A specific reference frame that describes its coordinates in a manner that does not depend on time and is isotropic.

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Is the assumption that the two reference frames be inertial required in the derivation of transformation equations?

In the derivation of Galilean transformations the only assumption is that the two frames are moving with some uniform relative velocity $u$. Suppose with respect to some inertial frame $O$ the two ...
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3answers
262 views

Do bullet/gun physics change if the gun is traveling very fast?

If I'm running at say $400\: \mathrm{m/s}$ and a bullet travels at $400\: \mathrm{m/s}$ and I fire the gun, will I see the bullet leave the barrel? I either see it stay in the barrel floating ...
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1answer
270 views

What is the significance of Einsteins postulate on speed of light?

Einstein postulated that the speed of light in free space is the same for all observers, regardless of their motion relative to the light source, where we may think of an observer as an imaginary ...
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1answer
51 views

Relative speed of objects

This question has been bugging me for a while now. I am not sure this is the correct forum to ask, please close if it is not the right forum. Lets say a bus is traveling at $60\: \mathrm{km/h}$ and ...
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733 views

Why does Newton's third law exist even in non-inertial reference frames?

While reviewing Newton's laws of motion I came across the statement which says Newton's laws exist only in inertial reference frames except the third one. Why is it like that?
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1answer
625 views

Moment of inertia of rotating particles in center of mass frame?

I am trying to simulate a collision between two molecules. I know the energy for every position/orientation, from which I can calculate the forces. The treatment is classical and the molecules are ...
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2answers
192 views

Drift Speed and Current in Two Different Inertial Frames

We have a long, cylindrical wire carrying a constant current I in an inertial frame. At a distance of R from the center of the wire, the magnitude of magnetic field is $μI/2πR$. What is the magnitude ...
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1answer
139 views

How are fictitious forces related to my feeling?

This question arises when I am studying fictitious forces in an undergrad introduction to physics course. Suppose I am standing in an elevator with an acceleration $a$ directed upward. From the ...
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1answer
344 views

How does Newton's first law asserts the existence of inertial frames? [duplicate]

Recently I've seem here one answer telling that Newton's first law really assures the existence of inertial reference frames. But how is that? I really can't see it. As I know, Newton's first law ...
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pendulum is a inertial frame of reference or non inertial frame of reference? [closed]

Example of pendulum is inertial frame of reference or non inertial frame of reference? because if pendulum starts moving its continuously moves without changing there period of time but is changes its ...
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1answer
63 views

Fourier rate equation valid in which frame of reference?

I wonder about the following; the Fourier rate equation of heat conduction states: $$\vec q = -k\nabla T$$ But I'm wondering if this is valid in every frame of reference, because the heat flux $\vec ...
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212 views

Lorentz Transformation

I have specific questions about Lorentz transformations specifically about length contraction. Why does length contraction only occur in the direction of travel, (not in all directions) when ...
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1answer
209 views

From the Poincare group to Minkowski space

In special relativity one assume that spacetime can be locally described by 4 coordinates, so it makes sense to model it as a 4-dimensional manifold. I had the impression that it is assumed that ...
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190 views

When we talk about speeds in relativity theory, where are they measured?

I recently asked a question here about if the direction we travel matters in relativity theory: Does it matter in which direction I travel in relativity theory? After I got answers and making more ...
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10answers
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What is the Earth truly rotating about/revolving around?

Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun, the sun revolves around the galaxy, the galaxy is also moving. So Earth's net rotation as observed from a fixed inertial frame consists of all ...
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8answers
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Proof that the Earth rotates?

What is the proof, without leaving the Earth, and involving only basic physics, that the earth rotates around its axis? By basic physics I mean the physics that the early physicists must've used to ...
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3answers
408 views

Newton's First Law of Motion; Empirical Aspects

Newton's first law states that in an inertial frame, a body at rest continues to be at rest, and a body in constant rectilinear motion continues its motion, unless an external force is applied upon ...
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1answer
128 views

A physical sense of an Inertial frame

Definition clarification needed, please: I am hoping to get physical sense of an "inertial frame". Do inertial reference frames all have zero curvature for their spacetime? So is an inertial frame ...
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3answers
253 views

How to create frame of reference?

Is this possible to create a inertial frame of reference in the earth? How it is possible?
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142 views

How big is an inertial frame?

How big is an inertial frame? Consider a huge rod which is rotating about a fixed point in a plane, its length is 1 light year. Thus light from its end closer to the fixed point to the end farther ...
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168 views

Determining Ether Drag - Aberration of Starlight

In order to determine the relative motion between the Earth and the ether (the medium through which light supposedly propagated. It has zero density and complete transparency), scientists used the ...
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0answers
71 views

does a rotating moving body in “flat” space curve its path because of frame dragging?

I am not a physicist. let's say we have a space with an object in it, where all other gravitational bodies are so far away that their affect on the shape of the space is negligible. let's say the ...
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7answers
3k views

Inertial Frames of Reference - Inertial vs. Accelerated Frames

According to Robert Resnick's book "Introduction to Special Relativity", a line states the following as the definition of an inertial frame of reference: "We define an inertial system as a frame of ...
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2answers
298 views

Inertial Frames of Reference - Description of an Inertial Frame of Reference

An inertial frame of reference is described as being a frame of reference in which the first law of Newton (the law of inertia) holds. This means that all events as described with respect to this ...
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443 views

Foucault pendulum

The equations of motions for a Foucault pendulum are given by: $$\ddot{x} = 2\omega \sin\lambda \dot{y} - \frac{g}{L}x,$$ $$\ddot{y} = -2\omega \sin\lambda \dot{x} - \frac{g}{L}y.$$ What are the ...
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2answers
191 views

Reality error and relative velocity

Suppose a person is walking in rain carrying an umbrella. He is tilting his umbrella at some angle with the vertical so as to protect himself from the rain. But a neutral observer who is standing ...
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2answers
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Fictitious forces confusion

I have a hard time understanding the subject of fictitious forces. Let's discuss a few examples: 1) I'm sitting inside a vehicle which is accelerating in a straight line. I feel like someone is ...
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4answers
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Second law of Newton for variable mass systems

Frequently I see the expression $$F = \frac{dp}{dt} = \frac{d}{dt}(mv) = \frac{dm}{dt}v + ma,$$ which can be applied to variable mass systems. But I'm wondering if this derivation is correct, ...
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59 views

Why does the local inertial compass coincide with the stellar compass?

I found this physics paper via a non-duality site and I wished that I could understand it. Could someone please either read it and explain it to me or else point me to pages that would help me ...
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2answers
109 views

Why does isotropy principle require existence of inertial transformation when axes are reversed?

Assuming one spatial and one termporal dimension, let's assume an intertial transformation $A(v)$ as follows: $$ \begin{pmatrix} t' \\ x' \\ \end{pmatrix} = A(v) \begin{pmatrix} t \\ x \\ ...
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5answers
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The definition of an inertial reference frame in Einstein's relativity

I'm reading Sean Carroll's book on general relativity, and I have a question about the definition of an inertial reference frame. In the first chapter that's dedicated to special relativity, the ...
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1answer
190 views

Accelerating expansion of universe - entire universe a non-inertial frame of reference?

If the expansion of the universe is accelerating, doesn't that mean that the entire universe is a non-inertial frame of reference? And if so, what implications does this have (if any)?
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1answer
620 views

Problem with convergent geodesics at 2D sphere

There is a chapter on general relativity in the book Spacetime Physics Introduction To Special Relativity by Taylor and Wheeler, which qualitatively explains how attractive gravitational force can be ...
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946 views

What is the formal definition of a stellar day?

I'm having trouble understanding precisely what a stellar day is. Neither the USNO nor the IERS sites provide a definition. And Wikipedia's description as the "rotation period relative to the fixed ...
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1answer
317 views

Galilean relativity in projectile motion

Consider a reference frame $S^'$ moving in the initial direction of motion of a projectile launched at time, $t=0$. In the frame $S$ the projectile motion is: $$x=u(cos\theta)t$$ ...
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3 inertial frames compared in STR

Suppose an event is observed in 3 inertial frames K, K' and K''. The coordinates in K are $(x,t)$ in K' are $(x',t')$ in K'' are $(x'',t'')$. The K' and K'' coordinates are then Lorentz-transformed to ...
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1answer
73 views

Proper notation when working with three Euclidean spatial coordinates in a setting with a time parameter

The How does the Euclidean metric is the symmetry group of Euclidean space. It includes rotations and translations. Say I consider an Euclidean space and a time parameter. How does the Euclidean ...
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1answer
91 views

Is it best to look at light as a particle when trying to understand special relativity?

So my course about special relativity explains time dilation using a moving train, where one sends up (i.e. perpendicular to the direction of movement) a light pulse which gets reflected etc. (a ...
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1answer
391 views

Galileo's dictum and how light cannot violate it

Okay. So I've been told that the speed of light is constant and cannot violate Galileo's dictum, but even if it weren't constant (in a vacuum), how would it violate it anyway? Say you are on a train ...
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2answers
843 views

Using Lorentz Invariance of Charge To Calculate Current Density

I'm attempting a problem from Zwiebach: A First Course in String Theory and am completely stuck. Could anyone give me a hint? The problem is as follows. Consider $S$, $S'$ two Lorentz frames with ...
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1answer
385 views

Is momentum conservation for the classical Schrödinger equation due to non-relativistic or due to some more exotic invariance?

I had no problem appliying the Neothers theorem for translations to the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation $\mathrm i\hbar\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\psi(\mathbf{r},t) \;=\; \left(- ...
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2answers
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Does the speed of light vary in noninertial frames?

The speed of light is the same in all inertial frames. Does it change from a non-inertial frame to another? Can it be zero? If it is not constant in non-inertial frames, is it still bounded from ...
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137 views

Really basic mechanics and Galilean Relativity question

Consider two solid objects: A and B. System 1: A <----- B 10m/s System 2: A -----> B 10m/s ...
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3answers
191 views

In what subfields and how far can the naive limit $c\rightarrow\infty$ of special relativity be carried?

Even if many interesting similarities between the classical and the quantum mechanical framework have been worked out, e.g. in the subject of deformation quantization, in general, there are some ...
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Kepler problem in time: how do two gravitationally attracted particles move?

Two particles with initial positions and velocities $r_1,v_1$ and $r_2,v_2$ are interacting by the inverse square law (with G=1), so that $$ {d^2r_1\over dt^2} = - { m_2(r_1-r_2)\over |r_1-r_2|^3} $$ ...
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3answers
348 views

The two faces of $F = m*a$

As I have understood, $F(t)=m \cdot a(t)$ can have 2 different meanings: When applying an external force $F$ on a point mass of mass $m$, the resulting acceleration of that mass at time $t$ is ...
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1answer
405 views

Why can we use just one angular velocity vector to describe the rotation of a whole non-inertial reference frame?

The other day in class the professor was explaining non-inertial reference frames. We were working out how to find the acceleration of a point as measured from the non-inertial reference frame, and ...
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How fictitious are fictitious forces?

How fictitious are fictitious forces? More specifically, in a rotating reference frame i.e. on the surface of the earth does an object that is 'stationary' and in contract with the ground feel ...
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Centripetal/Gravitational Force

Suppose a satellite is orbiting the Earth. The gravitational and centripetal force supposedly point towards the Earth. Therefore, the net force is towards the Earth. Since the satellite doesn't fall ...