5
votes
1answer
1k views

Why do we see laser beams?

A laser produces a coherent beam of photons with particular $\mathbf{k}$ and $\mathbf{\omega}$. So, if there is no particular $\mathbf{k}_0$ directed toward our eyes, why do we see laser beams? I ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Resonance condition in confocal cavity

In a confocal cavity, a beam traverses the length of the resonator 4 times between two transmissions along the same ray. . For example, in the above figure, path difference between two beams that ...
2
votes
1answer
21 views

Are Verdet Constants Temperature Dependent?

The Verdet constant of a magneto-optical material shows up in the calculation of the rotation of polarized light in a medium submerged in a magnetic field. The amount of rotation is given by $$ ...
4
votes
1answer
45 views

Will overlapping two different beams of coherent light cause interference?

I have two laser beams with same polarization running parallel to each other. Will they interfere? If yes, then what are the conditions (perpendicular distance etc) and how can I observe the ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

How to calculate loss due to Gaussian beam divergence of a laser going through multiple lenses?

To better explain my question, I will need to give a brief description of the configuration used in 2D MEMS switches. So, the next figure shows a configuration of a 2D MEMS switch, a light beam ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

What are the practical consequences of “approximate” quantum cloning with a stimulated emission cloning machine?

Say I build some stimulated emission-based cloning machine for photons (e.g. some active laser medium). Alternatively I could do cloning via interference, e.g. a linearly polarized photon could be ...
0
votes
3answers
61 views

Single mode fibers

Is it possible to focus white light into a single mode optical fiber? I thought no because in order to focus it should be a solution to the Helmholtz equation but I am not too sure about it. Also ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Need to use lasers,mirrors and prisms for a project.How to make the light visible and presentable at the same time? [closed]

Alright so I really want to put some art into science for my project.project. I'm thinking of creating a beautiful image,preferably in air.I read about the visible lime-green lasers but i still want ...
0
votes
2answers
56 views

Cylindrical Fresnel Lens Focus Problem

How to focus beam from the fresnel lens on a flat surface. In my case, instead of producing the light beam, I am receiving the light beam. So, the beam comes from the right and then focuses at a ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Rotation speed measurment

Could anyone please explain with simply how we can measure the rotation speed of an object using the Sagnac Interferometer ?
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Equivalent temperature: laser and cell containing Rb

What's the meaning of "equivalent temperature" related to a cell containing rubidium and crossed by laser?
2
votes
3answers
59 views

Simple Experimental Laser Characterization Parameters Ideas?

I have 2 months to do a project on characterization of a laser parameter. We have typical optics lab equipment (DFB Lasers, oscilloscopes, random number generator, etc.). I was told to choose a laser ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Spatial light modulation for mode multiplexing, how does it work?

If a laser light becomes spatial phase modulated (by phase only spatial light modulator) what happens to the intensity distribution and frequency spectrum of the laser light ? I know that this ...
1
vote
2answers
54 views

Do acousto-optic modulators shift the frequency of the diffracted beams?

Today I read an introduction on an optical device called an acousto-optic modulator, which is used in many optical experiments. It is the first time I have heard of this element. The material showed ...
2
votes
2answers
57 views

How does one measure the frequency of a laser?

I am taking a short introduction course on lasers. I never knew that the frequency of a laser is so high for a given wavelength (e.g. 780nm). I am wondering how people can measure the frequency of the ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Determine laser cavity modal content from beating / interference?

I'm trying to better understand the modal content and dynamics of laser cavities. I'm specifically interested in mode-locking, although this question is pretty general and applies to CW lasers too. I ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Optical coherence tomography

In Optical Coherence Tomography, Broader bandwidth/low coherence light sources are used. Is it only because to increase the resolution or are there any other reasons? What will happen if we use a high ...
0
votes
2answers
88 views

How to be sure that a He-Ne laser light is monochromatic

How can I be sure that the emission of a He-Ne laser contains only one single mode of laser cavity? The only thing that I know is that if I use a diffraction grating and the light isn't ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Measuring spin direction by means of coherent light?

Let us assume that we have the ferromagnetic surface where all atoms have the same direction of spins. And we can interact with the single atom in such lattice. Is it possible to measure the ...
7
votes
1answer
127 views

does the beam of a laser have 'throw'?

I was thinking about Einstein's train and platform experiment and was wondering if a beam of light experiences throw? Let me explain, if I take a water hose and point it straight out and then swing ...
1
vote
3answers
157 views

What limits laser pulse duration to single cycle?

Why pulses shorter than single cycle cannot propagate in free space ? Is there fundamental reason or it is engineering ? Is it possible for a laser pulse to have bandwidth that can support half cycle ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Amateur moon laser ranging

Questions first, then my rough estimations: 1) Is it possible to perform moon laser ranging with amateur motorized 114mm telescope? My calculations suggest that for 1mJ laser it should receive ~2 ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Can polarization effect the coherence length?

I'm taking an optics lab in which I'm required to construct an interferometer, and measure the wavelength of a laser, and the coherence length of the light emitted from a candle fire. Now, I've been ...
5
votes
6answers
1k views

Why does a laser beam diverge?

I was wondering why a laser beam diverges. If all the photons are in the same direction, I would imagine that it would stay that way over a long distance. I am aware that a perfectly collimated beam ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

What happens if an already excited electron gets hit by another photon (lasers)?

Slightly vague title but it is the best I can do. My question stems from some interest in how 3 stage lasers function. A photon from the pumping source comes in and strikes a atom in the active ...
6
votes
1answer
353 views

Wavefront RMS errors, mirror surface roughness and Gaussian beam scattering

What I'm interested is in the scattered power of Gaussian beams reflected from mirrors with a given surface RMS. Usually the surface RMS $\sigma_{s}$ of a mirror translates in an error for the ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Increasing the maximum angle of laser scanners with optics?

With laser scanning devices, very roughly speaking, the maximum deflection angle seems to be inversly proportional to speed. So for example, while acousto-optic deflectors can steer the beam very ...
0
votes
2answers
352 views

What is optical confinement?

What is optical confinement? What is it intuitively? How does this 'optical confinement' affect the performance of a laser?
6
votes
1answer
278 views

Huygens wave theory not applicable to lasers or parallel beams of light?

According to Huygens wave theory, every point on a wavefront acts as a secondary source of waves. Using this principle we can never have pretty narrow parallel beams of light right? Like lasers? ...
0
votes
0answers
105 views

Determing aperture size for space-based-solar-power laser transmitter

I have hit a bit of a roadblock in my simulation. In the equation I require the aperture size for the laser source. $$I_a ≈ \frac{\lambda d}{A}$$ $I_a$ = aperture atop the atmosphere ($m$) ...
1
vote
2answers
62 views

Ultrafast Lasers

The main idea of femtosecond or Attosecond lasers is to achive the high energy or do we have any other parameters achieved by ultra-fast lasers ?
4
votes
2answers
149 views

What is the meaning of “CW” in LASER?

I am reading a user's manual, and the word appears here. At first, I think "CW" means "center wave". But later, I find that the meaning of "CW" is "continuous wave". It makes me confused. ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

Silicon Laser and Laser mirrors

If I will place Silicon as the active medium to create a Silicon Laser. Why I cannot achieve Lasing ? secondly, why do we always consider Laser mirrors in an standing position along the optical axis ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

Laser Transverse/Longitudnal Modes

When we say Laser transverse modes. Is that mean what we will get at the output spot of laser beam ? secondly In practice , what TEM01 or TEMnm means ?
4
votes
3answers
456 views

Lasing in a 2-Level system?

What exactly is the difference between 2-Level, 3-Level and 4-Level systems? Why can we not achieve stimulated emission in a two-level system using optical pumping?
3
votes
3answers
136 views

Stimulated Emission

In the case of stimulated emission we always see that one photon goes into the gain medium and two photons come out. How can this conserve energy?
1
vote
0answers
68 views

Range Finder Question - Optical Filter For An Apd [closed]

I am working in a range finder project. I have encountered a problem with an Avalanche Photodiode. I am trying to use a pulsed laser on 980 nm(infrared) but I receive a lot of noise from the APD. I ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Will high power laser penetrate mirror?

Many nations are developing hi-energy laser weapon. My question is, what if target is coated with mirror like coating? Can laser (since laser is still light) penetrate mirror? If it can then how is it ...
2
votes
1answer
148 views

about laser wavelength and wave form

I watched a short introduction video online. There are few concepts which are a bit confusing. 1) The video said the laser is single mode (monochromatic), the wavelength is 780nm, so what is that ...
0
votes
1answer
141 views

Laser action on one side mirrors (half silvered) and prisms

I know that half silvered mirrors are used in the production of laser emission. Can half silvered mirrors be used outside the instrument so the rays get reflected back on one side of the mirror and ...
8
votes
0answers
80 views

mode-locking a laser on prime-powers' frequencies

Being rather a theoretician than an experimental physicist, I have a question to the community: Is it experimentally possible to mode-lock a laser (fixed phase relationships between the modes of the ...
2
votes
0answers
68 views

Why is Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) preferred over Erbium Doped Waveguide Amplifier (EDWA)?

Why is Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) preferred over Erbium Doped Waveguide Amplifier (EDWA)? The question has been asked from an engineering point of view, but obviously I would also be ...
1
vote
2answers
70 views

Selectively visible laser beam with a controllable means

How can parts of a laser beam be made visible while others left invisible using something electronically controllable (for example, another laser beam crossing it, or a magnetic field, or heat, etc).
3
votes
1answer
433 views

Three polarizers, 45° apart

If light is passed through two polarizing filters before arriving at a target, and both of the filters are oriented at 90° to each other, then no light will be received at the target. If a third ...
0
votes
2answers
130 views

Can a detuned laser can excite an atom? How?

Can a detuned laser can excite an atom? If so, how is this possible?
2
votes
2answers
64 views

Optical trapping problem

Can we make light slower by applying optical trapping (I mean applying laser beam to lower the speed of light)?
2
votes
1answer
118 views

Factors that make beam divergence worse after refocusing

A beam of light of width $W$ and wavelength $\lambda$ with divergence that is diffraction-limited is refocused with an optical element placed at a distance $D$ from the beam source. Will the refocused ...
2
votes
1answer
130 views

How would one generate Brownian light? What would it look like?

When light is an equal mix of all visible frequencies, we call it white light. By analogy, sound that is a mix of all audible frequencies is called white noise. For sound, there is an additional ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

laser pointer class III and potential eye damage

We just bought a green laser pointer on Ebay and had a discussion about the safety. The laser is low end chinese one (5 USD, free shipping :-) ) and the seller says this: Green Laser Pointer Point ...
4
votes
3answers
260 views

Counterpropagating beams in a ring cavity lasers

Ring cavity lasers usually has a intracavity element like a optical diode to forbid standing wave pattern and, consequently, spacial hole burning and related instabilities. So, my question is: why to ...