Applies also to pre-Hilbert spaces, rigged Hilbert spaces, and spaces with negative norm or zero-norm states.

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The Wigner angle for two-particle state

Suppose we have the Wigner angle $\theta (\mathbf k, \Lambda)$, which is defined through the Lorentz group transformation $U(\Lambda)$ of one-particle state $|\mathbf k , \sigma\rangle$ ($\sigma$ ...
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37 views

How to represent the spherical wave by using Fock basis?

Suppose I have two particles with opposite momentum: $$ |\psi \rangle_{\mathbf k} = |\mathbf k; -\mathbf k\rangle ,\quad |\mathbf k| = M $$ I want to represent the spherical symmetric distribution of ...
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1answer
26 views

How to get explicit value of Wigner angle for massless one-particle state transformation?

The one-particle massless state $|\mathbf p , \sigma\rangle$ is transformed under the Lorentz group $U(\Lambda) \equiv U(\Lambda , 0)$ as $$ U(\Lambda)|\mathbf p, \sigma \rangle = \sqrt{\frac{(\Lambda ...
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27 views

Continuum of states after 2-particle states

In the Hilbert space of some free theory one can define single-particle states as $|\vec{p}>$, 2-particle states as $|\vec{p},\vec{q}>$ and so on. The $total$ 4-momentum eigenvalue of the ...
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1answer
50 views

Generators of a certain symmetry in Quantum Mechanics

In Classical Mechanics to describe symmetries like translations and rotations we use diffeomorphisms on the configuration manifold. In Quantum Mechanics we use unitary operators in state space. We ...
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44 views

Extending projection operator to infinite-dimensional case

Hi I have a basic question regarding bra-ket notation. Given that $\{|e_n \rangle \}$ is a discrete orthonormal basis, $$\langle e_m | e_n \rangle = \delta_{mn}$$ then $$\sum_{n}|e_n \rangle \langle ...
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1answer
83 views

Dirac Notation With Comma

Does $\langle A,B\rvert$ mean $\langle A\rvert\langle B\rvert$? If so how is an operator applied to this in $\langle A,B\rvert \hat O $? For an example say the annihilation operator acting on $\...
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2answers
560 views

Tensor product in quantum mechanics?

I often see many-body systems in QM represented in terms of a tensor products of the individual wave functions. Like, given two wave functions with basis vectors $|A\rangle$ and $|B\rangle$, belonging ...
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1answer
48 views

Allowed Wave Functions of System

Given a single-particle system with Hamiltonian $H$, what constraints can be put on the wave function at a particular point in time $\psi(x)$? Of course $\psi(x)$ must obey boundary conditions given ...
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3answers
112 views

Same quantum states represented in different basis

In literature on an introduction to quantum mechanics which I am working through, there is a section which explains that a vector has different representations based on the basis you choose and then ...
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2answers
339 views

Schrödinger equation in momentum space

In literature on an introduction to quantum mechanics which I am working through, there is a section which explains that a vector has different representations based on the basis you choose. It then ...
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4answers
2k views

What is a wave function in simple language?

In my textbook it is given that 'The wave function describes the position and state of the electron and its square gives the probability density of electrons.' Can someone give me a very ...
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1answer
28 views

Given any two quantum states and the information that the system is in one of these two states

Given any two quantum states and the information that the system is in one of these two states, one cannot reliably devise a single measurement which could determine with certainty which state the ...
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3answers
100 views

Quantum computing entanglement dimensions question

While trying to understand the basics of how quantum computers work, I recently read this statement. "...consider that single-qubit states can be represented by a point inside a sphere in 3-...
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5answers
280 views

How is the ground state chosen in a spontaneous symmetry breaking process?

This question is about how the ground state is chosen in a spontaneous symmetry breaking process. Say we have a Mexican Hat potential (e.g. the one for the Higgs field) and are sitting at the unstable ...
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3answers
219 views

What do the wave functions associated to the Fock states of each mode of a bound state system mean?

$\renewcommand{\ket}[1]{\left \lvert #1 \right \rangle}$ Consider a string of length $L$ under tension and clamped on each end. This system is described by the wave equation and has a set of modes. ...
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2answers
375 views

The Origins of the Second Quantization

I've been studying quantum theory for a while now and have a number of closely related questions that are not giving me any peace. I am not sure if such a long format is appropriate here, but I'd like ...
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2answers
109 views

Representation of the states of a quantum system

Is it true that the states of a quantum system are represented by vectors in a Hilbert space? I've read something about "rays" and I'm confused.
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2answers
123 views

What exactly does No cloning mean, in the context of Quantum Computing?

I am trying to get an intuitive idea of how the No-Cloning theorem affects Quantum computation. My understanding is that given a qubit $Q$ in superposition $Q_0 \left| 0 \right> + Q_1 \left| 1 \...
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1answer
81 views

Single particle tunneling Hamiltonian

In reference to Problem 9, Chapter 2 in Modern Quantum Mechanics by JJ Sakurai, For a single particle tunneling in a 1D double well potential, with position eigenkets $\mid R\rangle$, $\mid L\rangle$....
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2answers
144 views

Is the Noether charge always a Hermitian operator?

Noether's theorem tells us that to every continuous symmetry of the Lagrangian there corresponds a conserved current $j^\mu$. From the time component of this current, we can then define the Noetherian ...
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0answers
76 views

CFT: from States to Operators

I'm having trouble finding the general algorithm for moving from states to operators under the state-operator correspondence in a CFT. Does anyone have any hints as to how one might go about ...
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2answers
222 views

What is $\langle \phi | H | \psi \rangle$ in QM?

I know that $\langle \phi | \psi \rangle$ is the probability of going from the $\psi$-state to the $\phi$-state, and that $\langle \phi | H | \phi \rangle$ is the expectation value of the energy for ...
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1answer
123 views

Quantum mechanics - measuring position

I am watching Susskind's Stanford Lectures on quantum mechanics. The eigenvectors (eigenfunctions) of the position operator are of the form $\delta(x-k)$. But $$\int\delta^{*}(x-k)\delta(x-k)\, \...
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1answer
42 views

Correlating two definitions of bound states in quantum mechanics

In Griffiths, he defines a bound state to be that stationary state for which the total energy E is such that $E<V(\pm\infty)$. Let $\psi(x)$ is a stationary state satisfying $E<V(\pm\infty)$ and ...
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0answers
37 views

Sufficient condition for square integrability [duplicate]

The necessary condition for $\int\limits_{-\infty}^{+\infty}|\psi(x)|^2dx$ to be integrable is that $\psi(x)\rightarrow 0$ as $x\rightarrow\pm\infty$. But this is not the sufficient condition. For ...
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2answers
154 views

Complex conjugate of the Schrödinger equation?

This might be a very simple question but I don't understand how to compute the complex conjugate of the Schrödinger equation: $$ i\partial_t \psi = H\psi $$ where $H$ is an hermitian operator. How to ...
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2answers
125 views

Why do we need both Hamiltonian and Hilbert Space to specify a Quantum System?

From my understanding, when we have the Hamiltonian, in principle we can know the eigenstates for our system of interest. Then, we can calculate everything we want. In addition, these eigenstates ...
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2answers
49 views

Quantum Mechanics: Can the probability of finding a particle in the whole space be smaller or higher at certain times?

In the book Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (by David Griffith) there is an Example 2.1: Suppose a particle starts out in a linear combination of just two stationary states: $$\Psi(x,0)~=~c_1\...
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1answer
102 views

Difference between phase space and Hilbert space? [closed]

Why is the phase space of classical mechanics not a vector space, but Hilbert space of QM is?
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3answers
84 views

Show that a linear operator can be written in terms of its spectral decomposition [closed]

Let $\hat Q$ be an operator with a complete set of orthonomal eigenvectors: $$ \hat Q |e_n\rangle=q_n|e_n\rangle\ \ (n=1,2,3,...) $$ Show that $\hat Q$ can be written in terms of its spectral ...
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0answers
38 views

Why is the inner product of position eigenstates not normalised? [duplicate]

I have read that $$<{\bf r}|{\bf r}'> = δ({\bf r}-{\bf r}').$$ I don't understand how this is correct, I want to say it is equal to 1 or 0, rather than an unnormalised delta function. Clearly ...
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0answers
91 views

Rotations in Bloch Sphere about an arbitrary axis

I am trying to understand the following statement. "Suppose a single qubit has a state represented by the Bloch vector $\vec{\lambda}$. Then the effect of the rotation $R_{\hat{n}}(\theta)$ on the ...
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4answers
198 views

The Theoretical Minimum: Confusion Over Susskind's Reasoning for mutually orthogonal states

There's a better title for this question but my brain is so fried I can't come up with one. Important Note: I am a layman, and my understanding of the mathematical concepts of quantum mechanics is ...
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2answers
241 views

Differences between eigenstates, bound states and stationary states [closed]

I am not very clear about the differences between eigenstates, bound states and stationary states.
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2answers
118 views

Clarification from Griffiths Introduction to quantum mechanics

A question from Appendix Linear algebra A.3 Matrices on page 441 "If you know what a prticular linear transformation does to a set of basis vectors, you can easily figure out what it does on any ...
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1answer
76 views

Can the quantum mechanical current density be imaginary?

I am dealing with a situation where I get an imaginary transmission current density. Is this possible? Does it imply a zero transmission probability?
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1answer
88 views

Spectral functions in quantum mechanics

I'm a math student and a totally newcomer to quantum mechanics and I'm trying to teach myself this subject by studying Faddeev and Yakubovski's Lectures on Quantum Mechanics for Mathematics Students. ...
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1answer
44 views

Is it necessary to prove the existence of an operator representing symmetry on Hilbert space?

Is there any need to prove the existence of an operator $U$ which represents the action of symmetry transformation on rays in Hilbert space? Or is it enough just to prove that it is unitary and linear ...
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1answer
47 views

Trace of operator defined by two state vectors in Quantum Mechanics

I'm studying QM from the book 'Quantum Mechanics. Concepts and Applications' by Zettili. There's an example which gives us two state vectors $$ | \psi \rangle = 9i \ | \phi_1 \rangle + 2 | \phi_2 \...
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92 views

Physical significance of non-commutativity of ladder operators in Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

If we apply the raising (creation) operator to $Ψ_n(x)$ and the apply to it the lowering (annihilation) operator, we get $Ψ_n(x)$ times a constant. Does it physically say something? Can we get any ...
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52 views

What are some resources for Algebraic quantum mechanics for Physicists

I am interested in the GNS construction and other stuff. I am aware of Valter Moretti's book but I want something that is more inclined towards physicists.
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What do different supercharges corrrespond to? Is creation mathematically close to fock space?

We may have $I =1,2,..N$ where it is said that this corresponds to $N$ supercharges, $Q^I$. By the supersymmetry algebra, $$[M_{\mu\nu},{\overline{Q}}^{I\dot{\alpha}}] = i(\sigma_{\mu\nu}){^{\dot{\...
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0answers
49 views

The Hilbert space that contains the first order correction to the state vector in Time-independent Perturbation Theory

When deriving the expression for the first order correction to the state vector of the new hamiltonian( H = H0 + H' ) we assume that $|\psi$n1> = $\sum_{m \neq n}$ C$_m$(n) $|\psi ^0 _m>$ $...
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1answer
72 views

Can a qubit have an imaginary component?

My knowledge of linear algebra is limited and my physics knowledge mostly comes from high school and Youtube so please bear with me. In the equation $$|x\rangle = a|0\rangle+b|1\rangle,$$ I read that ...
0
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1answer
42 views

Matrix for Ladder Operators?

I found this website which shows how to derive the matrices for $L_{+}, L_{-}$ and while I understand the derivation of the equation for $<lm|L_{+}|lm'>$ and $<lm|L_{-}|lm'>$ I do not ...
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0answers
27 views

Understanding what a tranformation on a Ray and Hilbert space

I've been referring to Chapter 2 of Introduction to Quantum Field Theory by Weinberg where he talks about symmetries and how they go about. Now, there are two points that he mentions. A ray, which by ...
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1answer
54 views

Numerically finding the energy diagram of the hamiltonian

I'm looking at a collection of three two level systems (qubits) coupled to each other (with known bare state energies and couplings). The hamiltonian is given by $$\mathcal{H}=\sum_{i=1}^3{\omega_ia^\...
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1answer
51 views

What is the relation between Hilbert space constructed from the GNS construction and the standard Hilbert space-state?

I recently started reading Algebraic quantum mechanics. So I have no knowledge of the subject. In the GNS construction we construct the Hilbert space of states as follows, We endow the algebra of ...
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2answers
68 views

Quantum Mechanics: How to compute how fast must a function go to zero at infinity? [closed]

We say that the wave function must go to zero at infinity faster than $1/x^{0.5}$ in order for it to be normalizable. What about other quantities like the probability current? What is the general rule ...