amount of rotation is given by $$ ...
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1answer
139 views

Optical coherence tomography

In Optical Coherence Tomography, Broader bandwidth/low coherence light sources are used. Is it only because to increase the resolution or are there any other reasons? What will happen if we use a high ...
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2answers
459 views

Why would mode-hopping occur as the current is changed?

If some diode laser is given an input current, why should we see mode-hopping if the current is changed?
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3answers
490 views

How does optical phase modulation produce photons with different frequencies?

The classical description of electro-optic modulators is an index of refraction that depends on the applied voltage. For example, for a sine modulation $\sin(\Omega t)$, a monochromatic laser of ...
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1answer
145 views

Factors that make beam divergence worse after refocusing

A beam of light of width $W$ and wavelength $\lambda$ with divergence that is diffraction-limited is refocused with an optical element placed at a distance $D$ from the beam source. Will the refocused ...
2
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1answer
505 views

Validity of Einstein Coefficient Derivations

Consider a two-level energy gap with electronic energy states $E_1$ & $E_2$ and associated population densities $n_1$ and $n_2$ with $E_2>E_1$. In the derivation of the Einstein coefficients ...
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1answer
364 views

What's the big deal with Nd:YAG rods?

I see the prices of Nd:YAG rods for lasers, and could someone explain why they are so expensive? Do they need to be mono-crystalline or something? Will Nd:YAG laser work with ...
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2answers
29 views

How do I find uncertainties in an intensity plot created from a photograph?

I have a photo of a laser beam (taken by sending the laser into a CCD). I then took the image and ran it through an image reader that gave an intensity surface plot. I then took a single cut from that ...
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0answers
86 views

Non-semiconductor CW laser types for 445-465nm

Am I missing something in this list of non-semiconductor CW laser types to get emission in the range of 445-465nm? Are there any crystals directly emitting in this range with UV pump? Currently I am ...
2
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1answer
240 views

Does laser beam expand along distance or not? [duplicate]

Why does laser dot become bigger at bigger distance? e.g: from millimeter to inches so that it distracts pilots in aircrafts. I knew that laser beam should't expand over distance, but remain stable. ...
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0answers
26 views

Inertial frames and Sagnac interferometers

Let's posit: I am in orbit around a large body, like a planet, and I am close enough to be tidally locked to the large body. Am I in an inertial frame? Even without looking at the stars, couldn't ...
2
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0answers
107 views

Stimulated emission in LASER

I have been reading about how lasers function : A photon is used for stimulated emission of electrons from the metastable state to a lower energy state. What I don't understand is : How can "giving" ...
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0answers
44 views

What causes this pattern in the reflection of a laser on a screen? [duplicate]

When I shine a red laser behind me at a wall I see a strange reflection occurring on my laptop screen Why does this happen? The pattern on my screen occurs exactly where the laser is hitting the wall. ...
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0answers
37 views

Limits on the information obtained through optical measurements

Consider a Gedankenexperiment shown in the figure below. There are two lasers $S1$ and $S2$ with exactly the same specifications on paper. In practice, they are of course somewhat different but ...
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119 views

Carbon fibre laser beam dump material?

A few years ago I came across a material used as a high power laser beam dump. It was made from carbon fibre which looked like a mat made of high density bristles ie all the fibres on the top of the ...
2
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1answer
69 views

2 level atomic system interacting with Black body radiation. Relaxation time issue

I am studying the transient regime of a 2 level atomic system ($N_1,N_2$) interacting with a blackbody radiation from a source at constant temperature $T_{nr}$. The initial state of the atomic system ...
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0answers
101 views

What could cause the gradual loss (or change) of power in a CO2 laser over a long period (e.g. a year)?

For example, if it were a 10W CW CO2 laser that were used for ~45 minutes per day over a period of a year. Would you expect a slight reduction in power with age? Does the dissociation of CO2 occur ...