A specific reference frame that describes its coordinates in a manner that does not depend on time and is isotropic.

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Non-inertial frames in Lagrangian mechanics?

Building on this Phys.SE post I am interested in how non-inertial frames can be considered in Lagrangian mechanics. My understanding is that changing the reference frame causes a transformation of the ...
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1answer
127 views

Plane curve transform to moving inertial system coordinates

As a non-phycisist I hope my question makes sense and is understandable. It deals with special relativity. I suppose there is a e.g. plane curve ( e.g. a circle ) given in the x-y plane of of an ...
3
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3answers
148 views

Isn't the aether existent?

Before you say I'm wrong consider this, Einstein is supposedly the first person to get completely get rid of the various aether models that were proposed. But didn't Einstein actually prove them right ...
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0answers
24 views

Traveling near the speed of light? [duplicate]

Suppose we can travel on a spacecraft near the speed of light, how long it would take for the person on the spacecraft to travel one light year, not to a person observing him/her from Earth, if there ...
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2answers
192 views

Drift Speed and Current in Two Different Inertial Frames

We have a long, cylindrical wire carrying a constant current I in an inertial frame. At a distance of R from the center of the wire, the magnitude of magnetic field is $μI/2πR$. What is the magnitude ...
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3answers
115 views

Isn't a physical frame of reference useless for calculating speed? [on hold]

Please ignore relativistic effects and the effects of the expansion of space-time due to the expanding universe theory for the purposes of this question. Whenever someone asks what is the speed of X, ...
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3answers
173 views

If traveling at the speed of lights stops time, why does it take light 8 minutes to reach Earth?

I just learned that, according to Einstein's relativity theory, time reaches zero for an observer (light) when traveling at the speed of light, so everything is supposed to be at the same place in the ...
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0answers
19 views

I need a good book for learning mechanics in non-inertial frames [duplicate]

I'm studying classical mechanics, but without those stuffs Lagrangians and Hamiltonian mechanics...just Newtonian..the problem is a find hard to learn this non-inertial frames system, like ...
3
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2answers
157 views

Understanding Mach's principle: What does it answer?

What is the question that Mach tried to address in his principle? I mean, we know how to detect the inertial and non-inertial frames (by Newton’s law). Once this is understood we also see that due to ...
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1answer
125 views

Proving the conservation of 4-momentum for a particle collision $A+B\to C+D$

Let me say that particle A hits particle B and two particles come out - C and D; In system S I can write: $$p_A^μ+p_B^μ=p_C^μ+p_D^μ;\tag{1}$$ here $p_N^μ$ is the 4-momentum. Using the Lorentz ...
0
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2answers
38 views

Non-inertial system [duplicate]

Supposing I am in a non-inertial system and I don't know what forces are acting. How can I test EXPERIMENTALLY and in practice to be in a non inertial system? If I am in a system and I don't know how ...
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1answer
49 views

Shooting a bullet in space [closed]

Imagine I was in space holding a gun and I shot a bullet from it. Do I go back? Or does the bullet move forward? Or both of us go in the same speed at different directions? Or what? Please Explain. ...
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6answers
612 views

How does one determine an inertial frame?

How does one determine whether one is in an inertial frame? An inertial frame is one on which a particle with no force on it travels in a straight line. But how does one determine that no forces are ...
0
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1answer
168 views

Finding the total energy in centre of mass frame

I'm working through a problem in a special relativity textbook (Woodhouse) and I'm having some difficulty. I have to show that if I have a particle of rest mass $M$, total energy $E$ colliding with a ...
2
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1answer
625 views

Moment of inertia of rotating particles in center of mass frame?

I am trying to simulate a collision between two molecules. I know the energy for every position/orientation, from which I can calculate the forces. The treatment is classical and the molecules are ...
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4answers
60 views

Can we observe two different events occuring at the same point?

I was wondering a situation. Suppose a train is moving with a certain acceleration. It turns on its front light at a certain time, and it's back light say t s after. But to a inertial, or non ...
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2answers
81 views

Is this an inertial frame of reference in relativistic context?

What I've learned from our special relativity lectures is that an inertial frame of reference in relativity is one that experiences no gravitational forces. Also, it is a frame where if a particle is ...
5
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0answers
122 views

Lorentz transformation of Gamma matrices $\gamma^{\mu}$

From my understanding, gamma matrices transforms under Lorentz transformation $\Lambda$ as \begin{equation} \gamma^{\mu} \rightarrow S[\Lambda]\gamma^{\mu}S[\Lambda]^{-1} = ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Newton's laws in non inertial frame

Suppose we take a two particle system in CM frame such that the particles are connected by a massless spring and a force $F$ is applied on one particle ($m_1$ and $m_2$. Let $F$ acting on $m_2$). Now ...
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1answer
75 views

Newton's first law of motion a corollary of second law? [duplicate]

His first law of motion states that every object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change its state by the action of an external force. That means, ...
0
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1answer
37 views

Is distance always 0 relative to an object moving at speed of light $c$?

As I understand it, when an object is traveling at the speed of light, relative to itself all travel is instantaneous and the distance is zero. If a photon traveling from the sun was aligned with the ...
0
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2answers
80 views

The invariance vs constancy of the speed of light in vacuum

This is perhaps as much a question of semantics as of physics but it is something I have been thinking about recently and was wondering if anyone else had a perspective on this. Now, it could be that ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Is the Earth the center of the Solar System? [duplicate]

Alright guys, so I attracted you with the title. Now, to preface the question, I am fully aware of the work of Copernicus, as well as the concepts of Heliocentrism and Barycentric Coordinates. I have ...
0
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4answers
1k views

Why the speed of light in vacuum is same in all inertial reference frames? [duplicate]

If Cathy’s velocity toward Bill and away from Amy is v = 0.9c, Cathy finds, by making measurements in her reference frame, that the light from Bill approaches her at speed c, not at c + v = 1.9c. ...
0
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1answer
55 views

Derivation of length contraction from lorentz transforms

i have struggled to understand how length contraction is derived. My lecture book says: length in frame S is defined as $L=x(b)-x(a)$ and in S' as: $L'=x'(b)-x'(a)$ transforming $x'(b)$ and $x'(a)$ ...
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1answer
52 views

Is gravitation time dilation simply c/v?

Recently, I've been very interested in forms of time dilation. I'm relatively new to relativity, so I apologize for any stupid mistake I may make. I was messing with the equation for gravitational ...
3
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1answer
71 views

How fast do you have to be traveling in order to travel one light year in one year due to relativistic effects?

My apologies if my understanding is incorrect, but I believe that as you approach relativistic speeds you experience time dilation as compared to an outside observer. So taking into account this ...
18
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3answers
4k views

Deriving the Lagrangian for a free particle

I'm a newbie in physics. Sorry, if the following questions are dumb. I began reading "Mechanics" by Landau and Lifshitz recently and hit a few roadblocks right away. Proving that a free particle ...
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1answer
41 views

How to combine Lorentz factors when boosting twice?

The problem came up when I was trying to solve the classical problem of a wire with current due to which a charged particle experiences a force. This force should depend only on the lorentz factor ...
0
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1answer
124 views

What would happen to the human body if we went almost at the speed of light? [duplicate]

If we were to travel almost at $299\,792\,458~m/s$, or the speed of light, what would happen to the human body? Would the human body stay the same or would there be consequences that would harm the ...
3
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1answer
53 views

Special relativity kinematics problem [closed]

I have this problem in SR kinematics. a spaceship travels near earth at c/2. it shoots off a light-ray at 45deg to its direction of travel (measured in its own ref frame). What is this angle in the ...
0
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2answers
63 views

Lorentz force Law

I want to ask a fundamental question about Lorentz force equation. Why is it important to incorporate both electric and magnetic forces into one single expression? I know magnetism is electricity's ...
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7answers
2k views

Is rotational motion relative to space?

Let's assume that there is nothing in the universe except Earth. If the Earth rotates on its axis as it does, then would we experience the effects of rotational motion like centrifugal force and ...
0
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2answers
80 views

Minkowski Diagram for Time-Like Separated Events

A while ago, I asked a question if two events are always simultaneous in some reference frame. I received excellent answers. The point is that if $E_1$ and $E_2$ are time-like separated with time ...
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votes
1answer
56 views

Traveling near the speed of light

If I travel near the speed of light, form a stationary observer perspectives, I will take 1 year plus to travel 1 light year, but in my perspective, would I take less than 1 year to travel to that ...
1
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1answer
87 views

Is cause-effect always preserved in relativity?

I guess most of you are familiar with the "paradox" of the train passing through a tunnel smaller than itself on a speed close to the speed of light and 2 guillotines (1 in the exit and 1 in the ...
0
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1answer
67 views

Is Lorentz transformation applicable of light itself?

I've just studied Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity and have followed most part of it. I was just wondering that whether the equations of Lorentz transformation are applicable on light? i.e. can ...
0
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2answers
59 views

Frames of reference and why are they different

Here is a quote from "The Elegant Universe" by Brian Greene. Imagine two countries that have been at war are sitting down to sign a treaty ending hostilities while traveling aboard a train that is ...
12
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6answers
2k views

If the solar system is a non-inertial frame, why can Newton's Laws predict motion?

Since there is no object in the universe that doesn't move, and the solar system likely accelerates through space, how did Newton's Laws work so well? Didn't he assume that the sun is the ...
0
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3answers
69 views

Our speed and direction by comparing the speed of light?

If the speed of light is constant no matter the speed of the source, shouldn't we be able to know the direction and exact speed we are going relative to the absolute 0 in speed? If a photon is sent in ...
2
votes
2answers
127 views

Galilean Relativity is already included in Newton's Laws?

Usually I see an inertial reference frame being defined as a reference frame in which Newton's first and second laws holds. That means that if a particle is at rest, it stays at rest unless some ...
23
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5answers
3k views

Paradox in special relativity

Yesterday we started relativity on our physics class, and my professor taught us a few concepts. We did some examples on how things changed by looking them from different reference systems, and a ...
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0answers
95 views

Absoluteness of Simultaneity?

Here is a very good proof that simultaneity is absolute, not relative. The question: Is this proof wrong, or is Einstein? Can you prove it? What is the mistake in the proof, if any? If there is none, ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Force on a moving charge in relative frame

Consider a particle of charge $q$ moving at velocity, $v$, enters a magnetic field $B$ which is perpendicular to its motion. Now consider two observers, one stationary and the other moving at the ...
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0answers
28 views

How to add together non-parallel rapidities?

How to add together non-parallel rapidities? The Lorentz transformation is essentially a hyperbolic rotation, which rotation can be described by a hyperbolic angle, which is called the rapidity. I ...
0
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1answer
74 views

Inertial frame: Sun earth and moon

From the perspective of sun, is the moon orbiting the earth considered a single inertial frame or are moon and earth separate inertial frames? Or am I missing something completely fundamental?
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2answers
96 views

In special relativity, is it correct to say the speed of a body B relative to A is the same as measured by every observer?

Here, two objects A and B are moving relative to each other. I use the Einstein velocity addition formula $v = {v_1 + v_2\over 1 + {v_1 v_2\over c^2}}$ to calculate the relative speed between A and ...
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4answers
89 views

Sun and planets orbit each other

Do not the planets and the Sun revolve in orbits around each other and the shape of the orbit depends on where the center of gravity of the system is? The greater the mass of the Sun, the closer the ...
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1answer
1k views

Kepler problem in time: how do two gravitationally attracted particles move?

Two particles with initial positions and velocities $r_1,v_1$ and $r_2,v_2$ are interacting by the inverse square law (with G=1), so that $$ {d^2r_1\over dt^2} = - { m_2(r_1-r_2)\over |r_1-r_2|^3} $$ ...
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1answer
53 views

Two Bodies Orbiting Around Each Other and Kepler’s Laws?

If two bodies are orbiting around a central center of gravity, how does Kepler’s first law (the one regarding the ellipse) apply?